Issue 535: Pxxx represents instance of type (examples)

Starting Date: 
Working Group: 
Closing Date: 

In the 49th CIDOC CRM and 42nd FRBR CRM sig meeting (virtual), upon resolving issue 476, the sig decided to start a new issue on the examples of the newly added property. 

Guidelines for the examples:

  • It must be made clear in the examples that there was a model object represented by the particular E36 Visual Item, and that it served as a type (remains unidentified). For an example instantiating the property represents instance of type woman (E55), there must have been a very specific woman that the statue is shaped to look like. 
  • Distinguish btw representing an unknown particular and representing a concept. The property should only be used when one wants to document that an instance of E36 Visual Item represents an unknown particular of a given type. More examples are needed to make that crystal clear. 
  • The examples should mainly involve photographs. That a photo represents an instance of owl, means that the identity of the particular bird is unknown. But there must have been a photographed object of type owl. 



March 2021

Post by Martin Doerr (10 June 2021)

Dear All,

This homework aims at finalizing issue 535 and 476 with examples for the new property "represents instance of type". Please check.

All the best,



In the 50th joint meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and SO/TC46/SC4/WG9; 43nd FRBR – CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, the SIG reviewed HW by MD re. the examples for Property represents instance of type.

DECISION: The examples were accepted and can be found below: 

  • The top right image on page 87 in the book ‘Pharaoh’s Birds’ by John Miles (E36) represents instance of type hoopoe (Upupa epops) (E55). 
    [This image is a reproduction of a photograph. The same book shows at the top of page 35 an image representing an unnamed ancient Egyptian relief depicting a hoopoe and other ‘Birds of the Marshes’. In contrast to the photograph, the latter image of the ancient Egyptian depiction shows intentionally typical rather than individual characteristics of the respective species, and should therefore be associated with the property P138 represents with the species name hoopoe (Upupa epops)]. (Miles, 1998)
  • The visual content of Monet’s painting from 1868-1869 held by Musée d'Orsay, Paris, under inventory number RF 1984 164 (E36) represents instance of type magpie (Pica pica) (E55). [The editors give this example under the assumption that Claude Monet, as impressionist, created the painting following a real impression of a particular magpie. It was clearly not meant as a prototypical representation of this bird] (Musée d'Orsay, 2020)
  • The top image on page 44 in the book ‘Wildblumen Kretas’ by Vangelis Papiomytoglou (E36) represents instance of type Cistus creticus L. (E55). [This image is a reproduction of a photograph. The plant produces an aromatic resin that has been exported from Crete to Egypt and other areas since the Bronze Age] (Papiomytoglou, 2006)

Works Cited: 

  • Miles, J. (1998) Pharaoh’s Birds. A guide to ancient and present-day birds in Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977 424 490 7
  • Papiomytoglou, V. (2006) Wildblumen Kretas. Rethymnon: Mediterranea Editions. ISBN 960-8227-76-3

Issue Closed

Reference to Issues:

Meetings discussed: