Issue 269: coins, banknotes and the design of (mass produced) things

Starting Date: 
Working Group: 
Closing Date: 

Posted by Christian Emil on  23/11/2014

Discussions can be clearifying. With respect to coins and other symbols/representations  of value. In the Middle Ages, the value of farms in Norway was listed as volume units of butter and so as estimated taxation of farms, the Great Plague (mid-14th century) changed this system, . In early modern time the  value was expressed in cow skins. The naturalia were not used as currency but as abstract indicators of value. Thus coins, banknotes, shells, cacao beans and whatnot can be used as money. This is not the concern of the discussion.

We apparently agree that coins and banknotes are mass produced objects and especially medals and banknotes can carry images that are pieces of art or at least artistic expressions that are subject to IPR legislation. These rights have of course to be sorted out and bought before bank notes are produced and put in circulation (Hitler by the way got quite a lot of his income form the use of his portrait on German stamps).  See also .

The scope note I referred to was the scope note of E3 Expression mentioning that an image can be an expression. The main point of disagreement seems to be whether F3 Manifestation Product Type can be used in connection with the production of coins (and other mass produced objects). The scope note of F3 Manifestation Product Type( see below). The very first sentence limit the scope " This class comprises the definitions of publication products." I have no problem to accept that a bicycle, a car, a backpack and a coin are not "publication products". There are of course borderline cases like a milk carton with a printed text (e.g. a cartoon) on it.  I also accept that stamps and bank notes are in best (worst) cases such a borderline case.

The F3 Manifestation Product Type is a sub type of E55 Type.  The rights to  " definitions of publication product"   are regulated by IPR legislations etc. Thus F3 Manifestation Product Type  is a sub type of E72 Legal Object.

CIDOC CRM does not have a class for the design of things. E29 Design or Procedure is an  (sub class of ) information object " This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that may result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Thing".  There is a gap here. Maybe CIDOC CRM should be extended with a class called Design which is a sub class of E55 Type and a subclass og E72 Legal Object. In addition one will need some new properties . F3 Manifestation Product Type could then be a sub class of  this new class.


Posted vy Martin on   23/11/2014

Dear Christian-Emil

Please indicate a scope note for what you mean by "design". My first interpretation
would be something like a "series product type" or "mass product type" or so. 

Posted by Dan Matei on 23/11/2014

I agree that a "Currency Product Type" shoud (also) be a subclass of E72 Legal Object. Not necessary for IPR reasons: I'm sure there are specific laws concerning currency :-)

Posted by Christian Emil on 23/11/2014

I will try to make a scope note for this. Of course for archaeological finds like coins or axes this this is not so relevant in the same way as manifestation product time is not relevant for the Dead See Scrolls.


Ιn τhe 32nd joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 25th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting the sig decided to merge the issues 268 and 269. The working one will be the 268. This issue is closed.

Oxford February 2015


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