Issue 467: space and time primitives are appellations

Starting Date: 
Working Group: 

In the 45th joint meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and SO/TC46/SC4/WG9; 38th FRBR – CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, during the discussions took place on the issue 400, the sig reviewed the HW by GH and among others agreed on starting a new issue regarding the effect of declaring E94 Space Primitive a subclass of E41 Appellation and discuss if its place is in CRMbase or CRMgeo (HW: MD)

Heraklion, October 2019

Current Proposal: 

 Posted by Martin on 31/1/2020

Dear All,


We mention:

"Since any instance of E94 Space Primitive identifies unambiguously an instance of E53 Place by a symbolic expression, E94 Space Primitive must logically be regarded as a subclass of E41 Appellation. Consequently, we define P168 place is defined by (defines place) as subproperty of “P1 is identified by”, and all literals used as its range instances implicitly as instances of E41 Appellation (see section “RDF implementation tests” item 1.).

See also section “Recording Names”.",

and in analogy this holds for P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by) and P170 defines time (time is defined by).

Therefore I propose to define E94 Space Primitive, E61Time Primitive, E95 Spacetime Primitive IsA Appellation and IsA E59 Primitive Value.

The three primitive values are different from the others, because they mark a real world area in the respective dimensions we live in. As with other Appellations, different syntactic forms can identify exactly the same thing. Therefore they are not identical to the thing they identify. The fact that there is a procedure to interpret the string in order to find what it identifies is just a special case of identifying.

I propose, in addition, to make E59 Primitive Value IsA CRM Entity, which solves some problems in the FOL representation.

This follows a recommendation from the last SIG meeting, and is my homework for ISSUE 400.


In the 46th joint meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9; 39th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting; The sig accepted MD’s proposal to declare

E94 Space Primitive, E61 Time Primitive and E95 Spacetime Primitive subclasses of BOTH E41 Appellation AND E59 Primitive Value
E59 Primitive Value a subclass of E1 CRM Entity.

     The issue closed

    Athens, February 2020


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