E4 Period in Version 6.1
It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.
As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. In these cases, the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are not regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.
Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. Geopolitical units may be distributed over disconnected areas, such as islands or colonies. In such cases, the spatiotemporal extent is composed of more than one spacetime volume. One may argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing at least in one area.
There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.
There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.
Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.
- European Bronze Age
- Italian Renaissance
- Thirty Years War
- Sturm und Drang