[X]

Exact Match 0
Close Match 0
Needs translation updating 0
Missing 0

Classes & Properties Declarations of CIDOC-CRM version: 7.1.3
with Translation & Versioning information

CIDOC-CRM version 7.1.3 was released on February 2024 including 81 Classes and 160 Properties.

In current page, you can:

Table of Classes

The following table lists the 81 Classes declared in CIDOC-CRM version 7.1.3.

Classes Most recent '' translations
E1 CRM Entity
CRM Entität
Οντότητα CIDOC CRM
Entité CRM
Entidade CRM
CRM Сущность
CRM实体
E2 Temporal Entity
Geschehendes
Έγχρονη Οντότητα
Entité temporelle
Entidade Temporal
Временная Сущность
时序实体
E3 Condition State
Zustandsphase
Κατάσταση
État matériel
Estado Material
Состояние
条件状态
E4 Period
Phase
Περίοδος
Période
Período
Период
时期
E5 Event
Ereignis
Συμβάν
Évènement
Evento
Событие
事件
E6 Destruction
Zerstörung
Καταστροφή
Destruction
Destruição
Разрушение
破坏
E7 Activity
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动
E8 Acquisition
Erwerb
Απόκτηση
Acquisition
Aquisição
Событие Приобретения
采访
E9 Move
Objektbewegung
Μετακίνηση
Déplacement
Locomoção
Перемещение
移动
E10 Transfer of Custody
Übertragung des Gewahrsams
Μεταβίβαση Κατοχής
Transfert de la garde
Transferência de Custódia
Передача Опеки
转移监护权
E11 Modification
Bearbeitung
Τροποποίηση
Modification
Modificação
Событие Изменения
修改
E12 Production
Herstellung
Παραγωγή
Production
Produção
Событие Производства
生产
E13 Attribute Assignment
Merkmalszuweisung
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
Assignation d’attribut
Atribuição de Característica
Присвоение Атрибута
属性赋值
E14 Condition Assessment
Zustandsfeststellung
Εκτίμηση Κατάστασης
Évaluation d’état matériel
Avaliação do Estado Material
Оценка Состояния
状态评估
E15 Identifier Assignment
Kennzeichenzuweisung
Απόδοση Αναγνωριστικού
Assignation d’identifiant
Atribuição de Identificador
Назначение Идентификатора
标识符赋值
E16 Measurement
Messung
Μέτρηση
Mesurage
Medição
Событие Измерения
测量
E17 Type Assignment
Typuszuweisung
Απόδοση Τύπου
Assignation de type
Atribuição de Tipo
Присвоение Типа
类型赋值
E18 Physical Thing
Materielles
Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle
Coisa Material
Физическая Вещь
实物
E19 Physical Object
Materieller Gegenstand
Υλικό Αντικείμενο
Objet matériel
Objeto Material
Физический Объект
物质对象
E20 Biological Object
Biologischer Gegenstand
Βιολογικό Ακτικείμενο
Objet biologique
Objeto Biológico
Биологический Объект
生物对象
E21 Person
Person
Πρόσωπο
Personne
Pessoa
Личность
人物
E22 Human-Made Object
Künstlicher Gegenstand
Ανθρωπογενές Αντικείμενο
Objet élaboré par l’humain
Objeto Fabricado
Рукотворный Объект
人造对象
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
Hergestelltes
Ανθρωπογενές Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle élaborée par l’humain
Coisa Material Fabricada
Физическая Рукотворная Вещь
人造实物
E25 Human-Made Feature
Hergestelltes Merkmal
Ανθρωπογενές Μόρφωμα
Caractéristique élaborée par l'humain
Característica Fabricada
Искусственный Признак
人为特征
E26 Physical Feature
Materielles Merkmal
Υλικό Μόρφωμα
Caractéristique physique
Característica Material
Физический Признак
物理特征
E27 Site
Gelände
Φυσικός Χώρος
Site
Lugar
Участок
场地
E28 Conceptual Object
Begrifflicher Gegenstand
Νοητικό Αντικείμενο
Objet conceptuel
Objeto Conceitual
Концептуальный Объект
概念对象
E29 Design or Procedure
Entwurf oder Verfahren
Σχέδιο
Conceptualisation ou procédure
Projeto ou Procedimento
Проект или Процедура
设计或程序
E30 Right
Recht
Δικαίωμα
Droit
Direitos
Право
权限
E31 Document
Dokument
Τεκμήριο
Document
Documento
Документ
文献
E32 Authority Document
Referenzdokument
Πηγή Καθιερωμένων Όρων
Document de référence
Documento de Referência
Официальный Документ
规范文档
E33 Linguistic Object
Sprachlicher Gegenstand
Γλωσσικό Αντικείμενο
Objet linguistique
Objeto Lingüístico
Линвистический Объект
语言对象
E34 Inscription
Inschrift
Επιγραφή
Inscription
Inscrição
Надпись
题识
E35 Title
Titel
Τίτλος
Titre
Título
Заголовок
题名
E36 Visual Item
Bildliches
Οπτικό Στοιχείο
Entité visuelle
Item Visual
Визуальный Предмет
可视项
E37 Mark
Marke
Σήμανση
Marque
Marca
Пометка
标记
E39 Actor
Akteur
Δράστης
Actant
Agente
Агент
参与者
E41 Appellation
Benennung
Ονομασία
Appellation
Designação
Обозначение
称谓
E42 Identifier
Kennung
Κωδικός Αναγνώρισης
Identifiant
Identificador de Objeto
Идентификатор Объекта
标识符
E52 Time-Span
Zeitspanne
Χρονικό Διάστημα
Intervalle temporel
Período de Tempo
Интервал Времени
时段
E53 Place
Ort
Τόπος
Lieu
Local
Место
地点
E54 Dimension
Maß
Μέγεθος
Dimension
Dimensão
Величина
度量规格
E55 Type
Typus
Τύπος
Type
Tipo
Тип
类型
E56 Language
Sprache
Γλώσσα
Langue
Língua
Язык
语种
E57 Material
Material
Υλικό
Matériau
Material
Материал
材质
E58 Measurement Unit
Maßeinheit
Μονάδα Μέτρησης
Unité de mesure
Unidade de Medida
Единица Измерения
测量单位
E59 Primitive Value
Primitiver Wert
Πρωτογενής Τιμή
Valeur primitive
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Простое Значение
原始值
E60 Number
Zahl
Αριθμός
Nombre
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Число
数字
E61 Time Primitive
Zeitprimitiv
Πρωτογενής Χρονική Τιμή
Primitive temporelle
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Строка
时间原始值
E62 String
Zeichenkette
Συμβολοσειρά
Chaîne de caractères
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Примитив Времени
字符串
E63 Beginning of Existence
Daseinsbeginn
Αρχή Ύπαρξης
Début d’existence
Início da Existência
Начало Существования
初始
E64 End of Existence
Daseinsende
Τέλος Ύπαρξης
Fin d’existence
Fim da Existência
Конец Существования
结束
E65 Creation
Begriffliche Schöpfung
Δημιουργία
Création
Criação
Событие Творения
创建
E66 Formation
Gruppenbildung
Συγκρότηση Ομάδας
Formation
Formação
Событие Формирования
组成
E67 Birth
Geburt
Γέννηση
Naissance
Nascimento
Рождение
出生
E68 Dissolution
Gruppenauflösung
Διάλυση Ομάδας
Dissolution
Dissolução
Роспуск
解散
E69 Death
Tod
Θάνατος
Mort
Morte
Смерть
死亡
E70 Thing
Sache
Πράγμα
Chose
Coisa
Вещь
事物
E71 Human-Made Thing
Künstliches
Ανθρώπινο Δημιούργημα
Chose élaborée par l’humain
Coisa Fabricada
Рукотворная Вещь
人造事物
E72 Legal Object
Rechtsobjekt
Νομικό Αντικείμενο
Objet juridique
Objeto Jurídico
Объект Права
法律对象
E73 Information Object
Informationsgegenstand
Πληροφοριακό Αντικείμενο
Objet informationnel
Objeto de Informação
Информационный Объект
信息对象
E74 Group
Menschliche Gruppe
Ομάδα
Groupe
Grupo
Группа
团体
E77 Persistent Item
Seiendes
Ον
Entité persistante
Entidade Persistente
Постоянная Сущность
持久项
E78 Curated Holding
Sammlung
Συλλογή
Collection
Coleção
Коллекция
藏品
E79 Part Addition
Teilhinzufügung
Προσθήκη Μερών
Ajout d'élément
Adição de Parte
Добавление Части
部分增加
E80 Part Removal
Teilentfernung
Αφαίρεση Μερών
Retrait d'élément
Remoção de Parte
Удаление Части
部分去除
E81 Transformation
Umwandlung
Μετατροπή
Transformation
Transformação
Трансформация
转变
E83 Type Creation
Typuserfindung
Δημιουργία Τύπου
Création de type
Criação de Tipo
Создание Типа
类型创建
E85 Joining
Beitritt
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Adhésion
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
加入
E86 Leaving
Austritt
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Départ
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
离开
E87 Curation Activity
Kuratorische Tätigkeit
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Activité curatoriale
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
管理
E89 Propositional Object
Aussagenobjekt
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Objet propositionnel
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
命题对象
E90 Symbolic Object
Symbolisches Objekt
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Objet symbolique
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
符号对象
E92 Spacetime Volume
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Volume spatio-temporel
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E93 Presence
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Présence
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E94 Space Primitive
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Primitive spatiale
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E95 Spacetime Primitive
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Primitive spatio-temporelle
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E96 Purchase
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Achat
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E97 Monetary Amount
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Valeur monétaire
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E98 Currency
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Unité monétaire
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
E99 Product Type
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Modèle de produit
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language

Table of Properties

The following table lists the 160 Properties declared in CIDOC-CRM version 7.1.3.

Properties Most recent '' translations
P1 is identified by (identifies)
wird bezeichnet als
αναγνωρίζεται ως
est identifié par
é identificado por
идентифицируется посредством
被标识为
(bezeichnet)
(είναι αναγνωριστικό)
(identifie)
(identifica)
(идентифицирует)
(标识)
P2 has type (is type of)
hat den Typus
έχει τύπο
a pour type
é do tipo
имеет тип
有类型
(ist Typus von)
(είναι ο τύπος του/της)
(est le type de)
(é o tipo de)
(является типом для)
(是类型)
P3 has note
hat Anmerkung
έχει επεξήγηση
a pour note
tem nota
имеет примечание
有注释
P4 has time-span (is time-span of)
hat Zeitspanne
βρισκόταν σε εξέλιξη
a pour intervalle temporel
tem período de tempo
имеет временной отрезок
发生时段是
(ist Zeitspanne von)
(είναι χρονικό διάστημα του/της)
(est l’intervalle temporel de)
(é o período de tempo de)
(является временным отрезком для)
(是时段)
P5 consists of (forms part of)
besteht aus
αποτελείται από
comprend
consiste de
состоит из
包括
(bildet Teil von)
(αποτελεί μέρος του/της)
(fait partie de)
(faz parte de)
(формирует часть)
(组成部分)
P7 took place at (witnessed)
fand statt in
έλαβε χώρα σε
a eu lieu dans
ocorreu em
совершался на
发生地在
(bezeugte)
(υπήρξε τόπος του)
(a été témoin de)
(testemunhou)
(был местом совершения)
(发生过)
P8 took place on or within (witnessed)
fand statt auf oder innerhalb von
έλαβε χώρα σε ή εντός
a eu lieu à
ocorreu em ou dentro
имел место на или в
发生的所在对象是
(bezeugte)
(υπήρξε τόπος του)
(a été témoin de)
(testemunhou)
(являлся местом для)
(发生过)
P9 consists of (forms part of)
setzt sich zusammen aus
αποτελείται από
comprend
consiste de
состоит из
包括
(bildet Teil von)
(αποτελεί μέρος του/της)
(fait partie de)
(faz parte de)
(формирует часть)
(组成部分)
P10 falls within (contains)
fällt in
εμπίπτει
s’insère dans
está contido em
находится в пределах
属于
(enthält)
(περιλαμβάνει)
(contient)
(contém)
(содержит)
(包含)
P11 had participant (participated in)
hatte Teilnehmer
είχε συμμέτοχο
a eu pour actant participant
tem participante
имел участника
有参与者
(nahm Teil an)
(συμμετείχε σε)
(a participé à)
(participa em)
(участвовал в)
(参与)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
fand statt im Beisein von
συνέβη παρουσία του/της
a eu lieu en présence de
ocorreu na presença de
появился в присутствии
已出现
(war anwesend bei)
(ήταν παρών/παρούσα/παρόν σε)
(a été présent à)
(estava presente no)
(присутствовал при)
(出现在)
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
zerstörte
κατέστρεψε
a détruit
destruiu
уничтожил
破坏了
(wurde zerstört durch)
(καταστράφηκε από)
(a été détruit par)
(foi destruído por)
(был уничтожен посредством)
(被破坏)
P14 carried out by (performed)
wurde ausgeführt von
πραγματοποιήθηκε από
a été effectué par
realizada por
выполнялся
执行者是
(führte aus)
(πραγματοποίησε)
(a effectué)
(executou)
(выполнял)
(执行)
P15 was influenced by (influenced)
wurde beeinflußt durch
επηρεάστηκε από
a été influencé par
foi influenciado por
находился под влиянием
被影响
(beeinflußte)
(επηρέασε)
(a influencé)
(influenciou)
(оказал влияние на)
(影响)
P16 used specific object (was used for)
benutzte das bestimmte Objekt
χρησιμοποίησε αντικείμενο
a mobilisé l’objet spécifique
usou objeto específico
использовал особый объект
使用特定对象
(wurde benutzt für)
(χρησιμοποιήθηκε για)
(a été mobilisé pour)
(foi usado por)
(был использован для)
(用于)
P17 was motivated by (motivated)
wurde angeregt durch
είχε ως αφορμή
a été motivé par
foi motivado por
был обусловлен посредством
被促动
(regte an)
(ήταν αφορμή)
(a motivé)
(motivou)
(обусловил)
(促动)
P19 was intended use of (was made for)
war beabsichtigteter Gebrauch von
ήταν προορισμένη χρήση του
a été l’usage prévu de
era prevista a utilização de
был предполагаемым использованием для
特定用途是
(wurde hergestellt für)
(έγινε για)
(a été élaboré pour)
(foi feito para)
(был создан для)
(用于)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
hatte den bestimmten Zweck
είχε συγκεκριμένο σκοπό
a eu pour finalité spécifique
tinha propósito específico
имел конкретную цель
有特定目的
(war Zweck von)
(ήταν σκοπός του/της)
(a été la finalité de)
(era o propósito de)
(был целью для)
(是为了)
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
hatte den allgemeinen Zweck
είχε γενικό σκοπό
a eu pour finalité générale
tinha propósito geral
имел общую цель
有一般目的
(war Zweck von)
(ήταν σκοπός του/της)
(a été la finalité de)
(era o propósito de)
(был целью для)
(是为了)
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)
übertrug Besitztitel auf
μετεβίβασε τον τίτλο σε
a transféré le titre de propriété à
transferiu os direitos de propriedade para
передал право собственности
转移所有权至
(erwarb Besitztitel durch)
(απέκτησε τον τίτλο μέσω)
(a acquis le titre de propriété par)
(adquiriu os direitos de propriedade por meio da)
(получил право собственности через)
(获得所有权)
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)
übertrug Besitztitel von
μετεβίβασε τον τίτλο από
a transféré le titre de propriété de
transferiu os direitos de propriedade de
передал право собственности от
转移所有权自
(trat Besitztitel ab in)
(παρέδωσε τον τίτλο μέσω)
(a cédé le titre de propriété à)
(perdeu os direitos de propriedade por meio da)
(право собственности отдано через)
(出让所有权)
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
übertrug Besitz über
μετεβίβασε τον τίτλο του/της
a transféré le titre de propriété de
transferiu os direitos de propriedade sobre o
передал право собственности на
转移所有权的是
(ging über in Besitz durch)
(άλλαξε ιδιοκτησία μέσω)
(a changé de propriétaire par)
(mudou de proprietário por meio de)
(сменил владельца через)
(变更所有权)
P25 moved (moved by)
bewegte
μετεκίνησε
a déplacé
locomoveu
переместил
移动
(wurde bewegt durch)
(μετακινήθηκε από)
(a été déplacé par)
(foi locomovido por)
(перемещен посредством)
(被移动)
P26 moved to (was destination of)
bewegte bis zu
μετακινήθηκε προς
a déplacé vers
locomoveu para
перемещен в
移至
(war Zielort von)
(ήταν προορισμός του/της)
(a été la destination de)
(era destinação de)
(был пунктом назначения для)
(是目的地)
P27 moved from (was origin of)
bewegte weg von
μετακινήθηκε από
a déplacé depuis
locomoveu de
перемещен из
移自
(war Ausgangsort von)
(ήταν αφετηρία του/της)
(a été le point de départ de)
(era origem de)
(был исходной точкой для)
(是起点)
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)
übergab Gewahrsam an
μετεβίβασε κατοχή από
a mis fin à la garde par
custódia concedida por
опека отдана
监护权转自
(wurde Gewahrsam übergeben durch)
(παρέδωσε κατοχή μέσω)
(a cédé la garde par)
(final da custódia por meio de)
(опека отдана через)
(出让监护权)
P29 custody received by (received custody through)
übertrug Gewahrsam auf
μετεβίβασε κατοχή σε
a confié la garde par
custódia recebida por
опека получена
监护权转至
(erhielt Gewahrsam durch)
(παρέλαβε κατοχή μέσω)
(a reçu la garde par)
(início da custódia por meio de)
(получил опеку через)
(获得监护权)
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
übertrug Gewahrsam über
μετεβίβασε κατοχή του/της/των
a transféré la garde de
transferida custódia de
передало опеку на
转移监护权的是
(wechselte Gewahrsam durch)
(άλλαξε κατοχή μέσω)
(a été l’objet d’un transfert de garde par)
(custódia transferida por meio de)
(опека передана через)
(变更监护权)
P31 has modified (was modified by)
veränderte
τροποποίησε
a modifié
modificou
изменил
已更改
(wurde verändert durch)
(τροποποιήθηκε από)
(a été modifié par)
(foi modificada por)
(был изменен посредством)
(被更改)
P32 used general technique (was technique of)
benutzte das allgemeine Verfahren
χρησιμοποίησε γενική τεχνική
a mobilisé comme technique générale
usou técnica geral
использовал общую технику
使用通用技术
(war Verfahren von)
(ήταν τεχνική του/της)
(a été la technique générale mise en œuvre dans)
(foi técnica da)
(был техникой для)
(是技术)
P33 used specific technique (was used by)
benutzte das bestimmte Verfahren
χρησιμοποίησε συγκεκριμένη τεχνική
a mobilisé comme technique spécifique
usou técnica específica
использовал особую технику
使用特定技术
(wurde benutzt von)
(χρησιμοποιήθηκε για)
(a été la technique spécifique mise en œuvre dans)
(foi usada por)
(был использован посредством)
(被使用)
P34 concerned (was assessed by)
betraf
αφορούσε σε
a porté sur
interessada
имел дело с
已评估
(wurde beurteilt durch)
(εκτιμήθηκε από)
(a été évalué par)
(foi avaliada por)
(был оценен посредством)
(被评估)
P35 has identified (was identified by)
hat identifiziert
έχει διαπιστώσει
a identifié
identificou
идентифицировал
有标识
(wurde identifiziert durch)
(έχει διαπιστωθεί από)
(a été identifié par)
(foi identificado por)
(идентифицирован посредством)
(被标识)
P37 assigned (was assigned by)
wies zu
απέδωσε
a assigné
atribuiu
назначил
分配了
(wurde zugewiesen durch)
(αποδόθηκε ως ιδιότητα από)
(a été assigné par)
(foi atribuído por)
(был присвоен посредством)
(被分配)
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
hob Zuweisung auf von
ακύρωσε
a retiré l'assignation
retirou a atribuição do
отменил назначение
取消了
(wurde aufgehoben durch)
(ακυρώθηκε από)
(a été retiré par)
(foi retirada a atribuição por)
(был отменен посредством)
(被取消)
P39 measured (was measured by)
vermaß
μέτρησε
a mesuré
mediu
измерил
测量了
(wurde vermessen durch)
(μετρήθηκε από)
(a été mesuré par)
(foi medida por)
(был измерен посредством)
(被测量)
P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
beobachtete Dimension
παρατήρησε
a relevé comme dimension
verificou a dimensão
определил величину
观测度量规格
(wurde beobachtet in)
(παρατηρήθηκε από)
(a été relevé par)
(foi verificada durante)
(наблюдался в)
(被观测)
P41 classified (was classified by)
klassifizierte
χαρακτήρισε
a classifié
classificou
классифицировал
分类
(wurde klassifiziert durch)
(χαρακτηρίσθηκε από)
(a été classifié par)
(foi classificada por)
(был классифицирован посредством)
(被分类)
P42 assigned (was assigned by)
wies zu
απέδωσε ως ιδιότητα
a assigné
atribuiu
назначил
分配类型
(wurde zugewiesen durch)
(αποδόθηκε από)
(a été assigné par)
(foi atribuído por)
(был присвоен посредством)
(被分配类型)
P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
hat Dimension
έχει μέγεθος
a pour dimension
tem dimensão
имеет величину
有度量规格
(ist Dimension von)
(είναι μέγεθος του)
(est la dimension de)
(é dimensão de)
(является величиной для)
(是度量规格)
P44 has condition (is condition of)
hat Zustand
έχει κατάσταση
a pour état matériel
tem estado material
имеет условие
有状况
(ist Zustand von)
(είναι κατάσταση του)
(est l'état matériel de)
(estado material de)
(является условием для)
(是状况)
P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
besteht aus
αποτελείται από
comprend
consiste de
составлен из
包含
(ist enthalten in)
(είναι ενσωματωμένος/η/ο σε)
(est inclus dans)
(está presente em)
(входит в состав)
(结合在)
P46 is composed of (forms part of)
ist zusammengesetzt aus
αποτελείται από
est composé de
é composto de
составлен из
组成成分是
(bildet Teil von)
(αποτελεί μέρος του/της)
(fait partie de)
(faz parte de)
(формирует часть)
(构成部分)
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
hat bevorzugtes Kennzeichen
έχει προτιμώμενο αναγνωριστικό
a pour identifiant préférentiel
tem identificador preferido
имеет предпочтительный идентификатор
有优选标识符
(ist bevorzugtes Kennzeichen für)
(είναι προτιμώμενο αναγνωριστικό)
(est l’identifiant préférentiel de)
(é o identificador preferido de)
(является предпочтительным идентификатором для)
(是优选标识符)
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)
hat früheren oder derzeitigen Betreuer
είναι ή ήταν στην κατοχή του
a pour actant détenteur actuel ou antérieur
é ou foi guardada por
имеет бывшего или текущего смотрителя
有以往或当前保管者
(ist früherer oder derzeitiger Betreuer von)
(κατέχει ή κατείχε)
(est l’actant détenteur actuel ou antérieur de)
(é ou foi guardador de)
(является бывшим или текущим смотрителем для)
(是以往或当前保管者)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)
hat derzeitigen Betreuer
είναι στην κατοχή του
a pour actant détenteur actuel
é guardada por
имеет текущего смотрителя
有当前保管者
(ist derzeitiger Betreuer von)
(κατέχει)
(est l’actant détenteur actuel)
(é guardador de)
(является текущим смотрителем для)
(是当前保管者)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)
hat früheren oder derzeitigen Besitzer
έχει ή είχε ιδιοκτήτη
a pour propriétaire actuel ou antérieur
é ou foi propriedade de
имеет бывшего или текущего владельца
有以往或当前所有者
(ist früherer oder derzeitiger Besitzer von)
(είναι ή ήταν ιδιοκτήτης του/της)
(est l’actant propriétaire actuel ou antérieur de)
(é ou foi proprietário de)
(является бывшим или текущим владельцем для)
(是以往或当前所有者)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
hat derzeitigen Besitzer
έχει ιδιοκτήτη
a pour propriétaire actuel
é propriedade de
имеет текущего владельца
有当前所有者
(ist derzeitiger Besitzer von)
(είναι ιδιοκτήτης του)
(est l'actant propriétaire actuel de)
(é proprietário de)
(является текущим владельцем для)
(是当前所有者)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
hat früheren oder derzeitigen Standort
βρίσκεται ή βρισκόταν σε
a pour localisation actuelle ou antérieure
é ou foi localizada em
имеет текущее или бывшее местоположение
有之前或当前位置
(ist früherer oder derzeitiger Standort von)
(είναι ή ήταν θέση του)
(est la localisation actuelle ou antérieure de)
(é ou foi localização de)
(является текущим или бывшим местоположением для)
(是之前或当前位置)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)
hat derzeitigen permanenten Standort
έχει μόνιμη θέση
a actuellement pour localisation fixe
é localizado permanentemente em
имеет текущее постоянное местоположение
有当前永久位置
(ist derzeitiger permanenter Standort von)
(είναι μόνιμη θέση του/της)
(est actuellement la location fixe de)
(é localização permanente de)
(является текущим постоянным местоположением для)
(是当前永久位置)
P55 has current location (currently holds)
hat derzeitigen Standort
βρίσκεται σε
a actuellement pour localisation
é localizado em
в данный момент находится в
有当前位置
(hält derzeitig)
(είναι θέση του)
(est actuellement la localisation de)
(é localização atual de)
(в данный момент содержит)
(当前拥有)
P56 bears feature (is found on)
trägt Merkmal
φέρει μόρφωμα
a pour caractéristique
possui característica
несет признак
有特征
(wird gefunden auf)
(βρίσκεται σε)
(se trouve sur)
(é encontrada em)
(найден на)
(发现于)
P57 has number of parts
hat Anzahl Teile
έχει αριθμό μερών
a pour nombre d’éléments
tem número de partes
имеет число частей
有组成部分数
P59 has section (is located on or within)
hat Bereich
έχει τομέα
a pour section
tem seção
имеет район
有区域
(befindet sich auf oder in)
(βρίσκεται σε ή εντός)
(se situe sur ou dans)
(está localizada sobre ou dentro de)
(находится на или внутри)
(位于)
P62 depicts (is depicted by)
bildet ab
απεικονίζει
illustre
retrata
описывает
描绘了
(wird abgebildet durch)
(απεικονίζεται σε)
(est illustré par)
(é retratada por)
(описан посредством)
(被描绘)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
zeigt Bildliches
εμφανίζει οπτικό στοιχείο
représente l'entité visuelle
apresenta item visual
показывает визуальный предмет
展示可视项
(wird gezeigt durch)
(εμφανίζεται σε)
(est représenté par)
(é apresentado por)
(показан посредством)
(被展示)
P67 refers to (is referred to by)
verweist auf
αναφέρεται σε
renvoie à
referencia
ссылается на
涉及
(wird angeführt von)
(αναφέρεται από)
(fait l'objet d'un renvoi par)
(é referenciado por)
(имеет ссылку на себя от)
(被涉及)
P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by)
sieht den Gebrauch vor von
συνήθως χρησιμοποιεί
prévoit l'usage de
normalmente emprega
обычно применяет
预知使用
(vorgesehen für Gebrauch durch defined)
(συνήθως χρησιμοποιείται από)
(usage prévu de)
(é empregado por)
(обычно используется посредством)
(被预知使用)
P69 has association with (is associated with)
ist verbunden mit
σχετίζεται με
est associé à
é associado com
ассоциирован с
关联
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est associé à)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P70 documents (is documented in)
belegt
τεκμηριώνει
documente
documenta
документирует
记录了
(wird belegt in)
(τεκμηριώνεται σε)
(est documenté dans)
(é documentado em)
(документирован в)
(记录在)
P71 lists (is listed in)
listet
περιλαμβάνει
énumère
define
перечисляет
列出
(wird aufgelistet in)
(περιλαμβάνεται σε)
(est énuméré par)
(é definido por)
(перечислен в)
(列于)
P72 has language (is language of)
hat Sprache
έχει γλώσσα
a pour langue
é da língua
имеет язык
有语种
(ist Sprache von)
(είναι γλώσσα του/της)
(est la langue de)
(é a língua de)
(является языком для)
(是语种)
P73 has translation (is translation of)
hat Übersetzung
έχει μετάφραση
a pour traduction
tem tradução
имеет перевод
有译文
(ist Übersetzung von)
(είναι μετάφραση του/της)
(est traduction de)
(é tradução de)
(является переводом)
(是译文)
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)
hat derzeitigen oder früheren Sitz
έχει ή είχε κατοικία
a pour résidence actuelle ou antérieure
reside ou residiu em
имеет текущее или бывшее местожительства
有当前或曾经居住地
(ist derzeitiger oder früherer Sitz von)
(είναι ή ήταν κατοικία του/της)
(est la résidence actuelle ou antérieure de)
(é ou foi residência de)
(является текущим или бывшим местом жительства для)
(是当前或曾经居住地)
P75 possesses (is possessed by)
besitzt
κατέχει
possède
é detentor de
владеет
拥有
(sind im Besitz von)
(κατέχεται από)
(est possédé par)
(são detidos por)
(принадлежит)
(被拥有)
P76 has contact point (provides access to)
hat Kontaktpunkt
έχει σημείο επικοινωνίας
a pour coordonnées
possui ponto de contato
имеет контакт
有联系方式
(bietet Zugang zu)
(παρέχει πρόσβαση σε)
(permet de contacter)
(é ponto de contado de)
(предоставляет доступ к)
(提供访问)
P79 beginning is qualified by
hat Anfangsbegründung
αρχή προσδιορίζεται από
a son début qualifié par
início é qualificado por
начало ограничено
起始限定
P80 end is qualified by
hat Begründung des Endes
τέλος προσδιορίζεται από
a sa fin qualifiée par
final é qualificado por
конец ограничен
结束限定
P81 ongoing throughout
andauernd während
καθόλη τη διάρκεια του/της
a couvert
abrange no mínimo
длится в течение
最短范围是
P82 at some time within
irgendwann innerhalb von
κάποτε εντός
a eu lieu durant
abrange no máximo
некоторое время в течение
最长范围是
P86 falls within (contains)
fällt in
περιέχεται σε
s’insère dans
está contido em
содержится в
属于
(enthält)
(περιέχει)
(contient)
(contém)
(содержит)
(包含)
P89 falls within (contains)
fällt in
περιέχεται σε
s'insère dans
está contido em
содержится в
位于
(enthält)
(περιέχει)
(contient)
(contém)
(содержит)
(包括)
P90 has value
hat Wert
έχει τιμή
a pour valeur
tem valor
имеет значение
有数值
P91 has unit (is unit of)
hat Einheit
έχει μονάδα μέτρησης
a pour unité de mesure
tem unidade
имеет единицу
有单位
(ist Einheit von)
(αποτελεί μονάδα μέτρησης του/της)
(est l’unité de mesure de)
(é unidade de)
(является единицей для)
(所属单位)
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
brachte in Existenz
γέννησε
a fait exister
trouxe à existência
создал
导致存在的是
(wurde in Existenz gebracht durch)
(γεννήθηκε από)
(a commencé à exister par)
(passou a existir por)
(был создан посредством)
(使导致存在)
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
beendete die Existenz von
αναίρεσε
a mis fin à l’existence de
cessou a existência de
положил конец существованию
结束存在的是
(wurde seiner Existenz beraubt durch)
(αναιρέθηκε από)
(a cessé d’exister par)
(deixou de existir)
(прекратил существование посредством)
(被结束存在)
P94 has created (was created by)
hat erschaffen
δημιούργησε
a créé
criou
создал
已创建了
(wurde erschaffen durch)
(δημιουργήθηκε από)
(a été créé par)
(foi criado por)
(был создан посредством)
(被创建)
P95 has formed (was formed by)
hat gebildet
σχημάτισε
a fondé
formou
сформировал
已经组成
(wurde gebildet von)
(σχηματίστηκε από)
(a été fondé par)
(foi formado por)
(была сформирована посредством)
(被组成)
P96 by mother (gave birth)
durch Mutter
είχε μητέρα
de mère
pela mãe
посредством матери
来自母亲
(gebar)
(ήταν μητέρα του/της)
(a donné naissance à)
(deu nascimento)
(дал рождение)
(生育)
P97 from father (was father for)
gab Vaterschaft
είχε πατέρα
de père
pelo pai
от отца
来自父亲
(war Vater für)
(ήταν πατέρας του/της)
(a été le père pour)
(foi pai para)
(был отцом для)
(是父亲)
P98 brought into life (was born)
brachte zur Welt
έφερε στη ζωή
a donné vie à
trouxe à vida
породил
诞生了
(wurde geboren durch)
(γεννήθηκε)
(est né)
(veio à vida pelo)
(был рожден)
(被诞生)
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
löste auf
διέλυσε
a dissous
dissolveu
распустил
解散了
(wurde aufgelöst durch)
(διαλύθηκε από)
(a été dissous par)
(foi dissolvido por)
(был распущен посредством)
(被解散)
P100 was death of (died in)
Tod von
ήταν θάνατος του/της
a été la mort de
foi a morte para
был смертью для
死亡的是
(starb in)
(πέθανε σε)
(est mort par)
(morreu em)
(умер в)
(死于)
P101 had as general use (was use of)
hatte die allgemeine Verwendung
είχε ως γενική χρήση
a eu pour usage général
tem como uso geral
имел основное применение
有一般用途
(war die Verwendung von)
(ήταν χρήση του/της)
(a été l'usage général de)
(foi uso de)
(был применением для)
(被用于)
P102 has title (is title of)
trägt den Titel
έχει τίτλο
a pour titre
tem título
имеет заголовок
有题名
(ist der Titel von)
(είναι τίτλος του/της)
(est le titre de)
(é título de)
(является заголовком для)
(题名是)
P103 was intended for (was intention of)
bestimmt für
προοριζόταν για
a eu pour raison d'être
era destinado à
был задуман для
被用于
(war Bestimmung von)
(ήταν προορισμός του)
(a été la raison d'être de)
(era a destinação de)
(был интенцией для)
(目的是)
P104 is subject to (applies to)
Gegenstand von
υπόκειται σε
est soumis à
está sujeito à
является объектом для
服从
(findet Anwendung auf)
(ισχύει για)
(s’applique à)
(se aplicam à)
(применяется к)
(适用于)
P105 right held by (has right on)
Rechte stehen zu
δικαίωμα κατέχεται από
droit détenu par
são direitos de
право принадлежит
持有权利的是
(hat Rechte an)
(έχει δικαίωμα σε)
(détient le droit sur)
(possui direitos sobre)
(владеет правом на)
(有权利)
P106 is composed of (forms part of)
ist zusammengesetzt aus
αποτελείται από
est composé de
é composto de
составлен из
组成成分是
(bildet Teil von)
(αποτελεί μέρος του/της)
(fait partie de)
(faz parte de)
(формирует часть)
(构成部分)
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
hat derzeitiges oder früheres Mitglied
έχει ή είχε μέλος
a pour membre actuel ou antérieur
tem ou teve membro
имеет действующего или бывшего члена
有当前或以往成员
(ist derzeitiges oder früheres Mitglied von)
(είναι ή ήταν μέλος του/της)
(est le membre actuel ou antérieur de)
(é ou foi membro de)
(является действующим или бывшим членом)
(是当前或以往成员)
P108 has produced (was produced by)
hat hergestellt
παρήγαγε
a produit
produziu
произвел
已产生了
(wurde hergestellt durch)
(παρήχθη από)
(a été produit par)
(foi produzido por)
(был произведен посредством)
(被产生)
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)
hat derzeitigen oder früheren Kurator
έχει ή είχε επιμελητή
a pour responsable actuel ou antérieur de la collection
tem ou teve curador
имеет действующего или бывшего хранителя
有当前或以往管理者
(ist derzeitiger oder früherer Kurator von)
(είναι ή ήταν επιμελητής του/της)
(est responsable actuel ou antérieur de la collection)
(é ou foi curador de)
(является действующим или бывшим хранителем)
(是当前或以往管理者)
P110 augmented (was augmented by)
erweiterte
επαύξησε
a augmenté
aumentou
увеличил
增强了
(wurde erweitert durch)
(επαυξήθηκε από)
(a été augmenté par)
(foi aumentada por)
(был увеличен посредством)
(被增强)
P111 added (was added by)
fügte hinzu
προσέθεσε
a ajouté
adicionou
добавил
增加了
(wurde hinzugefügt durch)
(προστέθηκε από)
(a été ajouté par)
(foi adicionado por)
(был добавлен посредством)
(被增加)
P112 diminished (was diminished by)
verminderte
εξάλειψε
a diminué
diminuiu
уменьшил
减少了
(wurde vermindert durch)
(εξαλείφθηκε από)
(a été diminué par)
(foi diminuído por)
(был уменьшен посредством)
(被减少)
P113 removed (was removed by)
entfernte
αφαίρεσε
a retiré
removeu
удален
去除了
(wurde entfernt durch)
(αφαιρέθηκε από)
(a été retiré par)
(foi removido por)
(был удален посредством)
(被去除)
P121 overlaps with
überlappt mit
επικαλύπτεται με
se superpose partiellement à
sobrepõe com
пересекается с
重叠于
P122 borders with
grenzt an
συνορεύει με
est limitrophe de
fronteira com
граничит с
接壤于
P123 resulted in (resulted from)
ergab
είχε ως αποτέλεσμα
a eu pour résultat
resultou em
повлек появление
结果造成
(ergab sich aus)
(προέκυψε από)
(a résulté de)
(resultado de)
(был результатом)
(起因于)
P124 transformed (was transformed by)
wandelte um
μετέτρεψε
a transformé
transformou
трансформировал
转变了
(wurde umgewandelt durch)
(μετατράπηκε από)
(a été transformé par)
(foi transformado por)
(был трансформирован посредством)
(被转变)
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
benutzte Objekt des Typus
χρησιμοποίησε αντικείμενο τύπου
a mobilisé l’objet du type
usou objeto do tipo
использовал объект типа
使用对象类型
(Objekt des Typus ... wurde benutzt in)
(ήταν o τύπος αντικείμενου που χρησιμοποιήθηκε σε)
(a été le type d’objet employé pour)
(foi tipo do objeto usado em)
(был типом объекта использованного в)
(是使用的对象类型)
P126 employed (was employed in)
verwendete
χρησιμοποίησε
a employé
empregou
использовал
使用
(wurde verwendet bei)
(χρησιμοποιήθηκε σε)
(a été employé dans)
(foi empregado em)
(использовался в)
(被用于)
P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
hat den Oberbegriff
έχει ευρύτερο όρο
a pour terme général
tem termo genérico
имеет вышестоящий термин
上位词
(hat den Unterbegriff)
(έχει στενότερο όρο)
(a pour terme spécifique)
(tem termo específico)
(имеет нижестоящий термин)
(下位词)
P128 carries (is carried by)
trägt
φέρει
est le support de
é o suporte de
несет
承载
(wird getragen von)
(φέρεται από)
(a pour support)
(é suportado por)
(переносится посредством)
(被承载)
P129 is about (is subject of)
handelt über
έχει ως θέμα
a pour sujet
é sobre
касается
有关
(wird behandelt in)
(είναι θέμα του/της)
(est le sujet de)
(é assunto de)
(является предметом для)
(是主题)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on)
zeigt Merkmale von
παρουσιάζει χαρακτηριστικά του/της
présente les caractéristiques de
apresenta características de
демонстрирует признаки
显示特征
(Merkmale auch auf)
(χαρακτηριστικά του βρίσκονται επίσης σε)
(a les caractéristiques aussi présentes sur)
(características são também encontradas em)
(признаки также найдены на)
(发现特征)
P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with
überlappt mit
επικαλύπτεται με
recoupe spatio-temporellement
sobrepõe
пересекается с
重叠于
P133 is spatiotemporally separated from
getrennt von
διαχωρίζεται από
est distinct spatio-temporellement de
é separado de
отделен от
独立于
P134 continued (was continued by)
setzte sich fort in
συνέχισε
a continué
continuou
продолжил
继续
(wurde fortgesetzt durch)
(συνεχίστηκε από)
(a été continué par)
(foi continuada por)
(был продолжен)
(被继续)
P135 created type (was created by)
erschuf Typus
δημιούργησε τύπο
a créé le type
criou tipo
создал тип
创建类型
(wurde geschaffen durch)
(δημιουργήθηκε από)
(a été créé par)
(foi criado por)
(был создан посредством)
(被创建)
P136 was based on (supported type creation)
stützte sich auf
βασίστηκε σε
a été fondé sur
foi baseado em
был основан на
基于
(belegte)
(υποστήριξε τη δημιουργία τύπου)
(a fondé la création du type)
(suportou a criação de tipo)
(поддержал создание типа)
(支持类型创建)
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)
erläutert
δειγματίζει
exemplifie
é exemplificado por
поясняет
例示
(erläutert durch Beispiel)
(δειγματίζεται από)
(est exemplifié par)
(exemplifica)
(поясняется посредством)
(被例示)
P138 represents (has representation)
stellt dar
παριστάνει
représente
representa
представляет
描绘
(wird dargestellt durch)
(παριστάνεται από)
(est représenté par)
(tem representação)
(имеет представление)
(有描绘)
P139 has alternative form (is alternative form of)
hat alternative Form
έχει εναλλακτική μορφή
a pour forme alternative
tem forma alternativa
имеет альтернативную форму
有交替形式
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est la forme alternative de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
wies Merkmal zu
απέδωσε ιδιότητα σε
a assigné l’attribut à
atribuiu atributo para
присвоил атрибут для
分配属性于
(bekam Merkmal zugewiesen durch)
(χαρακτηρίστηκε από)
(a reçu l’attribut par)
(foi atribuído por)
(получил атрибут посредством)
(接受属性)
P141 assigned (was assigned by)
wies zu
απέδωσε
a attribué
atribuiu
присвоил
分配
(wurde zugewiesen durch)
(αποδόθηκε από)
(a été attribué par)
(foi atribuído por)
(был присвоен посредством)
(被分配)
P142 used constituent (was used in)
benutzte Bestandteil
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a mobilisé comme élément
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
使用构成成分
(wurde benutzt in)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a été mobilisé dans)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(用于)
P143 joined (was joined by)
verband
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a fait adhérer
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
加入
(wurde verbunden durch)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a adhéré par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(被加入)
P144 joined with (gained member by)
verband mit
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a fait adhérer à
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
加入
(erwarb Mitglied durch)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a accueilli le membre par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(获得成员)
P145 separated (left by)
entließ
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a dissocié
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
离开
(wurde entlassen durch)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est dissocié par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(留下)
P146 separated from (lost member by)
entließ von
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a dissocié de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
脱离
(verlor Mitglied durch)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a perdu le membre par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(失去成员)
P147 curated (was curated by)
betreute kuratorisch
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a géré
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
管理
(wurde kuratorisch betreut durch)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a été géré par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(被管理)
P148 has component (is component of)
hat Bestandteil
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour composant
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
有组件
(ist Bestandteil von)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est le composant de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(是组件)
P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
définit les éléments typiques de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(définit l’ensemble typique pour)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P151 was formed from (participated in)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a été formé à partir de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a participé à)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P152 has parent (is parent of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour parent
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est le parent de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P156 occupies (is occupied by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
occupe
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est occupé par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P157 is at rest relative to (provides reference space for)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
est à l’arrêt par rapport à
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(procure l’espace de référence pour)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour projection temporelle
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est la projection temporelle de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour projection spatiale
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est la projection spatiale de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P164 is temporally specified by (temporally specifies)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
est temporellement spécifié par
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(spécifie temporellement)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P165 incorporates (is incorporated in)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
inclut
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est inclus dans)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P166 was a presence of (had presence)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a été une présence de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a eu pour présence)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P167 was within (includes)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
s’inscrivait dans
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(comporte)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P168 place is defined by (defines place)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
lieu défini par
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(définit le lieu)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
définit le volume spatio-temporel
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(volume spatio-temporel défini par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P170 defines time (time is defined by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
définit le temps
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(temps défini par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P171 at some place within
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
quelque part dans
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
P172 contains
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
contient
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
P173 starts before or with the end of (ends after or with the start of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
commence avant ou au moment de la fin de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(se termine après ou au moment du début de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P174 starts before the end of (ends after the start of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
commence avant la fin de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(se termine après le début de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P175 starts before or with the start of (starts after or with the start of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
commence avant ou au moment du début de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(commence après ou au moment du début de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P176 starts before the start of (starts after the start of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
commence avant le début de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(commence après le début de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a assigné le type de propriété
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est le type de propriété assigné)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P179 had sales price (was sales price of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a eu pour prix de vente
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a été le prix de vente de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P180 has currency (was currency of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour unité monétaire
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(était l’unité monétaire de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P182 ends before or with the start of (starts after or with the end of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
se termine avant ou au moment du début de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(commence après ou au moment de la fin de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P183 ends before the start of (starts after the end of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
se termine avant le début de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(commence après la fin de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P184 ends before or with the end of (ends with or after the end of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
se termine avant ou au moment de la fin de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(se termine au moment de ou après la fin de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P185 ends before the end of (ends after the end of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
se termine avant la fin de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(se termine après la fin de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P186 produced thing of product type (is produced by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a produit la chose du type
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est produit par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P187 has production plan (is production plan for)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour plan de production
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est le plan de production de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P188 requires production tool (is production tool for)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
nécessite l'outil
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est l'outil de production de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P189 approximates (is approximated by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
approxime
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est approximé par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P190 has symbolic content
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a pour contenu symbolique
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
P191 had duration (was duration of)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a eu pour durée
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(était la durée de)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P195 was a presence of (had presence)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a été une présence de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a eu pour présence)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P196 defines (is defined by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
définit
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est défini par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P197 covered parts of (was partially covered by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
a couvert des parties de
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(a été partiellement couvert par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)
P198 holds or supports (is held or supported by)
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
contient ou soutient
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
(Missing translation in 'German' language)
(Missing translation in 'Greek' language)
(est contenu ou soutenu par)
(Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language)
(Missing translation in 'Russian' language)
(Missing translation in 'Chinese' language)

E1 CRM Entity
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
CRM Entity
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
CRM Entität
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Οντότητα CIDOC CRM
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Entité CRM
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Entidade CRM
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
CRM Сущность
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
CRM实体
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
- -
SuperClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E54 Dimension unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E59 Primitive Value unaltered since version 6.2.9 / April 2020
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E92 Spacetime Volume unaltered since version 5.1.2 / October 2013
E2
Geschehendes
Έγχρονη Οντότητα
Entité temporelle
Entidade Temporal
Временная Сущность
时序实体

E52
Zeitspanne
Χρονικό Διάστημα
Intervalle temporel
Período de Tempo
Интервал Времени
时段

E53
Ort
Τόπος
Lieu
Local
Место
地点

E54
Maß
Μέγεθος
Dimension
Dimensão
Величина
度量规格

E59
Primitiver Wert
Πρωτογενής Τιμή
Valeur primitive
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Простое Значение
原始值

E77
Seiendes
Ον
Entité persistante
Entidade Persistente
Постоянная Сущность
持久项

E92
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Volume spatio-temporel
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
Scope Note:

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

  • Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier
  • Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass to which an instance belongs
  • Attachment of free text and other unstructured data for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

All other classes within the CIDOC CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier

Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to

Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst alle Dinge des Betrachtungsraumes, der durch das CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model beschrieben wird. Es ist ein abstraktes Konzept, anhand dessen drei grundlegende Eigenschaften zur Verfügung gestellt werden können:

Identifikation durch einen Namen, eine Bezeichnung oder im Speziellen durch ein bevorzugtes Kennzeichen;

Klassifikation durch Typisierung, ein Verfahren zur weiteren Verfeinerung der jeweiligen Unterklasse des CRM Modells zu der eine Instanz gehört;

Zuordnung eines freien Textes, um alles auszudrücken, was nicht durch formale Eigenschaften erfasst wird.

Mit Ausnahme der Klasse E59 Primitiver Wert sind alle anderen Klassen innerhalb des CIDOC CRM direkte oder indirekte Spezialisierungen von der Klasse E1 CRM Entität.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

Identification by name or appellation

Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to

Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει όλα τα αντικείμενα στην πραγματεία του Εννοιολογικού Μοντέλου Αναφοράς CIDOC.

Πρόκειται για μια αφηρημένη έννοια που προνοεί για τρεις βασικές ιδιότητες:

1. Αναγνώριση κατά όνομα ή μέσω άλλου αναγνωριστικού

2. Ταξινόμηση κατά τύπο, επιτρέποντας επιπλέον βελτιστοποίηση της συγκεκριμένης υποκλάσης στην οποία ανήκει μία πραγμάτωση

3. Συνημμένο ελεύθερο κείμενο προκειμένου να εκφραστεί οτιδήποτε δεν συλλαμβάνεται από τυποποιημένες ιδιότητες.

Με την εξαίρεση της Πρωτογενούς Τιμής (Ε59), όλες οι υπόλοιπες κλάσεις εντός του CIDOC CRM αποτελούν άμεσα ή έμμεσα εξειδικεύσεις της Οντότητας CIDOC CRM (Ε1).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

  • Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier
  • Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to
  • Attachment of free text and other unstructured data for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

All other classes within the CIDOC CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend toutes les choses de l’univers du discours du CIDOC CRM.

Il s’agit d’un concept abstrait prévoyant trois propriétés générales :

  • l’identification par nom ou par appellation, en particulier par un identifiant préférentiel;

  • la classification par type qui permet d’affiner la sous-classe spécifique à laquelle une instance appartient;

  • l’association de texte libre ou de toute autre donnée non structurée pour exprimer tout ce qui ne peut l’être au moyen des propriétés formelles déclarées.

Toutes les autres classes comprises dans le CIDOC CRM sont directement ou indirectement des sous-classes de E1_Entité_CRM.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

Identification by name or appellation

Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to

Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает все объекты предметной области (“обсуждаемой вселенной”) концептуальной модели CIDOC CRM. Он представляет абстрактный концепт, предусматривающий три общих свойства: 1. Идентификация по названию или имени. 2. Классификация по типу, допускающая дальнейшее уточнение особого подкласса, к которому относится тот или иной экземпляр. 3. Присоединение свободного текста для выражения чего-либо, не учитываемого формальными свойствами. За исключением класса E59.Простое Значение, все другие классы в рамках CRM являются прямыми или косвенными специализациями класса E1.CRM Сущность.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier

Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to

Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵CIDOC概念参考模型论域里的所有事物。

它用来表示具有以下三个普通属性的抽象概念:

通过名称或名字,尤其是通过一个首选标识符进行识别

按照类型进行归类,以便进一步细部修饰某个实例所属的特定子类

允许自由附加说明文字,以便表达形式属性(formal properties)无法记录的内容。

除E59-原始值属例外,CRM之内的其他所有类别直接或间接地都是E1-CRM实体的专项(specialization)

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) (Chester, 2001)
unaltered since version 6.2.3 / May 2018
previous value in version 6.2.2
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • das Erdbeben in Lissabon 1755 (E5 Ereignis)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • ο σεισμός της Λισαβόνας το 1755 (E5)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Le tremblement de terre de Lisbonne en 1755 (E5_Évènement) (Chester, 2001)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 1755年里斯本大地震 (E5)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E1(x)
unaltered since version 6.2 / May 2015
Properties:
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P3 has note: E62 String
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type
E2 Temporal Entity
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Temporal Entity
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Geschehendes
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Έγχρονη Οντότητα
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Entité temporelle
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Entidade Temporal
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Временная Сущность
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
时序实体
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
CRM Entität
Οντότητα CIDOC CRM
Entité CRM
Entidade CRM
CRM Сущность
CRM实体
SuperClass Of:
E3 Condition State unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E3
Zustandsphase
Κατάσταση
État matériel
Estado Material
Состояние
条件状态

E4
Phase
Περίοδος
Période
Período
Период
时期
Scope Note:

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods and E5 Events, which happen over a limited extent in time. This extent in time must be contiguous, i.e., without gaps. In case the defining kinds of phenomena for an instance of E2 Temporal Entity cease to happen, and occur later again at another time, we regard that the former instance of E2 Temporal Entity has ended and a new instance has come into existence. In more intuitive terms, the same event cannot happen twice.

In some contexts, such phenomena are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item and is an abstract class that typically has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.

unaltered since version 6.2.9 / April 2020
previous value in version 6.2.8

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time.

In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst die Instanzen der Klassen E4 Phase, E5 Ereignis und andere zeitlich begrenzte Zustände.

In anderen Zusammenhängen werden diese Klassen auch ‚perdurants‘ genannt. Diese Klasse un- terscheidet sich durch einen zeitlich begrenzten Zustand von der Klasse E77 Seiendes. Es handelt sich um eine abstrakte Klasse, die keine direkten Instanzen bildet. Die Klasse E2 Geschehendes wird einerseits in der Klasse E4 Phase spezialisiert und auf ein bestimmtes geographisches Gebiet beschränkt, so wie andererseits auf die Klasse E3 Zustandsphase spezialisiert, die sich auf Instan- zen der Klasse E18 Materielles bezieht.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time.

In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Stuff.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει όλα τα φαινόμενα, όπως οι πραγματώσεις Περιόδων (Ε4), Συμβάντων (E5) και δηλώνει αυτά που συμβαίνουν σε περιορισμένη χρονική έκταση.

Σε ορισμένα συμφραζόμενα, καλούνται επίσης perdurants. Η κλάση αυτή είναι ασύνδετη με το Ον (E77). Πρόκειται για αφηρημένη κλάση και δεν έχει άμεσες πραγματώσεις. Η Έγχρονη Οντότητα (E2) εξειδικεύεται στην Περίοδο (E4), η οποία ισχύει για μια συγκεκριμένη γεωγραφική περιοχή (που καθορίζεται με μεγαλύτερη ή μικρότερη ακρίβεια) και την Κατάσταση (Ε3), η οποία ισχύει για πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Πράγματος (E18).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend tous les phénomènes, tels que les instances de E4_Période et de E5_Évènement, qui se produisent sur une étendue de temps limitée.

Cette étendue de temps doit être continue, c.-à-d. sans interruption. Dans le cas où les types de phénomènes qui définissent une instance de E2_Entité_temporelle cessent de se produire, puis se produisent de nouveau à un autre moment, il est considéré que l’instance initiale de E2_Entité_temporelle est terminée et qu’une nouvelle instance a vu le jour. En des termes plus intuitifs, le même évènement ne peut se produire deux fois. Dans certains contextes, de tels phénomènes sont aussi appelés « perdurants » [n.d.t. en philosophie].

Cette classe est disjointe de la classe E77_Entité_persistante et elle est une classe abstraite qui, typiquement, ne contient pas d’instances directes. La classe E2_Entité_temporelle est précisée dans les classes :

  • E4_Période, qui s’applique à une zone géographique spécifique (définie avec un degré de précision plus ou moins grand);

  • E3_État_matériel, qui s’applique aux instances de E18_Chose_matérielle.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time.

In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс включает все явления, такие как экземпляры классов E4.Период, E5.Событие, происходящих в ограниченный период времени. В некоторых контекстах это так называемые пердуранты. Данный класс отличен от класса E77.Постоянная Сущность. Это абстрактный класс и не имеет прямых экземпляров. Класс E2.Временная Сущность уточняется как класс E4.Период, который относится к определенной географической области (определяемой с большей или меньшей степенью точности) и класс E3.Состояние, который связан с классом E18.Материальный Предмет.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time.

In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵所有在某个有限时段内发生的现象,例如E4-时期、E5-事件和状态的实例。

在某些情况下,它们也被称为事件实体(perdurants)。此类别与E77-持续性项目(E77 Persistent Item )是互不相交集的。它是个抽象类别,没有直接的实例。E2-时间实体被特化为应用於特定地理区域(定义的精确度可高可低〕的E4-时期,以及应用於E18-实体物实例的E3状态 (E3 Condition State)。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • Bronze Age (E4) (Childe, 1963)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) (Chester, 2001)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 to 1946 (E3) (Maddox, 2015)
unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2
  • Bronze Age (E4)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Bronzezeit (E4 Phase)
  • das Erdbeben in Lissabon 1755 (E5 Ereignis)
  • der Peterhof Palast nahe St. Petersburg, der von 1944–1946
  • eine Ruine war (E3 Zustandsphase)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • Bronze Age (E4)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η εποχή του Χαλκού (E4)
  • ο σεισμός στη Λισαβόνα το 1755 (E5)
  • το Μεγάλο Παλάτι του Πετροντβορέτς κοντά στην Αγία Πετρούπολη που ήταν ερειπωμένο από το 1944 – 1946 (E3)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Bronze Age (E4) (Childe, 1963)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) (Chester, 2001)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3) (Maddox, 2015)
English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
  • L’Âge du bronze (E4_Période) (Childe, 1963)
  • Le tremblement de terre de 1755 à Lisbonne (E5_Évènement) (Chester, 2001)
  • Le Palais de Peterhof près de Saint-Pétersbourg, en ruines de 1944 à 1946 (E3_État_matériel) (Maddox, 2015)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • Bronze Age (E4)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 铜器时代 (E4)
  • 1755年里斯本大地震 (E5)
  • 离圣彼得堡不远的夏宫在1944至1946年间的废墟状态(E3)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E2(x) ⇒ E1(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P173 starts before or with the end of (ends after or with the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P174 starts before the end of (ends after the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P175 starts before or with the start of (starts after or with the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P176 starts before the start of (starts after the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P182 ends before or with the start of (starts after or with the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
P183 ends before the start of (starts after the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
P184 ends before or with the end of (ends with or after the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
P185 ends before the end of (ends after the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
E3 Condition State
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Condition State
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Zustandsphase
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Κατάσταση
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
État matériel
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Estado Material
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Состояние
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
条件状态
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E2
Geschehendes
Έγχρονη Οντότητα
Entité temporelle
Entidade Temporal
Временная Сущность
时序实体
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific instance of E52 Time-Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the instance of E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22nd September 1846 and 27th August 1847” can be characterized as an instance “wrecked” of E55 Type.

unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847” can be characterized as E55 Type “wrecked”.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst die Beschaffenheit von Objekten in einem bestimmten Zeitraum.

Eine Instanz dieser Klasse beschreibt die maßgebliche physische Beschaffenheit eines jeglichen materiellen Gegenstandes oder Merkmales während eines bestimmten Zeitraumes E52 Zeitspanne. Generell kann die Zeitspanne für die eine gewisse Beschaffenheit festgehalten wird kürzer sein als die wirkliche Zeitspanne in der diese Beschaffenheit andauerte. Das Wesen des entsprechenden Zustandes kann durch die Eigenschaft P2 hat den Typus (ist Typus von) beschrieben werden. Zum Beispiel kann die Instanz der Klasse E3 Zustandsphase den Zustand des Segelschiffes Great Britain zwischen dem 22. 9. 1846 und dem 27. 8. 1847 durch eine Instanz von E55 Typus als Wrack charakterisieren.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

It describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span.In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847” can be characterized as E55 Type “wrecked”.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει τις καταστάσεις αντικειμένων που χαρακτηρίζονται από ένα συγκεκριμένο είδος κατάστασης κατά τη διάρκεια ενός χρονικού διαστήματος.

Περιγράφει την επικρατούσα φυσική κατάσταση οποιουδήποτε υλικού αντικειμένου ή μορφώματος εντός ενός συγκεκριμένου Χρονικού Διαστήματος (E52). Γενικά, το χρονικό διάστημα για το οποίο μπορεί να εκτιμηθεί μια συγκεκριμένη κατάσταση ενδέχεται να είναι συντομότερο από το πραγματικό χρονικό διάστημα, για το οποίο ισχύει η κατάσταση αυτή.

Η φύση της κατάστασης αυτής μπορεί να περιγραφεί, χρησιμοποιώντας την P2 έχει τύπο. Για παράδειγμα, η Κατάσταση (Ε3) “κατάσταση του SS Great Britain στο διάστημα ανάμεσα στις 22. Σεπτεμβρίου 1846 και τις 27. Αυγούστου 1847” μπορεί να χαρακτηριστεί ως Τύπος (Ε55) “κατεστραμμένος”.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend les états d'objets caractérisés par une condition donnée sur un intervalle de temps.

Une instance de E3_État_matériel décrit l'état physique dominant de tout objet matériel ou caractéristique au cours d'une instance spécifique de E52_Intervalle_temporel. En général, l'intervalle temporel pour lequel une condition donnée peut être affirmée peut être plus court que l'intervalle temporel réel pour lequel cette condition a été valide.

La nature de cette condition peut être décrite en utilisant P2_a_pour_type. Par exemple, l'instance de E3_État_matériel « état du SS Great Britain entre le 22 septembre 1846 et le 27 août 1847 » peut être caractérisée comme une instance de E55_Type « épave ».

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

It describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span.In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847” can be characterized as E55 Type “wrecked”.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс включает в себя состояния объектов, характеризуемых определенным условием над временным диапазоном. Он описывает превалирующие физическое состояние какого бы то ни было материального объекта или признака в течение E52.Интервал Времени. Вообще временной диапазон, которому можно приписать определенное состояние, может быть короче, чем реальный временной диапазон, для которого это состояние приведено. Природу этого состояния можно описать, используя тип P2.имеет тип (является типом). Например, E3.Состояние “состояние парохода Великобритании между 22 сентября 1846 и 27 августа 1847” может быть охарактеризовано как экземпляр класса E55.Тип “потерпевший кораблекрушение”.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847” can be characterized as E55 Type “wrecked”.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵在某个时段内拥有某种状况(condition)的物件状态(states of objects)。

此类别的实例陈述的是在某个特定的E52-时段内,任何一件实体物件或外貌表征的主要物质状况。一般而言,某种状况被宣称的时段可能比其实际维持的时段更短。此种状况的性质可使用P2-有类型加以描述。例如E3-状态(陈述〕“大不列颠号蒸汽轮船(SS Great Britain)在1846年9月22日至1947年8月27日期间的状况”可被形容为E55-类型 "毁坏”。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the "reconstructed" state of the “Amber Room” in Tsarskoje Selo from summer 2003 until now (Owen, 2009)
  • the "ruined" state of Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg from 1944 to 1946 (Maddox, 2015)
  • the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25th December 2002 [P2 has type: E55 Type “still not cooked”] (fictitious)
  • the topography of the leaves of Sinai Printed Book 3234.2361 on the 10th July 2007 [described as: of type "cockled"] (fictitious)
unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1
  • the “Amber Room” in Tsarskoje Selo being completely reconstructed from summer 2003 until now
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946
  • the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 (P2 has type: E55 Type “still not cooked”)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Rekonstruktion des Bernsteinzimmers in Tsarskoje Selo wurde im Sommer 2003 vollkommen fertig gestellt und bis jetzt so erhalten
  • der Peterhof Palast nahe St. Petersburg war von 1944–1946 eine Ruine
  • der Zustand meines Truthahns im Backherd am 25. Dezember 2002 um 14.30 h (P2 hat den Typus (ist Typus von) E55 Typus bratbereit, d. h. gerupft und ge- würzt)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the “Amber Room” in Tsarskoje Selo being completely reconstructed from summer 2003 until now
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946
  • the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 (P2 has type: E55 Type “still not cooked”)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • το “Κεχριμπαρένιο Δωμάτιο” στο Τσάρκογιε Σελό που ανακατασκευάστηκε πλήρως από το καλοκαίρι του 2003 έως σήμερα
  • το Μεγάλο Παλάτι του Πετροντβορέτς κοντά στην Αγία Πετρούπολη που ήταν ερειπωμένο από το 1944 – 1946
  • η κατάσταση της γαλοπούλας μου στο φούρνο στις 14:30 την 25η Δεκεμβρίου, 2002 (P2 έχει τύπο: E55 Τύπος “ακόμα άψητη”)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • L'état « reconstruit » de la Chambre d'ambre à Tsarskoïe Selo de l'été 2003 à aujourd'hui (Owen, 2009)
  • L'état « en ruine » du palais de Peterhof près de Saint-Pétersbourg de 1944 à 1946 (Maddox, 2015)
  • L'état de ma dinde au four à 14h30 le 25 décembre 2002 [P2_a_pour_type : E55_Type « pas encore cuite »] (fictif)
  • La topographie des feuilles du livre imprimé du Mont Sinaï 3234.2361 le 10 juillet 2007 [P2_a_pour_type : E55_Type « gondolé »] (fictif)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the “Amber Room” in Tsarskoje Selo being completely reconstructed from summer 2003 until now
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946
  • the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 (P2 has type: E55 Type “still not cooked”)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • Tsarskoje Selo博物馆“琥珀厅”的工程在2003年夏天重建后至今的状态
  • 离圣彼得堡不远的夏宫在1944至1946年间的废墟状态2
  • 2002年12月25日下午2时30分火鸡在烤箱内的状态(P2有类型:E55-类型“还未烤熟”〕
  • 属性:
  • P5-包含~状态(属於~状态的一部分):E3-状态
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E3(x) ⇒ E2(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P5 consists of (forms part of): E3 Condition State
E4 Period
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Period
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Phase
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Περίοδος
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Période
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Período
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Период
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
时期
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E92 Spacetime Volume unaltered since version 6.2 / May 2015
E2
Geschehendes
Έγχρονη Οντότητα
Entité temporelle
Entidade Temporal
Временная Сущность
时序实体

E92
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Volume spatio-temporel
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
SuperClass Of:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
Ereignis
Συμβάν
Évènement
Evento
Событие
事件
Scope Note:

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an instance of E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.

Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore, E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical birth, an instance of E67 Birth, can be seen as both a single event, i.e. an instance of E5 Event, and as an extended period, i.e. an instance of E4 Period, that consists of multiple physical processes and complementary activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

E4 Period is a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime Volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CIDOC CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel, 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance, it is possible to discuss the physical extent of an instance of E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomenon while an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore, this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

Typical use of this class in cultural heritage documentation is for documenting cultural and artistic periods. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period in the European sphere of influence lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

A geopolitical unit as a specific case of an instance of E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena related to the claim of power, the consequences of belonging to a jurisdictional area and an administrative system that establishes a geopolitical unit. Examples from the modern period are countries or administrative areas of countries such as districts whose actions and structures define activities and phenomena in the area that they intend to govern. The borders of geopolitical units are often defined in contracts or treaties although they may deviate from the actual practice. The spatiotemporal properties of Geopolitical units can be modelled through the properties inherited from E92 Spacetime Volume.

Another specific case of an instance of E4 Period is the actual extent of the set of activities and phenomena as evidenced by their physical traces that define a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatio-temporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”. There are however no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst Ansammlungen zusammenhängender Phänomene oder kultureller Manifestationen gebunden in Raum und Zeit.

Es ist die gesellschaftliche oder physische Kohärenz dieser Phänomene, die eine Instanz der Klasse E4 Phase identifiziert und nicht die verknüpften RaumZeit Grenzen. Diese Grenzen sind nichts als eine grobe Annäherung an Wachstums, Ausbreitungs und Rückzugsprozesse. Folglich können sich unterschiedliche Zeiträume überschneiden und in Zeit und Raum koexistieren, genauso wie eine Nomadenkultur im gleichen Gebiet wie eine sesshafte Kultur existieren kann.

Typischer Weise wird diese Klasse benutzt um prähistorische oder historische Zeiträume wie das

„Neolithikums“, die „Ming-Dynastie“ oder die „McCarthy-Ära“ zu beschreiben. Es gibt allerdings keine Annahmen über den Verknüpfungsgrad der Phänomene. Genaugenommen werden alle Ereignisse als synthetische Prozesse gesehen, die aus zusammenhängenden Phänomenen bestehen. Deswegen ist die Klasse E4 Phase eine Superklasse der Klasse E5 Ereignis. Zum Beispiel kann eine heute üblicher Weise in der Klinik stattfindende Geburt E67 Geburt sowohl als ein einzelnes Ereignis der Klasse E5 Ereignis und als ein Zeitraum der Klasse E4 Phase gesehen werden, der aus zahlreichen Aktivitäten besteht, die von multiplen Instanzen der Klasse E39 Akteur ausgeführt werden.

Künstlerischer Stil kann als Klasse E4 Phase modelliert sein. Es gibt zwei unterschiedliche begriffliche Fassungen von ‚künstlerischem Stil‘, entweder definiert durch die physisch fassbaren Ausprägungen (individueller Stil des Künstlers) oder durch den historischen Kontext (Zeitstil). Zum Beispiel kann der Impressionismus als ein Zeitraum von ungefähr 1870 bis 1905 angesehen werden, indem Gemälde mit individuellen (Stil)Merkmalen von einer Gruppe von Künstlern geschaffen wurden, unter anderem Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley und Degas. Alternativ kann der Impressionismus als ein allgemeiner (Zeit)Stil begriffen werden, der auf alle jene Gemälde zutrifft, die die für den Impressionismus charakteristischen Merkmale zeigen, ungeachtet ihres historischen Kontextes/des Zeitpunktes ihrer Entstehung. Die erste Interpretation fällt in die Klasse E4 Phase, während die zweite Interpretation morphologische Gegenstandstypen definiert, die unter die Klasse E55 Typus fallen.

Ein anderer bestimmter Fall der Klasse E4 Phase ist eine Ansammlung von Aktivitäten und Phänomenen, die mit einer Siedlung verbunden sind, wie z. B. der Zeitraum als Nineveh bewohnt war.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatio-temporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”. There are however no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

Artistic style may be modeled as E4 Period. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is consistent with E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει σύνολα συναφών φαινομένων ή πολιτισμικών δηλώσεων που περιορίζονται στο χρόνο και το χώρο.

Είναι η κοινωνική ή φυσική συνοχή των φαινομένων αυτών που καθορίζουν μια Περίοδο (E4) και όχι τα σχετιζόμενοι χωρο-χρονικά όρια. Τα όρια αυτά είναι μια απλή προσέγγιση της πραγματικής διαδικασίας ανάπτυξης, εξάπλωσης και οπισθοχώρησης. Κατά συνέπεια, διαφορετικές περίοδοι μπορούν να επικαλύπτονται και να συνυπάρχουν στο χώρο και το χρόνο, όπως όταν ένας νομαδικός πολιτισμός υπάρχει στην ίδια περιοχή με έναν μόνιμο πολιτισμό.

Χαρακτηριστικά, η κλάση αυτή χρησιμοποιείται για να περιγράψει προϊστορικές ή ιστορικές περιόδους όπως τη «Νεολιθική Περίοδο», τη «Δυναστεία Μινγκ» ή την «Περίοδο του Μακαρθισμού». Ωστόσο, δεν γίνονται εκτιμήσεις σχετικά με την κλίμακα των σχετιζόμενων φαινομένων. Ειδικότερα, κάθε συμβάν εκλαμβάνεται ως σύνθετη διαδικασία που αποτελείται από συναφή φαινόμενα. Κατά συνέπεια, η Περίοδος (E4) αποτελεί υπερκλάση του Συμβάντος (Ε5). Για παράδειγμα, μια σύγχρονη κλινική Γέννηση (E67) ενδέχεται να εκληφθεί τόσο ως ατομικό Συμβάν (E5) όσο και ως Περίοδος (E4) που αποτελείται από πολλαπλές δραστηριότητες που πραγματοποιούνται από πολλαπλές πραγματώσεις του Δράστη (E39).

Το καλλιτεχνικό ύφος μπορεί να μοντελοποιηθεί ως Περίοδος (E4). Υπάρχουν δύο διαφορετικές εννοιοποιήσεις ‘ύφους’ που καθορίζονται είτε από φυσικά μορφώματα είτε από ιστορικά συμφραζόμενα. Για παράδειγμα, ο «Ιμπρεσιονισμός» μπορεί να θεωρηθεί ως περίοδος με διάρκεια περίπου από το 1870 έως το 1905 κατά την οποία παράχθηκαν πίνακες με συγκεκριμένα χαρακτηριστικά από μια ομάδα καλλιτεχνών μεταξύ των οποίων ήταν ο Μονέ, ο Ρενουάρ, ο Πισσαρό, ο Σίσλεϊ και ο Ντεγκά. Εναλλακτικά μπορεί να θεωρηθεί ως το ύφος που συναντά κανείς σε κάθε πίνακα με κοινά χαρακτηριστικά των εργασιών που παράχθηκαν από τους ιμπρεσιονιστές, ανεξάρτητα από τα ιστορικά συμφραζόμενα. Η πρώτη ερμηνεία συμφωνεί με την Περίοδο (Ε4), και η δεύτερη καθορίζει μορφολογικούς τύπους αντικειμένων που εμπίπτουν στον Τύπο (E55).

Άλλη μια συγκεκριμένη περίπτωση της Περιόδου (E4) είναι το σύνολο των δραστηριοτήτων και φαινομένων που σχετίζονται με έναν οικισμό, όπως η περίοδος όπου κατοικείτο η Νινευή.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an instance of E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.

Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore, E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical birth, an instance of E67 Birth, can be seen as both a single event, i.e., an instance of E5 Event, and as an extended period, i.e., an instance of E4 Period, that consists of multiple physical processes and complementary activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

As the actual extent of an instance of E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies.

Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units.

Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the time-span covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However, it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area.

We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime Volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CIDOC CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel, 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance, we can discuss the physical extent of an instance of E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomenon while an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore, this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

Typical use of this class in cultural heritage documentation is for documenting cultural and artistic periods. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period in the European sphere of influence lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

A geopolitical unit as a specific case of an instance of E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena related to the claim of power, the consequences of belonging to a jurisdictional area and an administrative system that establishes a geopolitical unit. Examples from the modern period are countries or administrative areas of countries such as districts whose actions and structures define activities and phenomena in the area that they intend to govern. The borders of geopolitical units are often defined in contracts or treaties although they may deviate from the actual practice. The spatiotemporal properties of Geopolitical units can be modelled through the properties inherited from E92 Spacetime Volume.

Another specific case of an instance of E4 Period is the actual extent of the set of activities and phenomena as evidenced by their physical traces that define a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend des ensembles de phénomènes cohérents ou de manifestations culturelles se produisant dans l’espace et dans le temps.

C’est la cohérence sociale ou physique de [n.d.t. cet ensemble de] phénomènes qui établit l’identité d’une instance de E4_Période, et non son étendue spatio-temporelle. Cette dernière n’est que le « terreau » ou l’espace dans lequel, au sens physique abstrait, le processus de croissance, de déploiement ou de retrait [n.d.t. du phénomène qu’encapsule la E4_Période] a lieu. Plusieurs périodes peuvent donc se chevaucher et cœxister dans le temps et dans l’espace, par exemple lorsqu’une culture nomade existe dans le même espace et en même temps qu’une culture sédentaire. Cela implique que les droits d’utilisation relatifs à des terres qui se chevauchent – une situation fréquente chez les Premières Nations – équivalent à des périodes se chevauchant elles aussi.

Cette classe est fréquemment utilisée pour décrire des périodes préhistoriques ou historiques comme la « période néolithique », la « dynastie Ming » ou « l’ère McCarthy », mais aussi pour des éléments géopolitiques et des activités d’occupation considérés comme des cas spéciaux de E4_Période.

[n.d.t. L’utilisation de cette classe pour décrire des phénomènes précis] n’implique pas de postulats quant à l’échelle des phénomènes en question : tous les évènements sont considérés comme des processus synthétiques composés de phénomènes cohérents [n.d.t. c.-à-d. des phénomènes qui peuvent raisonnablement être perçus comme dotés d’une complétude interne]. Ainsi, E4_Période est une super-classe de E5_Évènement. Par exemple, une naissance ayant eu lieu dans un milieu clinique moderne – une instance de E67_Naissance – peut être considérée à la fois comme un évènement unique (c.-à-d. une instance de E5_Évènement) et comme une période étendue (c.-à-d. une instance de E4_Période) qui consiste en de multiples processus physiques et activités complémentaires accomplies par diverses instances de E39_Actant.

L’étendue spatio-temporelle d’une instance de E4_Période dans le CIDOC CRM correspond aux trajectoires des choses physiques lorsqu’elles participent à une instance de E4_Période. Cela inclut les espaces ouverts par l’intermédiaire desquels les choses ont ou auraient pu interagir au cours de la période ou de l’évènement, et ce, d’une manière cohérente avec [n.d.t. les principes qui définissent] le type de cette période ou de cet évènement. Un exemple de tels espaces serait l’air présent dans une salle de réunion et qui transmet les voix des participants.

Ces phénomènes étant de nature floue, leur étendue spatio-temporelle est [n.d.t. de facto] considérée comme continue, à l’exception de phénomènes se déployant sur plusieurs îles ou territoires distincts, ce qui inclut des éléments géopolitiques distribués sur des territoires distincts tels que des îles ou des colonies. Le fait de considérer les trajectoires nécessaires au voyage des participants entre de tels territoires comme des étendues spatio-temporelles en elles-mêmes doit être déterminé au cas par cas en se fondant sur une analyse concrète qui prend en compte, notamment, l’usage de la mer à d’autres fins que la pêche. L’idée que les activités de gouvernance de territoires atomisés impliquent aussi des déplacements dans les espaces qui les lient de manière que ces territoires demeurent, en quelque sorte, connectés pourrait en outre être défendue. Il semble néanmoins contre-intuitif de considérer des itinéraires servant au transport dans des eaux internationales comme des extensions [n.d.t. légitimes] d’éléments géopolitiques.

Une instance de E4_Période peut donc occuper de nombreux volumes spatio-temporels disjoints tant qu’il n’y a pas de discontinuité dans l’intervalle temporel couvert par ces mêmes volumes spatio-temporels. Cela signifie qu’une instance de E4_Période doit être continue dans le temps : si une E4_Période est terminée dans tous les espaces [n.d.t. qu’elle convoque], elle est terminée définitivement en tant que tout. Cela n’empêche cependant pas qu’une E4_Période soit terminée dans un espace avant de l’être dans un autre (comme ce fut le cas de la migration polynésienne), et que cette même E4_Période perdure aussi longtemps qu’elle s’incarne dans au moins un espace.

Le CIDOC CRM définit E4_Période comme une sous-classe de E2_Entité_temporelle ainsi que de E92_Volume_spatio-temporel – considéré comme un volume spatio-temporel tel que défini dans CIDOC CRMgeo (Dœrr et Hiebel, 2013). Du fait de cet héritage multiple, l’étendue physique d’une instance de E4_Période peut être discutée sans la représenter à chaque fois avec une instance de son volume spatio-temporel. Ce modèle [n.d.t. le CIDOC CRM] comprend deux types de choses bien différentes : une instance de E4_Période est un phénomène alors qu’une instance de E92_Volume_spatio-temporel est une agrégation de points dans un espace-temps. Cependant, la réelle étendue spatio-temporelle d’une instance de E4_Période est considérée comme unique en raison du flou et des nombreux détails qui la caractérisent; l’identité et l’existence de cette étendue spatio-temporelle se reposent donc uniquement sur l’identité de l’instance de E4_Période. Cet héritage multiple est donc effectif, dénué d'ambiguïté et correspond aux intuitions du langage naturel [n.d.t. c.-à-d. que, au quotidien, il n’est généralement pas question du volume spatio-temporel aux fins de simplification et de compréhension intuitive du monde; d’encapsuler E92_Volume_spatio-temporel dans E4_Période se rapproche de l’utilisation courante de ces concepts et en simplifie de ce fait l’utilisation].

Un usage typique de cette classe dans le milieu patrimonial est celui de la documentation des périodes culturelles et artistiques. Le style artistique peut être conceptualisé de deux manières : selon un contexte historique ou selon des caractéristiques physiques. Par exemple, « l’Impressionnisme » peut être vu comme une période de la sphère d’influence européenne s’étendant approximativement de 1870 à 1905 durant laquelle des peintures ayant des caractéristiques spécifiques ont été produites par des artistes tels que Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley et Degas. Mais l’impressionnisme peut être considéré aussi comme un style désignant toute peinture qui partage les caractéristiques des œuvres produites par les peintres impressionnistes, indépendamment de tout contexte historique. La première interprétation [n.d.t. selon un contexte historique] est une instance de E4_Période alors que la seconde [n.d.t. selon des caractéristiques physiques] définit une catégorie morphologique d’objet qui relève de la classe E55_Type.

Un élément géopolitique en tant que cas spécial d’une instance de E4_Période est un ensemble d’activités et de phénomènes concernant une revendication du pouvoir, des conséquences de l’appartenance à une région juridique et un système administratif établissant un élément géopolitique. Des exemples modernes d’éléments géopolitiques étant des instances possibles de E4_Période sont des pays ou des régions administratives de pays tels que des districts, dont les structures et les actions définissent des activités et des phénomènes sur le territoire dont la gouvernance leur revient. Les frontières d’éléments géopolitiques sont souvent définies par des ententes contractuelles ou des traités qui peuvent néanmoins différer de l’usage réel qui est fait du territoire. Les propriétés spatio-temporelles d’éléments géopolitiques peuvent être modélisées grâce aux propriétés héritées de E92_Volume_spatio-temporel.

Un autre cas spécial d’une instance de E4_Période est l’étendue réelle d’un ensemble d’activités et de phénomènes telle qu’elle est avérée par des traces physiques caractérisant l’occupation [n.d.t. sur un territoire], comme dans le cas de la période où la ville de Ninive était peuplée.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatio-temporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”. There are however no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

Artistic style may be modeled as E4 Period. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is consistent with E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает ряд последовательных явлений или культурных проявлений ограниченных во времени и пространстве. Эта социальная или физическая последовательность данных явлений, идентифицирует E4.Период и не является ассоциированными пространственно-временными границами. Границы являются не более чем приближением фактического процесса развития, распространения и завершения. Следовательно, различные периоды могут частично совпадать (перекрываться) и сосуществовать во времени и пространстве, как например в том случае, когда кочевая культура существует на одной и той же территории как культура оседлая. Обычно этот класс используется для описания доисторических или исторических периодов, таких как период Неолита, династии Минг или эры Маккарти. Однако, не существует предположений относительно масштаба (шкалы) объединяемых явлений. В частности, все явления видятся как синтетический процесс, состоящий из связанных явлений. Следовательно, класс E4.Период является подклассом класса E5.Событие. Например, экземпляр класса E67.Рождение может рассматриваться как анатомическое экземпляр класса E5.Событие, или как E4.Период, который состоит из множественных видов деятельности, осуществляемых множеством экземпляров класса E39.Актор. Художественный стиль может быть смоделирован как E4.Период. Существует две различных концептуализации “стиля”, определяемые либо как физические признаки либо как исторический контекст. Например, “импрессионизм” может рассматриваться как период, продолжавшийся приблизительно с 1870 до 1905, в течении которого произведения живописи с особыми характеристиками были созданы группой художников, включавшей (кроме прочих) Моне, Ренуара, Писсарро, Сислея и Дега. С другой стороны, он может рассматриваться как стиль, применяемый ко всем произведениям живописи, имеющим те же характеристики, что и работы художников-импрессионистов, без учета исторического контекста. Первая интерпретация согласуется с классом E4.Период, а вторая определяет типы морфологических объектов, которые соответствуют экземпляру класса E55.Тип. Другой специфический экземпляр класса E4.Период – это ряд видов деятельности и явлений, ассоциируемых с таким периодом заселения, как Ниневех.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatio-temporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”. There are however no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵在特定时空范围内的一致性连贯现象或文化表现。

确认E4-时期的不是与这些现象相关联的时空界限,而是这些现象的社会或物质性质的一致性及连贯性。这些界限仅仅是其实际成长、扩散和退缩过程的近似值。因此不同时期可以相互重叠,并在时空中并存,例如在某个地区的游牧文化可以同时与其定居文化共存。

通常我们会以此类别描述“新石器时代”、“明代”或“麦卡锡时代”等史前或历史年代。然而我们并不对用来界定时期的相关现象的规模提出假设。值得注意的是,所有事件(Event)都被视为包括一致性连贯现象的综合过程(synthetic processes)。因此E4-时期是E5-事件的超类。例如,在现代医疗照顾下的E67-诞生事件,可以被同时视为一次不可分割的E5-事件,也可以被视为一个E4-时期,而且当中还包括E39-角色多个实例所从事的连串活动。

‘艺术风格’的概念分两种,可从物质特征或历史背景进行界定。例如“印象派”可被视为1870至1905年的时期,在这段时期内,莫奈、雷诺阿、毕沙罗、西斯莱、德加等画家创作了一批富有鲜明特点的油画。另一方面,“印象派”也可以被当成一种绘画风格,只要是体现印象派画家作品特点的创作,就算创作年代不同,也属於这类风格。第一类诠释法属於E4-时期,第二类则界定属於E55-类型之下的形态对象类型(morphological object types)。

另一种E4-时期个案,是与聚居地有关的相关活动和现象的组合,例如尼尼微城人丁兴旺的时期。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • Jurassic (Hallam, 1975)
  • Populated Period of Nineveh
  • Imperial Rome under Marcus Aurelius
  • European Bronze Age (Harrison, 2004)
  • Italian Renaissance (Macdonald, 1992)
  • Thirty Years War (Lee, 1991)
  • Sturm und Drang (Berkoff, 2013)
  • Cubism (Cox, 2000)
  • The Capital of Russia (E4) [the capital of Russia in the sense of an administrative unit moved in historical times from Moscow to St Petersburg and then back to Moscow. This exemplifies an administrative unit changing place over time without temporal discontinuity]
  • The settling activity of the community of Helsinki (a.k.a. Helsingfors) (E7) [the original settlement called Helsinki was located in the area of the modern airport. The community moved later to settle on the coast. This exemplifies a continued activity changing place over time without temporal discontinuity]
  • Bronze Age (E4) [Bronze Age, in the sense of technological adoption, spread over disjoint areas including islands such as the British Isles without temporal discontinuity]
  • Japan, the state (E4) [In 2021, the Japanese state as a political unit comprised in 6852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia]
unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1
  • Jurassic
  • European Bronze Age
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Thirty Years War
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Cubism
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Jurassisch
  • Europäische Bronzezeit
  • Italienische Renaissance
  • der Dreißigjährige Krieg
  • Sturm und Drang
  • der Kubismus
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • Jurassic
  • European Bronze Age
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Thirty Years War
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Cubism
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • Ιουρασική
  • Εποχή του Χαλκού στην Ευρώπη
  • Ιταλική Αναγέννηση
  • Τριακονταετής Πόλεμος
  • Ορμή και Θύελλα
  • Κυβισμός
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Le Jurassique (Hallam, 1975)
  • La période où Ninive était peuplée
  • L’Empire romain sous Marc Aurèle
  • L’Âge du bronze en Europe (Harrison, 2004)
  • La Renaissance italienne (Macdonald, 1992)
  • La guerre de Trente ans (Lee, 1991)
  • Le mouvement Sturm und Drang (Berkoff, 2013)
  • Le Cubisme (Cox, 2000)
  • La capitale de la Russie (E4_Période) [la capitale de la Russie dans le sens d'une unité administrative déplacée dans les temps historiques de Moscou à Saint-Pétersbourg, puis déplacée à nouveau à Moscou. Cela illustre une unité administrative changeant de lieu dans le temps sans discontinuité temporelle]
  • L'activité de colonisation de la communauté d'Helsinki (alias Helsingfors) (E7_Activité) [la colonie d'origine appelée Helsinki était située dans la zone de l'aéroport moderne. La communauté a déménagé plus tard pour s'installer sur la côte. Cela illustre une activité continue changeant de lieu dans le temps sans discontinuité temporelle]
  • L'âge du Bronze (E4_Période) [l'âge du Bronze, au sens de l'adoption technologique, s'étendant sur des zones disjointes comprenant des îles, telles que les Îles Britanniques, sans discontinuité temporelle]
  • Japon, l'État (E4_Période) [en 2021, l'État japonais en tant qu'unité politique comprise dans 6 852 îles s'étendant le long de la côte pacifique de l'Asie]
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • Jurassic
  • European Bronze Age
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Thirty Years War
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Cubism
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 侏罗纪
  • 欧洲铜器时代
  • 意大利复兴时期
  • 欧洲三十年战争
  • 德国“狂飙突进”时期(Sturm und Drang)
  • 立体主义
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E4(x) ⇒ E2(x)
  • E4(x) ⇒ E92(x)
unaltered since version 6.2 / May 2015
previous value in version 6.1
Properties:
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
E5 Event
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Ereignis
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Συμβάν
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Évènement
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Evento
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Событие
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
事件
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
Phase
Περίοδος
Période
Período
Период
时期
SuperClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动

E63
Daseinsbeginn
Αρχή Ύπαρξης
Début d’existence
Início da Existência
Начало Существования
初始

E64
Daseinsende
Τέλος Ύπαρξης
Fin d’existence
Fim da Existência
Конец Существования
结束
Scope Note:

This class comprises distinct, delimited and coherent processes and interactions of a material nature, in cultural, social or physical systems, involving and affecting instances of E77 Persistent Item in a way characteristic of the kind of process. Typical examples are meetings, births, deaths, actions of decision taking, making or inventing things, but also more complex and extended ones such as conferences, elections, building of a castle, or battles.

While the continuous growth of a tree lacks the limits characteristic of an event, its germination from a seed does qualify as an event. Similarly, the blowing of the wind lacks the distinctness and limits of an event, but a hurricane, flood or earthquake would qualify as an event. Mental processes are considered as events, in cases where they are connected with the material externalization of their results; for example, the creation of a poem, a performance or a change of intention that becomes obvious from subsequent actions or declarations.

The effects of an instance of E5 Event may not lead to relevant permanent changes of properties or relations of the items involved in it, for example an unrecorded performance. Of course, in order to be documented, some kind of evidence for an event must exist, be it witnesses, traces or products of the event.

While instances of E4 Period always require some form of coherence between its constituent phenomena, in addition, the essential constituents of instances of E5 Event should contribute to an overall effect; for example, the statements made during a meeting and the listening of the audience.

Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an instance of E5 Event may appear as if it had an ‘instantaneous’ overall effect, but any process or interaction of material nature in reality have an extent in time and space. At a fine level, instances of E5 Event may be analysed into component phenomena and phases within a space and timeframe, and as such can be seen as a period, regardless of the size of the phenomena. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy overall effect and are thus not instances of E5 Event.

unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1

This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst, ungeachtet der Größenordnung, Zustandsänderungen in kulturellen, gesellschaftlichen oder physischen Systemen, die von einer Reihe oder Gruppe zusammenhängender physischer, kultureller, technologischer oder rechtlicher Phänomene verursacht werden. Solche Änderungen eines Zustandes wirken sich auf Instanzen der Klassee E77 Seiendes oder deren Unterklassen aus.

Die Unterscheidung zwischen der Klasse E5 Ereignis und einer Klasse E4 Phase ist teilweise eine Frage des Abwägens der Beobachtung. Grob betrachtet ist eine Klasse E5 Ereignis ein un- mittelbarer Wandel eines Zustandes. Näher betrachtet, kann eine Instanz der Klasse E5 Ereignis auch in einzelne Bestandteile innerhalb eines Raumes und Zeitrahmens zerlegt werden, und wäre dann als Instanz der Klasse E4 Phase angesehen worden. Das Gegenteil ist nicht notwendigerweise der Fall: nicht alle Instanzen der Klasse E4 Phase verursachen eine beachtenswerte Änderung des Zustandes.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνειαλλαγές καταστάσεων σε πολιτισμικά, κοινωνικά ή φυσικά συστήματα, ανεξάρτητα από την κλίμακα, που προκαλούνται από μια σειρά ή ομάδα συναφών φυσικών, πολιτισμικών τεχνολογικών ή νομικών φαινομένων. Τέτοιες αλλαγές καταστάσεων επηρεάζουν τις πραγματώσεις του Όντος (E77) ή της υποκατηγορίες του.

Η διάκριση ανάμεσα σε ένα Συμβάν (E5) και μια Περίοδο (E4) αποτελεί εν μέρει θέμα της κλίμακας παρατήρησης. Αν ειδωθεί από ένα πρώτο επίπεδο λεπτομέρειας, ένα Συμβάν (E5) αποτελεί ‘στιγμιαία’ αλλαγή κατάστασης. Σε ένα δεύτερο επίπεδο, το Συμβάν (E5) μπορεί να αναλυθεί στα φαινόμενα που το απαρτίζουν εντός ενός χώρου και χρονικού πλαισίου και ως τέτοιο να ειδωθεί ως Περίοδος (E4). Δεν συμβαίνει απαραίτητα και το αντίστροφο: δεν δίνουν όλες τις πραγματώσεις της Περιόδου (E4) αφορμή για αξιοσημείωτη αλλαγή κατάστασης.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend les processus et interactions distincts, délimités, cohérents et de nature matérielle au sein de systèmes culturels, sociaux ou physiques, impliquant et affectant des instances de E77_Entité_persistante d'une manière caractéristique du type de processus observé. Les réunions, les naissances, les décès, les actions menant à des prises de décision, la fabrication ou l'invention d'objets, mais aussi des évènements plus vastes et complexes tels que les conférences, les élections, les constructions de châteaux ou les batailles sont des exemples typiques d'évènements.

Si la croissance continue d'un arbre est dépourvue des limites qui feraient d’elle un évènement, sa germination à partir d’une graine, elle, en est un. De la même façon, le souffle du vent n'est pas un évènement, car il n’en a ni le caractère distinct ni les délimitations; en revanche un ouragan, une inondation ou un tremblement de terre sont bien des évènements. Les processus mentaux sont considérés comme des évènements dans les cas où ils sont connectés à l'externalisation matérielle qui en résulte; par exemple, la création d'un poème ou d’une performance, ou bien le changement d’une intention devenu évident à la lumière d'actions ou de déclarations ultérieures.

Les effets d'une instance de E5_Évènement ne mènent pas nécessairement à des modifications permanentes significatives des propriétés ou des relations des entités impliquées, par exemple dans le cas d'une performance non enregistrée. Bien sûr, pour qu'un évènement puisse être documenté, une preuve de son existence est nécessaire, que ce soit par des témoins, des traces ou un produit résultant de cet évènement. Si les instances de E4_Période requièrent toujours une certaine cohérence entre les phénomènes qui les constituent, les éléments constitutifs d'instances de E5_Évènement doivent de plus contribuer à un effet global; par exemple, les déclarations faites lors d'une réunion et l'écoute du public.

À un niveau de détail grossier, une instance de E5_Évènement peut paraître avoir un effet global « instantané », mais tout processus ou interaction de nature matérielle a en réalité une étendue spatio-temporelle. À un niveau plus fin, les instances de E5_Évènement peuvent être détaillées en phénomènes constituants et en phases distinctes au sein d'un cadre spatio-temporel, et en tant que tels, peuvent être considérés comme une période, indépendamment de l'amplitude de ces phénomènes. L'inverse n'est pas nécessairement vrai : ce ne sont pas toutes les instances de E4_Période qui génèrent un effet global significatif, et de ce fait, elles ne sont pas forcément des instances de E5_Évènement.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс включает в себя изменения состояний в культурной, социальной или физической системах, не взирая на масштаб, определяемый серией или группой связанных физических, культурных, технологических или законодательных явлений. Такие изменения состояния повлияют на экземпляры класса E77.Постоянная Сущность или его подклассы. Разграничение между E5.Событие и E4.Период частично является вопросом масштаба (шкалы) наблюдения. Рассматриваемое на верхнем уровне абстракции, экземпляр класса E5.Событие может быть разложено на свои компонентные явления в пределах пространственных и временных рамок, и, как таковое, может считаться экземпляром класса E4.Период. Обратный процесс не является обязательным: не все экземпляры класса E4.Период порождают заслуживающие внимания изменения состояния.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵不论规模大小的文化、社会或物质系统上的状态变化,这些变化均由物 质、文化、科技或法律的连贯现象所引发。这类形态变化会对E77-持续性项目实例或其子类造成影响。

E5-事件和E4-时期的分别,一部分是在於观察尺度大小(scale of observation)的问题。从粗略的角度而言,E5-事件是一种“即时性”的状态变化。但在细部分析之下,E5-事件则可以视为在某个时空框架下的多个较细部现象所组合而成;如此一来,便可把它视为E4-时期。反之情况却不尽然相同,因为并非所有E4-时期实例能产 生显着的的状态变化。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the birth of Cleopatra (E67) (Pomeroy, 1984)
  • the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (E6) (Camardo, 2013)
  • World War II (E7) (Barber, 1994)
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (E7) (Hoyt, 1993)
  • the Yalta Conference (E7) (Harbutt, 2010)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday (fictitious)
  • the CIDOC conference 2003 (E7)
unaltered since version 7.1 / March 2021
previous value in version 7.0.1
  • the birth of Cleopatra (E67)
  • the destruction of Lisbon by earthquake in 1755 (E6)
  • World War II (E7)
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (E7)
  • the Yalta Conference (E7)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday
  • the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Geburt von Cleopatra (E67 Geburt)
  • die Zerstörung von Lissabon durch Erdbeben im Jahre 1755 (E6 Zerstörung)
  • Zweiter Weltkrieg (E7 Handlung)
  • der Kampf um Stalingrad (E7 Handlung)
  • die Yalta-Konferenz (E7 Handlung)
  • meine Geburtstagsfeier 28-6-1995 (E7 Handlung)
  • das Herunterfallen eines Ziegels von meinem Dach am letzten Sonntag (E5 Ereignis)
  • die CIDOC-Konferenz im Jahre 2003 (E7 Handlung)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the birth of Cleopatra (E67)
  • the destruction of Lisbon by earthquake in 1755 (E6)
  • World War II (E7)
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (E7)
  • the Yalta Conference (E7)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday
  • the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η γέννηση της Κλεοπάτρας (E67)
  • η καταστροφή της Λισαβόνας στον σεισμό του 1755(E6)
  • ο Δεύτερος Παγκόσμιος Πόλεμος (E7)
  • η μάχη του Στάλινγκραντ (E7)
  • η Διάσκεψη της Γιάλτας (E7)
  • ο εορτασμός της γέννησής μου 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • το πέσιμο ενός κεραμιδιού από την οροφή του σπιτιού μου την περασμένη Κυριακή
  • το συνέδριο του CIDOC 2003 (E7)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La naissance de Cléopâtre (E67_Naissance) (Pomeroy, 1984)
  • La destruction d'Herculanum par une éruption volcanique en 79 EC (E6_Destruction) (Camardo, 2013)
  • La Seconde Guerre mondiale (E7_Activité) (Barber, 1994)
  • La bataille de Stalingrad (E7_Activité) (Hoyt, 1993)
  • La Conférence de Yalta (E7_Activité) (Harbutt, 2010)
  • Ma fête d'anniversaire le 28/06/1995 (E7_Activité)
  • La chute d'une tuile de mon toit dimanche dernier (fictif)
  • La Conférence CIDOC 2003 (E7_Activité)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the birth of Cleopatra (E67)
  • the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (E6)
  • World War II (E7)
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (E7)
  • the Yalta Conference (E7)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday
  • the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 埃及女王克利奥帕特拉被生产的事件(E67)
  • 埃尔科拉诺在公元79年的被火山爆发所摧毁的事件(E6)
  • 第二次世界大战 (E7)
  • 斯大林格勒战役(E7)
  • 雅尔塔会议 (E7)
  • 我的生日会-1995年6月28日 (E7)
  • 上星期天从我家屋顶的屋瓦掉落下来的事件
  • 2003年CIDOC会议 (E7)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E5(x) ⇒ E4(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
E6 Destruction
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Destruction
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Zerstörung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Καταστροφή
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Destruction
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Destruição
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Разрушение
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
破坏
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E64
Daseinsende
Τέλος Ύπαρξης
Fin d’existence
Fim da Existência
Конец Существования
结束
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing, such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction can be documented by classifying the event as both an instance of E6 Destruction and of E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed, or modified is context-sensitive:

  1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as an instance of E6 Destruction.
  2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.
  3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as an instance of E11 Modification.
unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.

2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.

3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst Ereignisse, die eine oder mehrere Instanzen von E18 Materielles zerstören, so dass sie ihre Identität als Gegenstand der Dokumentation verlieren.

Einige Zerstörungsereignisse sind beabsichtigt (vorsätzlich), während andere unabhängig von menschlicher Aktivität sind. Absichtliche Zerstörung kann durch das Klassifizieren des Ereignisses sowohl als E6 Zerstörung wie auch als E7 Handlung dokumentiert werden.

Die Entscheidung, einen Gegenstand als zerstört, transformiert oder verändert zu dokumentieren, ist abhängig von der jeweiligen Einschätzung der Situation:

Wenn die von der Zerstörung übrig bleibenden Dinge nicht dokumentiert sind, wird das Ereignis allein als Instanz der Klasse E6 Zerstörung modelliert.

Wenn sich die Zerstörung von einem oder mehreren Objekten in der gleichzeitigen Herstellung anderer Objekte äußert, die Teile oder Material des Originales benutzen, wird das Ereignis als Instanz der Klasse E81 Umwandlung dokumentiert. In diesem Fall haben die neuen Gegenstände von den Zerstörten getrennte Identitäten; d. h. die Sache wird bewahrt, aber nicht ihre Identität.

Wenn die Anfangsidentität einer veränderten Instanz der Klasse E18 Materielles bewahrt wird, sollte das Ereignis als Instanz der Klasse E11 Bearbeitung dokumentiert werden.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Stuff such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.

2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.

3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Stuff is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνεισυμβάντα που καταστρέφουν μια ή περισσότερες πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Πράγματος (E18), με τρόπο ώστε να χάνουν την ταυτότητά τους ως υποκείμενα τεκμηρίωσης.

Ορισμένες καταστροφές είναι σκόπιμες, ενώ άλλες είναι ανεξάρτητες από την ανθρώπινη δραστηριότητα. Η σκόπιμη καταστροφή μπορεί να τεκμηριωθεί ταξινομώντας το συμβάν τόσο ως Καταστροφή (E6) όσο και ως Δράση (E7).

Η απόφαση να τεκμηριωθεί ένα αντικείμενο ως κατεστραμμένο, αντικείμενο που έχει υποστεί μετατροπή ή τροποποίηση εξαρτάται από τα συμφραζόμενα:

1. Εάν το υλικό που απομένει από την καταστροφή δεν έχει τεκμηριωθεί, τότε το συμβάν μοντελοποιείται αποκλειστικά ως Καταστροφή (E6).

2. Ένα συμβάν θα πρέπει επίσης να τεκμηριώνεται χρησιμοποιώντας την Μετατροπή (E81), εάν έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την καταστροφή ενός ή περισσοτέρων αντικειμένων και την ταυτόχρονη παραγωγή άλλων, χρησιμοποιώντας μέρη ή υλικό από το πρωτότυπο. Στην περίπτωση αυτή, τα νέα στοιχεία έχουν διαφορετικές ταυτότητες. Το υλικό διατηρείται, όχι όμως και η ταυτότητα.

3. Όταν διατηρείται η αρχική ταυτότητα της αλλαγμένης πραγμάτωσης του Υλικού Πράγματος (E18), το συμβάν θα πρέπει να τεκμηριώνεται ως Τροποποίηση (E11).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an instance of E6 Destruction and of E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

  1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as an instance of E6 Destruction.
  2. An event should also be documented as an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.
  3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as an instance of E11 Modification.
English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend des évènements qui détruisent une ou plusieurs instances de E18_Chose_matérielle, de sorte qu'elles perdent leur identité en tant que sujets de documentation.

Certains évènements de destruction sont intentionnels, tandis que d'autres ne dépendent pas de l'activité humaine. La destruction intentionnelle peut être documentée en classant l'évènement à la fois comme une instance de E6_Destruction et de E7_Activité.

La décision de documenter un objet comme détruit, transformé ou modifié est contextuelle :

  • Si la matière résiduelle de la destruction n'est pas documentée, l'évènement est modélisé uniquement comme une instance de E6_Destruction.

  • Un évènement doit également être documenté en tant qu'instance de E81_Transformation s'il aboutit à la destruction d'un ou de plusieurs objets et à la production simultanée d'autres objets en utilisant des parties ou des matériaux de l'original. Dans ce cas, les nouveaux éléments ont des identités distinctes. La matière est préservée, mais l'identité ne l’est pas.

  • Lorsque l'identité initiale de l'instance modifiée de E18_Chose_matérielle est préservée, l'évènement doit être documenté en tant qu'instance de E11_Modification.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.

2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.

3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает события, которые разрушают один или более экземпляров класса E18.Материальный Предмет таким образом, что они теряют свою идентификацию как предметы, подтвержденные документами. Некоторые деструктивные события являются преднамеренными, в то время как другие не зависят от деятельности человека. Намеренная деструкция может быть задокументирована путем классификации данного события как E6.Разрушение, или как и E7.Деятельность. Решение задокументировать объект как разрушенный, трансформированный или модифицированный определяется точным контекстом. 1. Если предмет, оставшийся после деструкции не задокументирован, событие моделируется исключительно как E6.Разрушение. 2. Событие также должно быть задокументировано при помощи E81.Трансформация, если оно приводит к разрушению одного или более объектов и одновременному производству других с использованием частей или материала оригинала. Предмет остается, а идентичность - нет. 3. Если первоначальная идентичность измененного экземпляра класса E18.Материальный Предмет сохраняется, то событие должно быть задокументировано как E11.Событие Изменения.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.

2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.

3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵摧毁一个或多个E18-实体物的实例,以至它们失去文献所载之主题的身份。

有些摧毁事件是人为故意的,有些则与人类活动无关。在记载人为故意的摧毁事件时,可把它同时归类为E6-摧毁和E7-活动。

对象应归类为被摧毁、被转变或被修改取决於其相关背景:

1. 如果经摧毁后的对象没有被再记录下来,有关事件仅被归类为E6-摧毁。

2. 某事件若造成一个或多个对象被摧毁,同时又使用原件的零件或材料制作成其他对象,那么该事件就应被同时归类为E81-转变。在这种情况下,新生的物件拥有个别的身份(identity);材质虽然被保留下来,但物件的身份已变。

3. 若经改变后,E18-实体物的原始身份被保留下来,该事件应被记录为E11-修改。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (Camardo, 2013)
  • the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7) (River, 2016)
  • the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog (fictitious)
unaltered since version 7.1 / March 2021
previous value in version 7.0.1
  • the destruction of Lisbon by earthquake in 1755
  • the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7)
  • the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog
  • the shooting of the last wolf (‘Canis lupus Linne, 1758’) of the Rhineland/Germany, in Birreskopf/Eifel 1860 (now Museum Alexander Koenig inventory no.: ZFMK 86.385) (E6, E7)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Zerstörung von Lissabon durch ein Erdbeben im Jahr 1755 (E6 Zerstörung)
  • die Zerstörung von Niniveh (E6 Zerstörung, E7 Handlung)
  • das gestrige Zerbrechen eines Champagner Glases durch meinen Hund (E6 Zerstörung, E7 Handlung)
  • das Erschießen des letzten Wolfes (‚Canis lupus Linne, 1758‘) im Rheinland/ Deutschland im Jahre 1860 in Birresborn/Eifel (nun Museum Alexander Koenig Invnr. ZFMK 86.385) (E6 Zerstörung, E7 Handlung)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the destruction of Lisbon by earthquake in 1755
  • the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7)
  • the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog
  • the shooting of the last wolf (‘Canis lupus Linne, 1758’) of the Rhineland/Germany, in Birreskopf/Eifel 1860 (now Museum Alexander Koenig inventory no.: ZFMK 86.385) (E6, E7)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η καταστροφή της Λισαβόνας από σεισμό το 1755
  • η καταστροφή της Νινευή (E6, E7)
  • το σπάσιμο ενός ποτηριού σαμπάνιας από το σκύλο μου
  • το κυνήγι του τελευταίου λύκου (‘Canis lupus Linne, 1758’) της περιοχής Ρηνανία/Γερμανία στο Birreskopf/Eifel 1860 (τώρα Μουσείο Alexander Koenig αριθμός αποθήκης μουσείου: ZFMK 86.385) (E6, E7)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La destruction d'Herculanum par une éruption volcanique en 79 EC (E6_Destruction) (Camardo, 2013)
  • La destruction de Ninive (E6_Destruction, E7_Activité) (River, 2016)
  • Le bris d'une coupe de champagne hier par mon chien (fictif)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD
  • the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7)
  • the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 埃尔科拉诺在公元79年的被火山 爆发所摧毁的事件(E6)
  • 尼尼微城的灭亡 (E6, E7)
  • 我家狗儿昨天打破了香槟玻璃杯的事件(E6)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E6(x) ⇒ E64(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Thing
E7 Activity
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Activity
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Handlung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Δράση
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Activité
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Atividade
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Деятельность
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
活动
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
Ereignis
Συμβάν
Évènement
Evento
Событие
事件
SuperClass Of:
E8 Acquisition unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E9 Move unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E10 Transfer of Custody unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11 Modification unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E65 Creation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E66 Formation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E85 Joining unaltered since version 4.2.4 / March 2008
E86 Leaving unaltered since version 4.2.4 / March 2008
E87 Curation Activity unaltered since version 4.2.4 / March 2008
E8
Erwerb
Απόκτηση
Acquisition
Aquisição
Событие Приобретения
采访

E9
Objektbewegung
Μετακίνηση
Déplacement
Locomoção
Перемещение
移动

E10
Übertragung des Gewahrsams
Μεταβίβαση Κατοχής
Transfert de la garde
Transferência de Custódia
Передача Опеки
转移监护权

E11
Bearbeitung
Τροποποίηση
Modification
Modificação
Событие Изменения
修改

E13
Merkmalszuweisung
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
Assignation d’attribut
Atribuição de Característica
Присвоение Атрибута
属性赋值

E65
Begriffliche Schöpfung
Δημιουργία
Création
Criação
Событие Творения
创建

E66
Gruppenbildung
Συγκρότηση Ομάδας
Formation
Formação
Событие Формирования
组成

E85
Beitritt
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Adhésion
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
加入

E86
Austritt
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Départ
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
离开

E87
Kuratorische Tätigkeit
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Activité curatoriale
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
管理
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.

This notion includes complex, composite, and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004

Diese Klasse umfasst Instanzen absichtlicher Handlungen, die von Instanzen der Klasse E39 Akteur ausgeführt werden und zu Zustandsänderungen kultureller, sozialer oder physischer Systeme führen.

Diese Vorstellung schließt komplexe, zusammengesetzte und lang andauernde Aktionen wie den Bau einer Siedlung oder die Vorbereitung eines Krieges genauso mit ein, wie einfache, kurzlebige Aktionen, wie z. B. das Öffnen einer Tür.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει σκόπιμες ενέργειες πραγματώσεων του Δράστη (E39), που έχουν ως αποτέλεσμα αλλαγές στις καταστάσεις των πολιτισμικών, κοινωνικών ή φυσικών συστημάτων που τεκμηριώνονται.

Η έννοια αυτή περιλαμβάνει περίπλοκες, σύνθετες και μακροχρόνιες ενέργειες, όπως είναι η κατασκευή ενός οικισμού ή ένας πόλεμος, αλλά και απλές, βραχύβιες ενέργειες όπως το άνοιγμα μιας πόρτας.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Cette classe comprend les actions effectuées intentionnellement par des instances de E39_Actant qui ont pour résultat un changement d’état dans les systèmes culturels, sociaux ou physiques documentés.

Cette notion inclut des actions complexes, composées et de longue durée telles que la mise en place d’une occupation ou une guerre, de même que des actions simples et éphémères telles que l’ouverture d’une porte.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

Данный класс включает действия, намеренно выполняемые экземплярами класса E39.Актор, которые приводят к изменениям состояния в документируемых культурной, социальной или физической системах. Это понятие включает в себя комплексные, сложные и долговременные действия, такие как строительство поселка или война, а также простые краткосрочные действия, как, например, открывание двери.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005

此类别包涵E39-角色实例有意执行的行动,这些行动造成记录在案的文化、社会或物质 系统出现状态变化。此概念包涵复杂和长久的行动,例如聚居地的建立或战争,以及简 单和短暂的行动,例如开门。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
Examples:
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (Hoyt, 1993)
  • the Yalta Conference (Harbutt, 2010)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65) (Williams, 2020)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66) (Droste, 2006)
  • the people of Iraq giving the name ‘Quyunjig’ to the place identified by the TGN as ‘7017998’
  • Kira Weber working in glass art from 1984 to 1993
  • Kira Weber working in oil and pastel painting from 1993
unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2
  • the Battle of Stalingrad
  • the Yalta Conference
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
  • calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ ‘Quyunjig’ by the people of Iraq
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Schlacht von Stalingrad (E7 Handlung)
  • die Yalta-Konferenz (E7 Handlung)
  • meine Geburtstagsfeier am 28. Juni 1995 (E7 Handlung)
  • das Schreiben des „Faust“ durch Goethe (E65 Begriffliche Schöpfung)
  • die Bildung des Bauhaus 1919 (E66 Gruppenbildung)
  • die Benennung des Ortes identifiziert durch TGN ‚7017998‘ ‚Quyunjig‘ durch das irakische Volk.
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the Battle of Stalingrad
  • the Yalta Conference
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η μάχη του Στάλινγκραντ
  • η Διάσκεψη της Γιάλτας
  • ο εορτασμός της γέννησής μου στις 28-6-1995
  • η συγγραφή του «Φάουστ» από τον Γκαίτε (E65)
  • η ίδρυση του Μπάουχαους το 1919 (E66)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (Hoyt, 1993)
  • the Yalta Conference (Harbutt, 2010)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65) (Williams, 2020)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66) (Droste, 2006)
  • calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ ‘Quyunjig’ by the people of Iraq
  • Kira Weber working in glass art from 1984 to 1993
  • Kira Weber working in oil and pastel painting from 1993
English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
  • La bataille de Stalingrad (Hoyt, 1993)
  • La Conférence de Yalta (Harbutt 2010)
  • Ma fête d'anniversaire le 28/06/1995
  • L’écriture de Faust par Gœthe (E65_Création) (Williams, 2020)
  • La fondation du Bauhaus en 1919 (E66_Formation) (Droste, 2006)
  • L’utilisation par le peuple irakien du nom « Quyunjig » pour le lieu dont l’identifiant est TGN « 7017998 »
  • Kira Weber pratiquant l’art du verre de 1984 à 1993
  • Kira Weber pratiquant la peinture à l’huile et le pastel à partir de 1993
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the Battle of Stalingrad
  • the Yalta Conference
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
  • calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ ‘Quyunjig’ by the people of Iraq
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 斯大林格勒战役
  • 雅尔塔会议
  • 我的生日会-1995年6月28日
  • 哥德所撰写的“浮士德”(E65)
  • 1919年的包豪斯学校(Bauhaus)的成立 (E66)
  • 伊拉克人民把标识为TGN ‘7017998’的地方称为‘Quyunjig’的事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E7(x) ⇒ E5(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Human-Made Thing
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
E8 Acquisition
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Acquisition
unaltered since version 4.2 / June 2005
previous value in version 4.1
Erwerb
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Απόκτηση
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Acquisition
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Aquisição
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Событие Приобретения
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
采访
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动
SuperClass Of:
E96 Purchase unaltered since version 6.2.2 / September 2017 E96
Missing translation in 'German' language
Missing translation in 'Greek' language
Achat
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
Missing translation in 'Chinese' language
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of rights. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

  1. the beginning of ownership
  2. the end of ownership
  3. the transfer of ownership
  4. the acquisition from an unknown source
  5. the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example, by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of “accession” differs between institutions. The CIDOC CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

the beginning of ownership

the end of ownership

the transfer of ownership

the acquisition from an unknown source

the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst gesetzlich geregelte Übertragungen von Besitz. Der Besitz wird von einer oder mehr Instanzen der Klasse E39 Akteur zu einer anderen oder mehreren anderen Instanzen der Klasse E39 Akteur übertragen.

Die Klasse beschreibt sowohl die Gründung wie auch den Verlust von Besitz der Instanzen der Klasse E18 Materielles. Es impliziert allerdings keinerlei Änderungen anderer Instanzen der Klasse E30 Recht. Zudem ist es nicht nötig, dass ein Spender und/oder Empfänger überhaupt in Erscheinung tritt. Dabei ist es egal, ob die Spender oder Empfänger bekannt sind oder tatsächlich keine Information über deren Existenz vorhanden ist. Abhängig von den Umständen kann das Ereignis so beschrieben werden:

der Beginn des Besitzverhältnisses

das Ende des Besitzverhältnisses

die Übertragung eines Besitzverhältnisses

der Erwerb von einer unbekannten Quelle

der Verlust des Besitztitels auf Grund der Zerstörung des Gegenstands

Die Klasse kann auch Ereignisse beschreiben, bei denen sich ein Sammler den gesetzlichen Titel zum Beispiel durch Annektierung oder Feldbegehung aneignet. Die Interpretation dessen, was

„Akzession“ bedeutet, unterscheidet sich zwischen musealen Institutionen. Das CRM modelliert deswegen gesetzlich geregelten Besitz und den physischen Gewahrsam getrennt von einander. Museale Institutionen können damit ihre eigenen Vorstellungen von Akzession und De-Akzession als Kombinationen dieser Klassen ausdrücken.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Stuff. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition Event there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

the beginning of ownership

the end of ownership

the transfer of ownership

the acquisition from an unknown source

the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition Event) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει μεταφορές της νόμιμης ιδιοκτησίας από μια ή περισσότερες πραγματώσεις του Δράστη (E39) σε μια ή περισσότερες πραγματώσεις του Δράστη (E39).

Η κλάση αυτή ισχύει επίσης για την καθιέρωση ή απώλεια ιδιοκτησίας πραγματώσεων του Υλικού Πράγματος (E18). Ωστόσο, δεν υπονοεί αλλαγές οποιωνδήποτε άλλων πραγματώσεων του Δικαιώματος (E30). Η καταγραφή του δότη ή / και του παραλήπτη είναι προαιρετική. Είναι πιθανό ότι για μια πραγμάτωση της Απόκτησης Ε8 δεν υπάρχει ούτε δότης ούτε παραλήπτης. Ανάλογα με τις συνθήκες μπορεί να περιγράφει:

την έναρξη της ιδιοκτησίας

το τέλος της ιδιοκτησίας

την μεταφορά της ιδιοκτησίας

την απόκτηση από μια άγνωστη πηγή

την απώλεια του τίτλου εξαιτίας καταστροφής του στοιχείου

Μπορεί επίσης να περιγράφει συμβάντα, όπου ένας συλλέκτης αποκτά νόμιμο τίτλο, για παράδειγμα σε προσάρτηση ή επιφανειακή συλλογή. Η ερμηνεία της έννοιας των μουσείων περί "απόκτησης" διαφέρει από οργανισμό σε οργανισμό. Για τον λόγο αυτόν, το CIDOC CRM μοντελοποιεί τη νόμιμη ιδιοκτησία (Απόκτηση (E8)) και τη φυσική κατοχή (Μεταβίβαση Κατοχής (E10)) ξεχωριστά. Οι οργανισμοί στη συνέχεια θα μοντελοποιούν τη συγκεκριμένη έννοια που έχουν για την απόκτηση και απώλεια απόκτησης ως συνδυασμούς των παραπάνω.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

  1. the beginning of ownership
  2. the end of ownership
  3. the transfer of ownership
  4. the acquisition from an unknown source
  5. the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CIDOC CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend les transferts de propriété légale d'une ou de plusieurs instances de E39_Actant à une ou plusieurs instances de E39_Actant.

Cette classe s'applique aussi à l'établissement ou à la perte de propriété d'instances de E18_Chose_matérielle. Cependant, elle n'implique pas de changements quant à d'autres types de droits.

Le recensement du donneur et/ou du receveur de la propriété est optionnel et il est possible qu'une instance de E8_Acquisition n'ait pas de donneur ou pas de receveur. En fonction des circonstances, elle peut décrire :

  • le début de la propriété;

  • la fin de la propriété;

  • le transfert de la propriété;

  • l'acquisition auprès d'une source inconnue;

  • la perte du droit de propriété du fait de la destruction de ce qui en faisait l'objet.

Elle peut aussi décrire des évènements lors desquels une personne collectionnant s'approprie un droit de propriété légal du fait, par exemple, de l'annexion d'un ensemble contenant un élément ou de sa collecte sur un terrain.

L'interprétation de la notion muséale d'accession diffère d'une institution à l'autre, ce qui explique pourquoi le CIDOC CRM modélise différemment la propriété légale (E8_Acquisition) et la garde physique d'un élément (E10_Transfert_de_la_garde). Ainsi, les institutions peuvent modéliser leurs notions spécifiques d'accession et d'aliénation grâce à une combinaison de ces concepts.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

the beginning of ownership

the end of ownership

the transfer of ownership

the acquisition from an unknown source

the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс подразумевает передачу законного владения от одного или более экземпляров класса E39.Актор одному или более экземплярамв класса E39.Актор. Данный класс также применяется к установлению или потере владения экземплярами класса E18.Материальный Предмет. Однако сюда не входят изменения каких-либо экземпляров класса E30.Право. Здесь не требуется, чтобы донор или получатель (реципиент) присутствовал, был известен или даже существовал. В зависимости от обстоятельств класс может описывать: 1. Начало владения 2. Окончание владения. 3. Передача владения. 4. Приобретение от неизвестного источника. 5. Потеря прав из-за деструкции составляющей. Класс может также описывать события, в которых получатель присваивает юридическое право, например, путем присоединения или коллекционирования. Толкование музейного термина “поступление” различно в разных институтах. Следовательно, CRM отдельно определяет законное владение и физическое хранение (попечение). Различные институты сформулируют свои специфические понятия терминов “поступление” и “утеря/утрата” как комбинации данных терминов.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

the beginning of ownership

the end of ownership

the transfer of ownership

the acquisition from an unknown source

the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵把一个或多个E39-角色实例身上的法律所有权转移至另一个或多个 E39-角色实例身上。

此类别也适用於E18-实体物实例在所有权的建立或丧失上。然而这不意味着其他权益的变化。实务上可选择是否要记录捐赠者和/或接受者姓名。有可能会在E8-取得实例中出现没有捐赠者或接受者的情况。根据情况,此类别可描述:

所有权的开始

所有权的结束

所有权的转移

来源不详的取得事件

项目被毁造成所有权丧失的事件

此类别也用於描述收藏者通过兼并(annexation) 或实地采集(field collection)等途径获取法律所有权的事件。由於各机构对博物馆的所谓“入藏”(accession)概念在诠释上各有不同,CRM因此在建模上将法律所有权(E8-取得)和对象保管权(E10-保管作业转移)区分开来。各机构便可利用E8-取得和E10-保管作业转移类别两个事件的适当组合,来描述该机构对 “入藏”和“除藏”(deaccession)所持有的特定概念。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the collection of a hammerhead shark, genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes), by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on 25th March 1940. (Steinbeck, 2000)
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s “The Apostles Peter and Paul” by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg. (https://hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/digital-collection/01.+Paintings/32730)
  • the loss of my stuffed Fringilla coelebs due to insect damage last year (fictitious)
unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2
  • the collection of a hammer-head shark of the genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) XXXtbc by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s painting entitled ‘The Apostles Peter and Paul’ by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
  • the loss of my stuffed chaffinch ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ due to insect damage last year
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • der Fang eines Hammerhaies der Gattung Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) durch John Steinbeck und Edward Ricketts bei Puerto Escondido im Golf von Mexiko am 25. März 1940
  • der Erwerb von El Greco’s „Die Apostel Peter und Paul“ durch die Erimitage in St. Petersburg
  • der letzjährige Verlust meines ausgestopften Buchfinken (Fringilla-coelebs Linneus 1758) durch Insektenfraß
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the collection of a hammer-head sharkof the genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s “The Apostles Peter and Paul” by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
  • the loss of my stuffed chaffinch ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ due to insect damage last year
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η περισυλλογή ενός καρχαρία σφυροκέφαλου του γένους Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) από τον John Steinbeck και τον Edward Ricketts στο Πουέρτο Ρίκο Εσκοντίντο στον Κόλπο του Μεξικού στις 25. Μαρτίου 1940
  • η απόκτηση του πίνακα του Ελ Γκρέκο “Οι Απόστολοι Πέτρος και Παύλος” από το Ερμιτάζ στην Αγία Πετρούπολη
  • η απώλεια του ταριχευμένου σπίνου μου ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ εξαιτίας φθοράς από έντομα τον περασμένο χρόνο
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • the collection of a hammer-head shark of the genus Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 (Carchariniformes) by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on 25th March 1940. (Steinbeck, 2000)
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s painting entitled ‘The Apostles Peter and Paul’ by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg. (https://hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/digital-collection/01.+Paintings/32730)
  • the loss of my stuffed chaffinch ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ due to insect damage last year (fictitious)
English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
  • La collecte d'un requin-marteau du genre Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 (ordre des Carcharhiniformes) par John Steinbeck et Edward Ricketts à Puerto Escondido dans le golfe du Mexique le 25 mars 1940 (Steinbeck, 2000)
  • L'acquisition de l'œuvre peinte du Greco intitulée Saint Pierre et Saint Paul par le musée d'État de l'Ermitage à Saint-Pétersbourg (https://hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/digital-collection/01.+Paintings/32730)
  • La perte de mon pinson empaillé, de l'espèce Fringilla cœlebs Linnæus, 1758, en raison de dommages infligés par des insectes l'année dernière (fictif)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the collection of a hammer-head shark of the genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) XXXtbc by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s painting entitled ‘The Apostles Peter and Paul’ by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
  • the loss of my stuffed chaffinch ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ due to insect damage last year
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 1940年3月25日,约翰·斯坦贝克(John Steinbeck)和爱德华·里克茨(Edward Ricketts)在墨西哥湾埃斯孔迪多港(Puerto Escondido)收藏了一条属於双髻鲨属(白眼鲛目)XXXtbc的槌头双髻鲨的事件。
  • 圣彼得堡冬宫博物馆取得了埃尔葛雷柯的圣经画《彼得和保罗》的事件
  • 我的苍头燕雀标本(一种欧洲鸣禽,林奈在1758年将之命名为Fringilla coelebs〕被虫害损坏的事件。
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E8(x) ⇒ E7(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E18 Physical Thing
E9 Move
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Move
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Objektbewegung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Μετακίνηση
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Déplacement
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Locomoção
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Перемещение
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
移动
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object.

Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004

Diese Klasse umfasst Änderungen des physischen Standortes von Instanzen der Klasse E19 Materieller Gegenstand.

Es ist anzumerken, dass eine Objektbewegung die Eigenschaft P7 fand statt in (bezeugte): E53 Ort erbt. Diese Eigenschaft sollte benutzt werden, um entweder einzelne Stationen oder ein größeres Gebiet zu beschreiben, innerhalb dessen eine Bewegung stattfindet.

Die Eigenschaften P26 bewegte bis zu (war Zielort von), P27 bewegte weg von (war Ausgangsort von) beschreiben nur die Ausgangs- und Endpunkte. Bewegungen können auch so dokumentiert werden, dass sie sich aus anderen Bewegungen zusammensetzen via P9 setzt sich zusammen aus (bildet Teil von), um dazwischen liegende Stufen in einer Abfolge zu beschreiben. Im Fall, dass Ausgangs- und Endpunkte nur Teilstrecken von Bewegungen darstellen, sollten die einzelnen Bewegungen in das Gesamtereignis folgerichtig eingebettet sein.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει αλλαγές στον φυσικό τόπο των πραγματώσεων του Υλικού Αντικειμένου (E19).

Σημειώστε, ότι η κλάση Μετακίνηση (E9) κληρονομεί την ιδιότητα P7 έλαβε χώρα σε (υπήρξε τόπος του): E53 Τόπος. Η ιδιότητα αυτή θα πρέπει να χρησιμοποιείται για να περιγράψει την εμβέλεια ή μια ευρύτερη περιοχή εντός της οποίας πραγματοποιείται μια μετακίνηση, ενώ οι ιδιότητες P26 μετακινήθηκε προς (ήταν προορισμός του/της), P27 μετακινήθηκε από (ήταν αφετηρία του/της) περιγράφουν τα σημεία εκκίνησης και τέλους μόνον. Μετακινήσεις μπορούν επίσης να τεκμηριωθούν ως μέρη άλλων μετακινήσεων (μέσω της P9 αποτελείται από (αποτελεί μέρος του/της)), προκειμένου να περιγραφούν ενδιάμεσα στάδια μιας εμβέλειας. Στην περίπτωση αυτή, το σημείο εκκίνησης και τέλους των τμηματικών μετακινήσεων θα πρέπει να ταιριάζουν επακριβώς μεταξύ τους, αλλά και με το συνολικό συμβάν.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Cette classe comprend les changements de localisation physique des instances de E19_Objet_matériel.

À noter que la classe E9_Déplacement hérite de la propriété P7_a_eu_lieu_dans (a_été_témoin_de) : E53_Lieu. Cette propriété doit être utilisée pour décrire la trajectoire ou la zone géographique plus large dans laquelle un déplacement a lieu, tandis que les propriétés P26_a_déplacé_vers (a_été_la_destination_de) et P27_a_déplacé_depuis (a_été_le_point_de_départ_de) décrivent uniquement les points de départ et d’arrivée. Les instances de E9_Déplacement peuvent également être documentées de telle manière qu'elles comprennent d'autres déplacements (via P9_comprend (fait_partie_de)) afin de décrire des étapes intermédiaires d'une trajectoire. Dans ce cas, il faut assurer la correspondance des points de départ et d'arrivée des déplacements intermédiaires, que ce soit entre eux ou avec l'évènement global.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

Данный класс охватывает изменения физического расположения экземпляров класса E19.Материальный Объект. Следует помнить, что класс E9.Перемещение наследует свойство P7.совершался на (было местом совершения) : E53.Место. Это свойство следует использовать для описания траектории или большей площади в пределах которой происходит движение, тогда как свойства P26.перемещен в (было пунктом назначения для) и P27.перемещен из (было исходной точкой отправки для) описывают только отправной и конечный пункты. Виды движения могут быть также задокументированы как состоящие из других видов движения (посредством свойства P9.состоит из (является частью)), для того чтобы описать промежуточные части на траектории движения. В этом случае, отправной и конечный пункты частных случаев движения следует соответственно соотнести друг с другом и с общим событием.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005

此类别包涵E19-实体物件实例在物质地点上的改变。

注意E9-移动类别继承P7-发生地在(发生过〕:E53-地点的属性。此属性应被用於形容实现移动的轨迹或较大场地,而P26-移入物件至(被作为移入地於)P27-有移出地(被作为移出地於)只形容起点和终点部分。在移动事件的记录上也可包括其他移动(通过P9-包含子时期(附属於〕〕,以便描述在轨迹上的中间阶段。在这种情况下,局部移动的起点和终点应互相符合,也应与整体事件符合。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
Examples:
  • the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA (Wildfang, 2005)
  • the movement of the exhibition “Tutankhamun: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh” between 15th September and 2nd November 2019
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA
  • the movement of the exhibition “Treasures of Tutankhamun” 1976-1979
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Verlagerung der London Bridge aus Großbritannien in die USA
  • die unterschiedlichen Stationen der Ausstellung „Treasures of Tutankhamun“ in den Jahren von 1976 bis 1979
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA
  • the movement of the exhibition “Treasures of Tutankhamun” 1976-1979
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η μετακίνηση της London Bridge από το Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο της Η.Π.Α.
  • η μετακίνηση της έκθεσης “Θησαυροί του Τουταγχαμών” 1976-1979
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La relocalisation du pont de Londres du Royaume-Uni vers les États-Unis (Wildfang, 2005)
  • Le déplacement de l’exposition « Trésors du pharaon d’or » entre le 15 septembre et le 2 novembre 2019
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA
  • the movement of the exhibition “Treasures of Tut-Ankh-Amun” 1976-1979
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 伦敦大桥从英国迁至美国的事件
  • “埃及图坦阿蒙王之宝藏”(“Treasures of Tut·ankh·a·mun”)展览於1976至1979的移动事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E9(x) ⇒ E7(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object
P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place
P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place
E10 Transfer of Custody
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Transfer of Custody
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Übertragung des Gewahrsams
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Μεταβίβαση Κατοχής
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Transfert de la garde
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Transferência de Custódia
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Передача Опеки
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
转移监护权
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of the physical custody or the legal responsibility for the physical custody of objects. The recording of the donor or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient.

Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

  1. the beginning of custody (there is no previous custodian)
  2. the end of custody (there is no subsequent custodian)
  3. the transfer of custody (transfer from one custodian to the next)
  4. the receipt of custody from an unknown source (the previous custodian is unknown)
  5. the declared loss of an object (the current or subsequent custodian is unknown)

In the event that only a single kind of transfer of custody occurs, either the legal responsibility for the custody or the actual physical possession of the object but not both, this difference should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of).

The sense of physical possession requires that the object of custody be in the hands of the keeper at least with a part representative for the whole. The way, in which a representative part is defined, should ensure that it is unambiguous who keeps a part and who the whole and should be consistent with the identity criteria of the kept instance of E18 Physical Thing.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CIDOC CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

Theft is a specific case of illegal transfer of custody.

unaltered since version 7.1 / March 2021
previous value in version 7.0.1

This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.

The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:

the beginning of custody

the end of custody

the transfer of custody

the receipt of custody from an unknown source

the declared loss of an object

The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst Übertragungen von in physischem Gewahrsam befindlichen Gegenständen zwischen Instanzen der Klasse E39 Akteur.

Die Klasse E10 Übertragung des Gewahrsams benötigt keine Angaben über Geber und/oder Empfänger, unabhängig ob sie bekannt sind oder sogar existieren. Die Klasse beschreibt in Abhängigkeit der Umstände:

den Anfang des Gewahrsamsverhältnisses

das Ende des Gewahrsamsverhältnisses

die Übertragung des Gewahrsamsverhältnisses

die Bestätigung der Übernahme des Gewahrsams aus einer unbekannten Quelle

den erklärten Verlust eines Gegenstandes

Die Unterscheidung zwischen der gesetzlichen Verantwortung des Gewahrsams und dem eigentlichen dinglichen Besitz des Gegenstandes sollte durch die Eigenschaft P2 hat den Typus (ist Ty pus von) ausgedrückt werden. Ein bestimmter Fall der Übertragung von Gewahrsam ist der Diebstahl.

Die Interpretation dessen, was „Akzession“ bedeutet, unterscheidet sich zwischen musealen Institutionen. Das CRM modelliert deswegen gesetzlich geregelten Besitz und den physischen Gewahrsam getrennt von einander. Museale Institutionen können damit ihre eigenen Vorstellungen von Akzession und De-Akzession als Kombinationen dieser Klassen ausdrücken.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.

The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:

the beginning of custody

the end of custody

the transfer of custody

the receipt of custody from an unknown source

the declared loss of an object

The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει μεταφορές φυσικής κατοχής αντικειμένων μεταξύ πραγματώσεων του Δράστη (E39).

Η καταγραφή του δότη ή / και του παραλήπτη είναι προαιρετική. Είναι πιθανό ότι για μια πραγμάτωση της Μεταβίβασης Κατοχής Ε10 δεν υπάρχει ούτε δότης ούτε παραλήπτης. (Ανάλογα με τις συνθήκες μπορεί να περιγράφει:

την αρχή της κατοχής

το τέλος της κατοχής

τη μεταβίβαση κατοχής

η παραλαβή κατοχής από μια άγνωστη πηγή

τη δηλούμενη απώλεια ενός αντικειμένου

Η διάκριση ανάμεσα στην νομική ευθύνη για την κατοχή και την πραγματική φυσική κατοχή του αντικειμένου θα πρέπει να εκφράζεται με τη χρήση της ιδιότητας P2 έχει τύπο (είναι ο τύπος του/της). Μία ιδιαίτερη περίπτωση μεταβίβασης κατοχής είναι και η κλοπή.

Η ερμηνεία της έννοιας των μουσείων περί "απόκτησης" διαφέρει από οργανισμό σε οργανισμό. Για τον λόγο αυτόν, το CIDOC CRM μοντελοποιεί τη νόμιμη ιδιοκτησία και τη φυσική κατοχή ξεχωριστά. Οι οργανισμοί στη συνέχεια θα μοντελοποιούν τη συγκεκριμένη έννοια για την απόκτηση και απώλεια απόκτησης ως συνδυασμούς των παραπάνω.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend les transferts de la garde physique ou de la responsabilité légale de la garde physique d’objets. Le recensement du donneur ou du receveur est optionnel. Il est possible qu’une instance de E10_Transfert_de_la_garde n’ait pas de donneur ou pas de receveur.

En fonction des circonstances, elle peut décrire :

  • le début de la garde (il n’existe pas de gardien précédent);

  • la fin de la garde (il n’existe pas de gardien suivant);

  • le transfert de la garde (transfert d’un gardien au gardien suivant);

  • la réception de la garde provenant d’une source inconnue (le gardien précédent n’est pas connu);

  • la perte déclarée d’un objet (le gardien actuel ou suivant n’est pas connu).

Dans l’éventualité où un seul type de transfert de la garde se produit, soit la responsabilité de la garde, soit la possession physique, mais pas les deux, il convient de le préciser en utilisant la propriété P2_a_pour_type (est_le_type_de).

La notion de possession physique implique qu’au moins une portion représentative de l’objet se trouve dans les mains de son gardien. La manière dont on documente la possession de la portion représentative d’un objet doit définir d’une manière non ambiguë quel actant détient cette portion et quelle actant détient l’objet entier et doit être cohérent avec le critère d’identité de l’instance possédée de E18_Chose_matérielle.

L’interprétation de la notion muséale d’« accession » diffère selon les institutions. Pour cette raison, le CIDOC CRM modélise séparément la propriété légale et la garde physique d’un objet. Les institutions peuvent ainsi modéliser leurs notions spécifiques d’accession et d’aliénation en les combinant toutes deux.

Le vol est un cas spécifique de transfert illégal de la garde.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.

The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:

the beginning of custody

the end of custody

the transfer of custody

the receipt of custody from an unknown source

the declared loss of an object

The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс включает передачу физического хранения объектов между экземплярами класса E39.Актор. E10.Передача Опеки не требует, чтобы донор или получатель (реципиент) присутствовал, был известен или даже существовал. В зависимости от обстоятельств класс может описывать: 1. Начало опеки 2. Окончание опеки. 3. Передачу опеки. 4. Объявленную утерю объекта. Различия между юридической ответственностью за попечительство и фактическое физическое владение объектом следует выражать, используя свойство P2.имеет тип (является типом). Особый случай передачи опеки – кража. Толкование музейного термина “поступление” различно в разных институтах. Следовательно, CRM отдельно определяет законное владение и физическое хранение (попечение). Различные институты сформулируют свои специфические понятия терминов “поступление” и “утеря/утрата” как комбинации данных терминов.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.

The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:

the beginning of custody

the end of custody

the transfer of custody

the receipt of custody from an unknown source

the declared loss of an object

The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵E39-角色实例之间对物件保管作业的转移。

可选择是否要记录捐赠者和/或接受者姓名。另外,有可能会出现没有捐赠者或接受者的E10-保管作业转移实例的情况。根据情况此类别可描述:

保管作业的开始

保管作业的结束

保管作业的转移

从来源不详处获取物件来保管

已宣告的对象遗失

合法物件保管作业移转及实际保管作业移转的区别可通过P2-有类型(被用来分类〕进行描述。盗窃算保管作业的转移是的一个具体实例。

各机构对博物馆所谓的“入藏”概念在诠释上各有不同。就此CRM在建模时把法律所有权和实际保管进行区分。各机构在建模时可根据对入藏和除藏所持有的特定概念在建模上适当利用上述二类别的组合。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
  • the return of Picasso’s “Guernica” to Madrid’s Prado in 1981 (Chipp, 1988)
  • the transfer of custody of the work described as “Von der Velden ein Ufer an der See” from Johann Matthäus von Merian to the Auction House Heldevier (Jacob) for the purpose of sale, ca. 1716
  • the transfer of custody of the painting ‘Mrs. Fitzherbert’ to the art dealer Knoedler from Parke-Bernet Galleries (New York, NY, USA) ca. March 1941
unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
  • the return of Picasso’s “Guernica” to Madrid’s Prado in 1981
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Lieferung der Gemälde durch Secure Deliveries Inc. an die National Galery
  • die Rückkehr von Picassos Guernica in den Prado (Madrid) im Jahre 1981
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
  • the return of Picasso’s “Guernica” to Madrid’s Prado in 1981
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η παράδοση των πινάκων από την Secure Deliveries Inc. στην National Gallery
  • η επιστροφή του πίνακα του Πικάσο, «Γκερνίκα» στο μουσείο Prado της Μαδρίτης το 1981
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La livraison d’œuvres peintes par Secure Deliveries Inc. à la National Gallery
  • Le retour du tableau de Picasso Guernica au musée du Prado à Madrid en 1981 (Chipp, 1988)
  • Le transfert de la garde de l’œuvre Von der Velden ein Ufer an der See de Johann Matthäus von Merian à l'hôtel des ventes Heldevier (Jacob) en vue de sa vente, vers 1716
  • Le transfert de la garde de l’œuvre peinte Mrs. Fitzherbert au marchand d’art Knœdler depuis [n.d.t. la maison de vente aux enchères] Parke-Bernet Galleries (New York, NY, États-Unis), vers mars 1941
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
  • the return of Picasso’s “Guernica” to Madrid’s Prado in 1981
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 一个绘画作品由“安全运送”公司运送到国家美术馆的保管作业移转事件
  • 1981年,毕加索名画《格尔尼卡》(Guernica)归还马德里普拉多美术馆的保管作业移转事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E10(x) ⇒ E7(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor
P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through): E18 Physical Thing
E11 Modification
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Modification
unaltered since version 4.2 / June 2005
previous value in version 4.1
Bearbeitung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Τροποποίηση
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Modification
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Modificação
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Событие Изменения
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
修改
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动
SuperClass Of:
E12 Production unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E79 Part Addition unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E80 Part Removal unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E12
Herstellung
Παραγωγή
Production
Produção
Событие Производства
生产

E79
Teilhinzufügung
Προσθήκη Μερών
Ajout d'élément
Adição de Parte
Добавление Части
部分增加

E80
Teilentfernung
Αφαίρεση Μερών
Retrait d'élément
Remoção de Parte
Удаление Части
部分去除
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E7 Activity that are undertaken to create, alter or change instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials and other so far undocumented objects. It also includes the conservation treatment of an object.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in an instance of E11 Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

An activity undertaken on an object which was designed to alter it, but which, in fact, it did not in any seemingly significant way (such as the application of a solvent during conservation which failed to dissolve any part of the object), is still considered as an instance of E11 Modification. Typically, any such activity will leave at least forensic traces of evidence on the object.

If the instance of E29 Design or Procedure utilized for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using property P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material of E29 Design or Procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

unaltered since version 7.1 / March 2021
previous value in version 7.0.1

This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilised for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using properties of the design or procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst alle Instanzen der Klasse E7 Handlung, die eine Instanz der Klasse E24 Hergestelltes erschaffen, variieren oder verändern.

Diese Klasse erstreckt sich auf die Herstellung eines Gegenstandes aus Rohstoffen und anderer bisher undokumentierter Gegenstände, so wie vorbeugender Behandlungen oder Restaurierungsmaßnahmen an einem Gegenstand.

Da die Unterscheidung zwischen Modifikation (Veränderung) und Herstellung nicht immer klar ist, wird die Modifikation als das allgemeiner anwendbare begriffliche Konzept betrachtet. Dies impliziert, dass einige Gegenstände in einem Modifikationsereignis verbraucht oder zerstört werden können, während andere Gegenstände als ein Ergebnis des Ereignisses produziert werden können. Wenn sich die Zerstörung von einem oder mehreren Objekten in der gleichzeitigen Herstellung anderer Objekte äußert, die Teile oder Material des Originales benutzen, wird das Ereignis als Instanz der Klasse E81 Umwandlung dokumentiert. In diesem Fall haben die neuen Gegenstände von den Zerstörten getrennte Identitäten; d. h. die Sache wird bewahrt, aber nicht ihre Identität.

Wenn die Instanz der Klasse E29 Entwurf oder Verfahren für Modifikationsanweisungen zur Verwendung eines bestimmten Materials gebraucht wird, sollten diese über die Eigenschaften der Klasse E29 Entwurf oder Verfahren dokumentiert werden und nicht über die Eigenschaft P126 verwendete (wurde verwendet bei): E57 Material.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a modification event, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilised for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using properties of the design or procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει όλες τις πραγματώσεις της Δράσης (E7) που δημιουργούν, μετατρέπουν ή αλλάζουν το Ανθρωπογενές Υλικό Πράγμα (E24).

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει την παραγωγή ενός στοιχείου από ακατέργαστα υλικά, και άλλων, έως τώρα μη τεκμηριωμένων αντικειμένων, όπως και την προληπτική αντιμετώπιση ή αποκατάσταση ενός αντικειμένου για συντήρηση.

Καθώς η διάκριση ανάμεσα στην τροποποίηση και παραγωγή δεν είναι πάντοτε σαφής, η τροποποίηση θεωρείται ως μια γενικότερα εφαρμόσιμη έννοια. Αυτό υπονοεί ότι ορισμένα στοιχεία μπορούν να καταναλωθούν ή να καταστραφούν σε μια τροποποίηση, και ότι άλλα μπορούν να παραχθούν ως αποτέλεσμά της. Ένα συμβάν θα πρέπει επίσης να τεκμηριώνεται χρησιμοποιώντας την Μετατροπή (E81) εφόσον καταλήγει στην καταστροφή ενός ή περισσοτέρων αντικειμένων και την ταυτόχρονη παραγωγή άλλων, χρησιμοποιώντας μέρη ή υλικά από τα αρχικά. Στην περίπτωση αυτή, τα νέα στοιχεία έχουν ξεχωριστές ταυτότητες.

Εάν οι πραγματώσεις του Σχεδίου (E29) που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν στην τροποποίηση περιγράφουν τη χρήση συγκεκριμένων υλικών, θα πρέπει να τεκμηριώνονται χρησιμοποιώντας μάλλον ιδιότητες του Σχεδίου (Ε29) αντί μέσω της P126 χρησιμοποίησε (χρησιμοποιήθηκε σε): E57 Υλικό.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend des instances de E7_Activité qui sont entreprises pour créer, altérer ou changer des instances de E24_Chose_matérielle_élaborée_par_l’humain.

Cette classe inclut la production d'une entité à partir de matières premières et d'autres objets jusqu'à maintenant non documentés. Elle inclut également le traitement de conservation d'un objet.

Puisque la distinction entre une modification et une production n'est pas toujours claire, la modification est considérée comme le concept dont l'application est la plus générale. Cela implique que certaines entités peuvent être consommées ou détruites, mais aussi produites à la suite d'une instance de E11_Modification. Un évènement doit aussi être documenté en utilisant une instance de E81_Transformation s'il en résulte la destruction d'un ou de plusieurs objets et la production simultanée d'autres objets issus de parties ou de matériaux provenant des originaux. Dans ce cas, les nouvelles entités ont des identités distinctes de celles des entités détruites.

Une activité entreprise sur un objet en vue de l'altérer, mais qui n'a concrètement produit aucune altération significative (comme l'application d'un solvant au cours d'un traitement de conservation qui n'a permis de dissoudre aucune partie de l'objet) est quand même considérée comme une instance de E11_Modification. Typiquement, toute activité de ce type laissera au moins des traces décelables scientifiquement sur l'objet.

Si l'instance de E29_Conceptualisation_ou_procédure utilisée pour la modification prescrit l'utilisation de matériaux spécifiques, ils doivent être documentés en utilisant la propriété P68_prévoit_l’usage_de (usage_prévu_de) : E57_Matériau, plutôt que la propriété P126_a_employé (a_été_employé_dans) : E57_Matériau.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilised for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using properties of the design or procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает все экземпляры класса E7.Деятельность, которые создают, видоизменяют или меняют экземпляры класса E24.Материальный Продукт Деятельности Человека. Этот класс включает производство предмета из сырья и других материалов, вплоть до незадокументированных объектов, а также профилактические меры или реставрацию объекта для хранения. Т.к. различия между модификацией и созданием (производством) не всегда очевидны, то модификация рассматривается как более широко понимаемое понятие. Это предполагает, что некоторые предметы могут потребляться или разрушаться в событии модификации, а другие могут создаваться как результат такового. Событие должно быть также задокументировано с использованием класса E81.Трансформация, если оно приводит к деструкции одного или более объектов и одновременному производству других, используя части или материал оригиналов. В данном случае, новые предметы имеют отдельные идентичности. Если экземпляр класса E29.Проект или Процедура, применявшийся для модификации, предписывает использование особых материалов, они должны быть задокументированы с использованием свойств класса E29.Проект или Процедура, нежели посредством свойства P126.применяло (был применен в) : E57.Материал.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilised for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using properties of the design or procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵E7-活动的所有实例,这些实例足以创造、修改或改变E24-人造实体物。

此类别包括对象从原料的生产、其他从未记录的对象,以及为保存对象所执行的预防性处理或修复工作。

修改(modification)和生产(producetion)之间的分别有时并不明确,因此我们把修改视为更具有普遍应用性的概念。这意味着某些项目在一次修改事件中可能会被消耗或毁灭,并且会因此产生其他项目。如果某事件造成一个或多个对象的摧毁,但同时促成使用原件的零件或材料制作其他项目,那么该事件应被归纳为E81-转变类别。在这种情况下,新的项目拥有了个别的身份(identity)。

如果用於进行修改的E29-设计或程序实例规定必须使用某特定材料,就必须在记录上沿用 E29-设计或程序的属性,而不是采用P126-采用了材料(被使用於〕:E57-材料的属性

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12) (Gregor, 1971)
  • the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956 (Håfors, 2010)
  • the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81) (Yakel, 2000)
  • the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan (Cali and Dougil, 2012)
unaltered since version 6.2.9 / April 2020
previous value in version 6.2.8
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12)
  • the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956
  • the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81)
  • the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Konstruktion des Segelschiffes Great Britain (E12 Herstellung)
  • die Imprägnierung zur Erhaltung des Kriegsschiffes Vasa in Stockholm seit dem Jahr
  • 1956 (E11 Bearbeitung)
  • die Umwandlung des Kriegsflugzeuges Enola-Gay in ein Ausstellungsobjekt durch das „National Air and Space Museum“ in Washington D.C. zwischen 1993 und 1995 (E12 Herstellung, E81 Umwandlung)
  • die letzte Erneuerung des Goldüberzuges vom Toshogu-Schrein in Nikko, Japan (E11 Bearbeitung)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12)
  • the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956
  • the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81)
  • the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η κατασκευή του SS Great Britain (E12)
  • η εμπότιση του πολεμικού πλοίου Vasa στη Στοκχόλμη για διατήρηση μετά το 1956
  • η μετατροπή του Enola Gay σε μουσειακό έκθεμα από το National Air and Space Museum στην Ουάσινγκτον μεταξύ 1993 και 1995 (E12, E81)
  • η πρόσφατη ανανέωση της επιχρύσωσης του Toshogu shrine στο Nikko, Ιαπωνία
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La construction du SS Great Britain (E12_Production) (Gregor, 1971)
  • L'imprégnation [n.d.t. au polyéthylène glycol] du navire de guerre Vasa à Stockholm en vue de sa conservation après 1956 (Håfors, 2010)
  • La transformation de l'Enola Gay en une pièce muséographique par le National Air and Space Museum à Washington DC entre 1993 et 1995 (E12_Production, E81_Transformation) (Yakel, 2000)
  • Le dernier renouvellement du revêtement en or du sanctuaire Toshogu à Nikko au Japon (Cali & Dougil, 2012)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12)
  • the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956
  • the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81)
  • the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 大不列颠号蒸汽轮船的建造 (E12)
  • 1956年之后,利用浸渍技术(impregnation)保存停放在瑞典斯德哥尔摩的战舰瓦萨号(Vasa Warship)
  • 1993至1995年期间,华盛顿美国航空博物馆将“埃诺拉•盖伊”( Enola Gay)号轰炸机改造成博物馆展示品(E12, E81)
  • 日本日光东照宫最后一次更换金箔装饰
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E11(x) ⇒ E7(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P31 has modified (was modified by): E18 Physical Thing
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
E12 Production
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Production
unaltered since version 4.2 / June 2005
previous value in version 4.1
Herstellung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Παραγωγή
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Production
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Produção
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Событие Производства
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
生产
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11
Bearbeitung
Τροποποίηση
Modification
Modificação
Событие Изменения
修改

E63
Daseinsbeginn
Αρχή Ύπαρξης
Début d’existence
Início da Existência
Начало Существования
初始
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

unaltered since version 6.2.7 / October 2019
previous value in version 6.2.6

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst Aktivitäten, die einen oder mehrere neue Gegenstände schaffen. Das beinhaltet sowohl den Entwurf als auch die Durchführung.

In anderen Fällen wird ein Gegenstand als neu erachtet, weil es für die Dokumentation einer Instanz der Klasse E11 Bearbeitung wichtig wird. So kann das Kritzeln eines Namens auf einer Scherbe diese zu einem Stimmzettel machen (Scherbenwahlgericht, gr. Oistrakismos, in Athen im

5. Jhd. v. Chr.). In der wissenschaftlichen Erfassung wird die neue Funktion als Stimmzettel in der Regel wichtiger angesehen als die Dokumentation der Scherbe an sich.

Eine Instanz dieser Entität kann sich auch über mehrere gleichartige Objekte erstrecken, so wird

z. B. der Druck von eintausend Büchern normalerweise als ein einzelnes Ereignis angesehen.

Wenn sich die Zerstörung von einem oder mehreren Objekten in der gleichzeitigen Herstellung anderer Objekte äußert, die Teile oder Material des Originales benutzen, wird das Ereignis als Instanz der Klasse E81 Umwandlung dokumentiert. In diesem Fall haben die neuen Gegenstände von den Zerstörten getrennte Identitäten; d. h. die Sache wird bewahrt, aber nicht ihre Identität.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει ενέργειες που έχουν σχεδιαστεί και επιτυγχάνουν τη δημιουργία ενός ή περισσοτέρων στοιχείων.

Εξειδικεύει την έννοια της τροποποίησης σε παραγωγή. Η απόφαση για το αν ένα στοιχείο εκλαμβάνεται ως νέο ή όχι εξαρτάται από τα συμφραζόμενα. Υπό κανονικές συνθήκες, στοιχεία εκλαμβάνονται ως «νέα» όταν δεν υπάρχει προφανής, συνολική ομοιότητα ανάμεσά σε αυτά και στα στοιχεία που έχουν καταναλωθεί όπως και τα υλικά που έχουν χρησιμοποιηθεί για την παραγωγή τους. Σε άλλες περιπτώσεις, ένα στοιχείο εκλαμβάνεται ως «νέο», διότι σχετίζεται με την τεκμηρίωση χάρη σε μια τροποποίηση. Για παράδειγμα, η χάραξη ενός ονόματος σε ένα θραύσμα αγγείου μπορεί να το μετατρέψει σε όστρακο. Ίσως το αρχικό θραύσμα να μην αξίζει να τεκμηριωθεί, αντίθετα με εκείνο που φέρει χάραξη.

Η οντότητα αυτή μπορεί να είναι συλλογική: η τύπωση χιλίων βιβλίων για παράδειγμα, θεωρείται κανονικά ως ένα μεμονωμένο συμβάν.

Ένα συμβάν θα πρέπει επίσης να τεκμηριώνεται χρησιμοποιώντας την Μετατροπή (E81) όταν έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την καταστροφή ενός ή περισσοτέρων αντικειμένων και την ταυτόχρονη παραγωγή άλλων με τη χρήση μερών ή υλικού των αρχικών. Στην περίπτωση αυτή, τα νέα στοιχεία έχουν διαφορετικές πραγματώσεις και το υλικό διατηρείται, όχι όμως και η ταυτότητα.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend des activités qui ont comme objectif de créer une ou plusieurs nouvelles entités, et qui y parviennent.

Elle précise la notion de modification en celle de production. La décision de désigner une entité comme « nouvelle » relève du contexte. Normalement, les entités sont considérées comme « nouvelles » s'il n'y a pas de similarités évidentes entre celles-ci et les objets ainsi que les matériaux utilisés pour leur production. Dans d’autres cas, une entité est considérée comme « nouvelle » parce qu’il devient pertinent de la documenter du fait de sa modification. Par exemple, le fait de griffonner un nom sur un tesson de poterie peut faire de ce dernier un bulletin de vote. Le tesson d'origine ne vaut peut-être pas la peine d'être documenté, contrairement à celui qui a fait l'objet d'une inscription.

E12_Production peut être une entité collective : par exemple, l'impression d'un millier de livres serait normalement considérée comme un seul évènement.

Si un évènement implique la destruction d’une ou de plusieurs entités ainsi que la production de nouvelles entités en utilisant des parties ou des matériaux des entités d’origine, il convient d’utiliser la classe E81_Transformation lors de la documentation, et ce en plus de E12_Production. Dans ce cas, les nouveaux objets ont leur propre identité : la matière est préservée, mais l'identité ne l'est pas.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает виды деятельности, которые задуманы, и которые успешно осуществлены, при создании одного или более новых предметов. Он уточняет понятие “модификации” как “производство”. Решение о том, считать объект новым или нет, определяется точным контекстом. Обычно, предметы считаются “новыми”, если отсутствует явное общее сходство между ними и потребляемыми предметами и материалами, используемыми в их производстве. В других случаях, предмет считается “новым” потому, что он становится объектом документации посредством модификации. Например, написание имени на черепке может превратить его в опознавательный знак. Оригинальный черепок, возможно, не стоит того, чтобы быть задокументированным, в отличие от надписанного. Данная категория может быть собирательной: издание одной тысячи книг, например, расценивалось бы как единовременное событие. Событие также должно быть задокументировано с использованием класса E81.Трансформация, если оно приводит к деструкции одного или более объектов и одновременному производству других, используя части или материал оригиналов. В данном случае, новые предметы имеют отдельные идентичтности, и предмет сохраняется, а идентичности - нет.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵能成功创造一个或多个新项目的活动。

此类别使修改(modification)的概念特殊化(specialized)为生产(production)。是否视某对象为新对象取决於其相关背景或环境。通常来说,如果完成的项目与被消耗的项目和其制作材料之间没有明显和整体的相同性,那么这些项目便被视为“新的”。在其他情况中,一个项目会被视为“新的”,因为它在修改之后能变的值得纪录於文献上。例如刻上名字的陶片就有可能成了一张“选票”;原来的陶片可能不值得记录在文献里,但一旦刻有文字情况则不同。

此实体可以是集体性的(collective);例如上千本书籍的印制通常便被视为单个事件。

某事件若造成一个或多个对象的摧毁,并同时促成使用原件的零件或材料制作其他对象,那么该事件就应被记录为E81-转变类别。在这种情况下,新生的物件拥有个别身份(identity);材质虽然被保留下来,但物件的身份已变。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (Gregor, 1971)
  • the first casting of the Little Mermaid from the harbour of Copenhagen (Dewey, 2003)
  • Rembrandt’s creating of the seventh state of his etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, identified by Bartsch Number 197 (E12, E65, E81) (Hind, 1923)
unaltered since version 6.2.3 / May 2018
previous value in version 6.2.2
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain
  • the recasting of the Little Mermaid at the harbour of Copenhagen
  • the seventh edition of Rembrandt’s etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, Bartsch Number 197
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Konstruktion und der Bau des Segelschiffes Great Britain
  • der Nachguss der Meerjungfrau im Hafen von Kopenhagen
  • die siebte Ausgabe von Rembrandts Kupferstich „halbbekleidete Frau neben einem Ofen“ 1658, Bartsch Nummer 197
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain
  • the recasting of the Little Mermaid at the harbour of Copenhagen
  • the seventh edition of Rembrandt’s etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, Bartsch Number 197
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η κατασκευή του SS Great Britain
  • η επαναχύτευση της Μικρής Γοργόνας στο λιμάνι της Κοπενχάγης
  • η έβδομη έκδοση της γκραβούρας του Ρέμπραντ “Γυναίκα ημίγυμνη δίπλα σε σόμπα”, 1658, Bartsch Αριθμός 197
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La construction du SS Great Britain (Gregor, 1971)
  • La première fonte de La Petite Sirène au port de Copenhague (Dewey, 2003)
  • La création, par Rembrandt, du septième état de sa gravure sur cuivre La Femme devant le poêle, 1658, identifié par le numéro de catalogue « Bartsch 197 » (E12_Production, E65_Création, E81_Transformation) (Hind, 1923)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain
  • the first casting of the Little Mermaid from the harbour of Copenhagen
  • Rembrandt’s creating of the seventh state of his etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, identified by Bartsch Number 197 (E12,E65,E81)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 大不列颠号蒸汽轮船(SS Great Britain)的建造
  • 在歌本哈根海港美人鱼铜像
  • 荷兰画家伦勃朗(Rembrandt)在1658年制作《坐在炉旁的半裸女子》(以Bartsch 编号197作为标识) 的第七阶段蚀刻版画 (E12, E65, E81)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E12(x) ⇒ E11(x)
  • E12(x) ⇒ E63(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
P186 produced thing of product type (is produced by): E99 Product Type
E13 Attribute Assignment
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Attribute Assignment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Merkmalszuweisung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Assignation d’attribut
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Atribuição de Característica
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Присвоение Атрибута
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
属性赋值
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Handlung
Δράση
Activité
Atividade
Деятельность
活动
SuperClass Of:
E14 Condition Assessment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E15 Identifier Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E16 Measurement unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E17 Type Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E14
Zustandsfeststellung
Εκτίμηση Κατάστασης
Évaluation d’état matériel
Avaliação do Estado Material
Оценка Состояния
状态评估

E15
Kennzeichenzuweisung
Απόδοση Αναγνωριστικού
Assignation d’identifiant
Atribuição de Identificador
Назначение Идентификатора
标识符赋值

E16
Messung
Μέτρηση
Mesurage
Medição
Событие Измерения
测量

E17
Typuszuweisung
Απόδοση Τύπου
Assignation de type
Atribuição de Tipo
Присвоение Типа
类型赋值
Scope Note:

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about one property of an object or any single relation between two items or concepts. The type of the property asserted to hold between two items or concepts can be described by the property P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned): E55 Type.

For example, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain scientific/scholarly procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on whether this information should be accessible by structured queries.

This class allows for the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. Note that all instances of properties described in a knowledge base are the opinion of someone. Per default, they are the opinion of the team maintaining the knowledge base. This fact must not individually be registered for all instances of properties provided by the maintaining team, because it would result in an endless recursion of whose opinion was the description of an opinion. Therefore, the use of instances of E13 Attribute Assignment marks the fact that the maintaining team is in general neutral to the validity of the respective assertion, but registers someone else’s opinion and how it came about.

All properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly relating the respective pair of items or concepts. Multiple use of instances of E13 Attribute Assignment may possibly lead to a collection of contradictory values.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.

This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst die Aktionen des Feststellens von Eigenschaften eines Gegenstandes oder von Beziehungen zwischen zwei Gegenständen oder begrifflichen Konzepten.

Diese Klasse erlaubt die Dokumentation, wie die jeweilige Feststellung zu Stande kam, und wessen Meinung es war. Alle in solch einer Aktion zugewiesenen Merkmale oder Eigenschaften können auch so verstanden werden, als ob sie direkt am jeweiligen Gegenstand oder begrifflichen Konzept fest gemacht wurden, möglicherweise auch als eine Sammlung von widersprüchlichen Werten.

Alle Fälle von Eigenschaften im CIDOC CRM, auch solche, die nur indirekt durch eine Aktion beschrieben werden, werden als „Abkürzungen“ (short cuts) dieser Aktion charakterisiert. Diese redundante Modellierung zweier alternativer Ansichten wird bevorzugt, weil viele Implementierungen aus guten Gründen heraus, entweder die Aktion oder die Abkürzung abbilden, und die Beziehung zwischen beiden Alternativen kann durch einfache Regeln aufgefangen werden.

Im Besonderen beschreibt diese Klasse E13 Merkmalszuweisung die Handlungen von Menschen, die Vorschläge und Aussagen während museumsspezifischer Verfahrensweisen machen, z. B. Person und Datum, die ein Zustandsprotokoll zu einem Objekt erstellt hat, oder zu welchem Zeitpunkt ein Identifizierungskennzeichen angebracht wurde oder ein Museumsgegenstand gemessen wur de, usw.. Ob diese Informationen in einem strukturierten Schema dokumentiert werden müssen oder in Form eines beliebigen Textes, hängt davon ab, wie diese Informationen über strukturierte Abfragen zugänglich sein sollen.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.

This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει ενέργειες που υποστηρίζουν τις ιδιότητες ενός αντικειμένου ή οποιασδήποτε άλλης σχέσης ανάμεσα σε δύο στοιχεία ή δύο έννοιες.

Η κλάση αυτή επιτρέπει την τεκμηρίωση σχετικά με το πώς προέκυψε η αντίστοιχη απόδοση και ποιανού γνώμη ήταν. Όλα τα χαρακτηριστικά ή ιδιότητες που αποδίδονται σε μια τέτοια ενέργεια μπορούν να θεωρηθούν επίσης ως άμεσα συνημμένα στο αντίστοιχο στοιχείο ή έννοια, πιθανά ως συλλογή αντιφατικών αξιών. Όλες οι περιπτώσεις ιδιοτήτων στο μοντέλο αυτό που περιγράφονται έμμεσα μέσω μιας ενέργειας χαρακτηρίζονται ως “συντομεύσεις” της ενέργειας αυτής. Αυτή η απαρχαιωμένη μοντελοποίηση δύο εναλλακτικών απόψεων είναι προτιμότερη, διότι πολλές εφαρμογές ενδέχεται να έχουν λόγους να μοντελοποιήσουν είτε τη δραστηριότητα είτε τη συντόμευση και η σχέση ανάμεσα στις δύο εναλλακτικές μπορεί να συλληφθεί με απλούς κανόνες.

Ειδικότερα, η κλάση περιγράφει τις ενέργειες ανθρώπων που κάνουν προτάσεις και δηλώσεις κατά τη διάρκεια ορισμένων μουσειακών διαδικασιών π.χ. το πρόσωπο και την ημερομηνία μιας δήλωσης κατάστασης, μιας απόδοσης αναγνωριστικού, μιας μέτρησης αντικειμένου του μουσείου κτλ. Τα είδη των αποδόσεων και δηλώσεων αυτών που πρέπει να τεκμηριωθούν ρητά σε δομές ενός σχήματος και όχι σε ελεύθερο κείμενο καθορίζονται από το εάν η πληροφορία αυτή θα πρέπει να είναι προσβάσιμη σε δομημένες επερωτήσεις.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about one property of an object or any single relation between two items or concepts. The type of the property asserted to hold between two items or concepts can be described by the property P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned): E55 Type.

For example, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain scientific/scholarly procedures, e.g., the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on whether this information should be accessible by structured queries.

This class allows for the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. Note that all instances of properties described in a knowledge base are the opinion of someone. Per default, they are the opinion of the team maintaining the knowledge base. This fact must not individually be registered for all instances of properties provided by the maintaining team, because it would result in an endless recursion of whose opinion was the description of an opinion. Therefore, the use of instances of E13 Attribute Assignment marks the fact, that the maintaining team is in general neutral to the validity of the respective assertion, but registers someone else’s opinion and how it came about.

All properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly relating the respective pair of items or concepts. Multiple use of instances of E13 Attribute Assignment may possibly lead to a collection of contradictory values.

All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through a subclass of E13 Attribute Assignment are characterised as "short cuts" of a path via this subclass. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action of assertion or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend les actions d’effectuer des affirmations à propos d’un attribut d’un objet ou de n’importe quelle relation entre deux entités ou concepts. Le type de la propriété dont on déclare l’existence entre deux entités ou concepts peut être décrit avec la propriété P177_a_assigné_le_type_de_propriété (est le type de la propriété assigné) : E55_Type.

Par exemple, la classe décrit les actions de personnes faisant des propositions ou déclarations lors de certaines procédures scientifiques ou universitaires, comme la date de et la personne impliquée lors d’une évaluation d’état matériel, de l’attribution d’un identifiant, de la mesure d’un objet muséal, etc. Les types d’attributions et de déclarations qui doivent être documentés explicitement de manière structurée plutôt qu’en texte libre dépend de la nécessité ou non de rendre accessibles ces informations par des requêtes structurées.

Il est à noter que toutes les instances des propriétés décrites dans une base de connaissance reflètent les opinions d’individus. Par défaut, il s’agit des opinions de l’équipe responsable du maintien de la base de connaissance. Ce fait ne doit pas être individuellement enregistré pour toutes les instances des propriétés fournies par l’équipe de maintenance, car il en résulterait une récursivité sans fin (où il faudrait constamment documenter qui émet une opinion sur l'opinion précédente). Dès lors, l’utilisation des instances de E13_Assignation_d’attribut marque le fait que l’équipe de maintenance est en général neutre envers la validité des assertions et cette classe permet la documentation des circonstances qui ont amené à l’attribution, c.-à-d. qui a émis cette opinion ainsi que comment elle est advenue.

Toutes les propriétés assignées de la sorte peuvent aussi être perçues comme reliant directement les paires correspondantes d’entités ou concepts. L’utilisation de plusieurs instances de E13_Assignation_d’attribut peut mener à un regroupement de valeurs contradictoires.

Toutes les propriétés dans ce modèle qui sont aussi décrites indirectement à travers une sous-classe de E13_Assignation_d’attribut sont caractérisées comme des « raccourcis » du chemin passant par cette sous-classe. Cette modélisation redondante de ces deux alternatives est préférée, car de nombreuses implémentations conduisent à mobiliser, pour de bonnes raisons, soit l’action d’assertion soit le raccourci et la relation entre les deux alternatives peut être enregistrée par des règles [n.d.t. logiques] simples.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.

This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает действия, касающиеся утверждений о свойствах объекта, или какие бы то ни было отношения между двумя предметами или концептами. Этот класс допускает документацию того, как соответствующее присвоение было сделано, и чье это было мнение. Все атрибуты или свойства присвоенные таким образом могут также рассматриваться как прямо применимые к соответствующим предметам или концептам, и возможно как собрание противоречащих друг другу значений. Все экземпляры свойств в данной модели также описываются непосредственно посредством действия и являются его сокращениями. Это избыточное моделирование двух альтернативных представлений предпочтительнее, т.к. многие реализации могут иметь веские причины для моделирования или данного действия или сокращения, а отношения между обеими альтернативами могут подчиняться простым правилам. В частности, данный класс описывает действия людей, делающих высказывания и утверждения во время определенных музейных процедур, например, человек и дата, когда была произведена оценка состояния, присвоен идентификатор, оценен музейный объект, и т.д. Какие типы подобных высказываний и утверждений необходимо задокументировать исключительно в структурах системы (схемы), а не произвольного текста, зависит от того, должна ли данная информация быть доступной через структурированные запросы.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.

This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵针对某对象之属性或两个项目或概念之间的关系提出各类意见主张的行动。

通过此类别可以记录相关指定项目是如何产生的,并显示意见提供者的身份。所有在此行动下被指定的屬性,可以被视为与相关项目或概念直接连接起来的(可能是一组相互矛盾的值〕。在此模式中通过某个行动被间接描述的所有属性实例都被称为此行动的“捷径”。我们可以重复两个替代意见的建模,因为许多系统实做可能基於种种原因必须对一个行动或相对应的捷径进行建模,而且通过简单规则便可以留存两种不同类别的关系。

此类别特别是用来描述在某些博物馆程序上,相关陈述者和声明者的行动,例如发表状态声明、指定标识符、测量博物馆对象等行动的有关人物和日期。到底哪些指定和声明需要在模式结构内明确记录而非通过自由文字来描述,取决於这类信息是否应通过结构化查询进行存取。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the examination of MS Sinai Greek 418 by Nicholas Pickwoad in November 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
  • the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr’s silver cup in February 1997 (fictitious)
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr’s silver cup in February 1997
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Feststellung des gegenwärtigen Besitzverhältnisses von Martin Doerrs Silbertasse im Februar 1997
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr’s silver cup in February 1997
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η εκτίμηση της τρέχουσας ιδιοκτησίας του ασημένιου κυπέλλου του Martin Doerr το Φεβρουάριο του 1997
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • L’examen du manuscrit Mont Sinaï, MS gr. 418 par Nicholas Pickwoad en novembre 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
  • L’évaluation de la propriété actuelle de la coupe en argent de Martin Dœrr en février 1997 (fictif)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr’s silver cup in February 1997
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 1997年2月,对Martin Doerr所藏银杯的现有所有权进行的评估事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E13(x) ⇒ E7(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned): E55 Type
E14 Condition Assessment
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Condition Assessment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Zustandsfeststellung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Εκτίμηση Κατάστασης
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Évaluation d’état matériel
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Avaliação do Estado Material
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Оценка Состояния
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
状态评估
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
Merkmalszuweisung
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
Assignation d’attribut
Atribuição de Característica
Присвоение Атрибута
属性赋值
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement, or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that is relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst die Feststellung des Erhaltungszustandes eines Gegenstandes während eines bestimmten Zeitraumes.

Die Zustandsfeststellung kann durch eine Prüfung, eine Messung oder durch historische Forschung erfolgen. Diese Klasse wird benutzt, um die Umstände der jeweiligen Beurteilung zu dokumentieren. Dies kann dann von Interesse sein, wenn es darum geht, die Qualität einer früheren Feststellung zu interpretieren bzw. wenn die Forschung mit bezugnehmenden Dokumenten fortgeführt wird.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιγράφει την εκτίμηση της κατάστασης διατήρησης ενός αντικειμένου κατά τη διάρκεια μιας συγκεκριμένης περιόδου.

Η εκτίμηση κατάστασης μπορεί να γίνει μέσω επιθεώρησης, μέτρησης ή ιστορικής έρευνας. Η κλάση αυτή χρησιμοποιείται προκειμένου να τεκμηριώσει συνθήκες της αντίστοιχης εκτίμησης που ενδέχεται να είναι σχετικές στην ερμηνεία της ποιότητας σε μεταγενέστερο στάδιο, ή στη συνέχεια της έρευνας σε σχετικά τεκμήρια.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe décrit l’acte d’évaluer l’état de conservation d’un objet durant une période donnée.

L’évaluation d’état matériel peut être effectuée par le biais d’une inspection, d’un mesurage ou d’une recherche historique. Cette classe est utilisée afin de documenter les circonstances ayant conduit à l’évaluation qui pourraient être pertinentes pour interpréter la qualité de l’objet à un stade ultérieur, ou pour poursuivre la recherche sur des documents connexes.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс описывает акт оценки состояния хранения объекта в течении определенного периода. Эта оценка условия может осуществляться проверкой, измерением или путем исторического исследования. Этот класс используется для документирования обстоятельств соответствующей оценки, которые могут способствовать толкованию качества на более значительной стадии, а также для продолжения исследования соответствующих документов.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别形容在某个特定时期对某对象的保存状态进行评估的行为。

状态评估可以通过检验、测量或历史考证法进行。此类别用於记录相关评估工作的细 节,这可能适用於在较后阶段对评估工作品质的诠释,或者对相关文件的持续研究。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • last year’s inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village (fictitious)
  • the condition assessment of the endband cores of MS Sinai Greek 418 by Nicholas Pickwoad in November 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
  • the condition assessment of the cover of MS Sinai Greek 418 by Nicholas Pickwoad in November 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • last year’s inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die im letzten Jahr durchgeführte Untersuchung der Wasserschäden an den Fresken der Georgskapelle in unserer Stadt
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • last year’s inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η επιθεώρηση κατά το προηγούμενο έτος των φθορών από την υγρασία στις τοιχογραφίες της εκκλησίας του Αγίου Γεωργίου στο χωριό μας.
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • L’inspection datant de l’année dernière des dommages causés par l’humidité aux fresques de la chapelle Saint-George de notre village (fictif)
  • L’évaluation de l’état matériel des bâtonnets de la tranchefile du manuscrit Mont Sinaï, MS gr. 418 par Nicholas Pickwoad en novembre 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
  • L’évaluation de l'état matériel de la couverture du manuscrit Mont Sinaï, MS gr. 418 par Nicholas Pickwoad en novembre 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • last year’s inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 去年对潮湿气候对村内圣乔治教堂的壁画所造成的破坏情况进行的检验事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E14(x) ⇒ E13(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P34 concerned (was assessed by): E18 Physical Thing
P35 has identified (was identified by): E3 Condition State
E15 Identifier Assignment
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Identifier Assignment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Kennzeichenzuweisung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Απόδοση Αναγνωριστικού
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Assignation d’identifiant
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Atribuição de Identificador
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Назначение Идентификатора
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
标识符赋值
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
Merkmalszuweisung
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
Assignation d’attribut
Atribuição de Característica
Присвоение Атрибута
属性赋值
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An instance of E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when, and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.

The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment through the P2 has type (is type of) property.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst alle Schritte (Handlungen), deren Ergebnis die Zuweisung eines Identifikationskennzeichens zu einer Instanz der Klasse E1 CRM Entität zur Folge haben. Eine E15 Kennzeichenzuweisung kann die Erzeugung eines Identifikationskennzeichens aus mehreren Bestandteilen beinhalten, die ihrerseits Instanzen der Klasse E41 Benennung sein können. Die Syntax, Art und Weise der benutzten Bestandteile, sollte über eine Regel als Instanz der Klasse E29 Entwurf oder Verfahren definiert werden.

Beispiele derartiger Identifikationskennzeichen beinhalten Fundnummern, Eingangsnummern, die bibliothekarische Titelaufnahme und digitale Objektidentifikationskennzeichen (DOI). Die Dokumentation der Vergabe von Identifikationskennzeichen, Zuweisung und Rücknahme, bietet sich insbesondere dann an, wenn sich Verantwortlichkeit für Objekte ändert oder wenn das Identifikationssystem einer Organisation wechselt. Um die Identität von Dingen in solchen Fällen nachvollziehen zu können, ist es wichtig zu dokumentieren, durch wen, wann und zu welchem Zweck ein Identifikationskennzeichen zu einem Objekt vergeben wurde.

Die Tatsache, das ein Identifikationskennzeichen für eine Organisation ein bevorzugtes ist, kann durch den Gebrauch der Eigenschaft E1 CRM Entität. P48 hat bevorzugtes Kennzeichen (ist bevorzugtes Kennzeichen für): E42 Objektkennung ausgedrückt werden. In einer Kontext unabhängigen Form kann es deutlicher ausgedrückt werden durch Zuweisung eines geeigneten E55 Typus, wie zum Beispiel „bevorzugte Kennzeichenzuweisung“ zu der entsprechenden Instanz von E15 Kennzeichenzuweisung über die Eigenschaft P2 hat den Typus (ist Typus von).

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises actions assigning or deassigning object identifiers.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει ενέργειες που προδίδουν ή αφαιρούν αναγνωριστικά αντικειμένων.

Παραδείγματα τέτοιων αναγνωριστικών περιλαμβάνουν Αριθμούς Ευρημάτων και Αριθμούς Καταλόγων. Η τεκμηρίωση της απόδοσης και της αφαίρεσης αναγνωριστικών είναι ιδιαίτερα χρήσιμη όταν τα αντικείμενα αλλάζουν κατοχή ή όταν αλλάζει το σύστημα οργάνωσης. Προκειμένου να είμαστε σε θέση να γνωρίζουμε την ταυτότητα ενός αντικειμένου σε τέτοιες περιπτώσεις, είναι σημαντικό να τεκμηριώνουμε από ποιον, πότε και για ποιο σκοπό αποδόθηκε ένα αναγνωριστικό σε ένα αντικείμενο.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. Instances of E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.

The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend les activités desquelles résulte l’assignation d’un identifiant à une instance de E1_Entité_CRM. Les instances de E15_Assignation_d’identifiant peuvent inclure la création de l’identifiant à partir de plusieurs éléments constitutifs, lesquels peuvent être des instances de E41_Appellation. La syntaxe et les types d’éléments constitutifs utilisés peuvent être déclarés dans une règle constituant une instance de E29_Conceptualisation_ou_procédure.

Des exemples de tels identifiants comprennent les numéros de recherche et d'inventaire, les titres uniformes en bibliothéconomie et les identificateurs d’objets numériques. Documenter l’acte d’assignation et de désassignation est particulièrement utile lorsque les objets changent de garde ou que le système d’identification d’une organisation est modifié. Afin de conserver une trace de l’identité des choses dans de telles situations, il est important de documenter par qui, quand et dans quel but un identifiant a été assigné à une entité.

Le fait qu’un identifiant soit privilégié par une organisation peut être exprimé en utilisant le chemin sémantique suivant : E1_Entité_CRM. P48_a_pour_identifiant_préférentiel (est_l’identifiant_préférentiel_de) : E42_Identifiant. Il pourrait être préférable de l’exprimer sous une forme indépendante du contexte en assignant un E55_Type approprié, tel que « assignation d’identifiant privilégié » à l’instance de E15_Assignation_d’identifiant, par le biais de la propriété P2_a_pour_type (est_le_type_de).

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises actions assigning or deassigning object identifiers.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает действия, назначения идентификатора объекта.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵所有用来配置某E1-CRM实体实例的标识符的活动。一个E15-标识符指定类别可包括以多个构成部分组合建立的标识符,而这类成分本身可能就是E41-称号的实例。所使用的语法和构成部分,可以用一个构成E29-设计或程序实例的规则中进行宣告。

这类标识符的例子包括查询编号、库存编号、就图书馆学而言的统一书名,以及数码物件标识符(Digital Object Identifiers)。记录标识符指定和指定撤除(deassignment)的做法,在对象保管作业移转或某机构的识别系统有所更动的 情况下特别管用。为追踪这类个案的物品身份,在记录中把某个标识符指定事件中的执行人人名、指定时间和指定目的是必要的。

我们可使用“E1-CRM实体 P48-有首选标识符(首选标识符的标的物是〕:E42-标识符”来反映某机构偏向某个标识符的选择。一个不受背景环境牵制的更好的描述方式,是通过“P2-有类型”来指定某个合适的E55-类型(例如“首选的标识符指定”),来描述相关的“E15-标识符指定”实例。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lamentation cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • assigning the author and uniform title heading “Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” to a work
  • on 1st June 2001, assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” to Guillaume de Machaut (Kelly, 2014)
unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2
  • of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.
  • The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.
  • Replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • Assigning the author-uniform title heading “Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” for a work (E28)
  • On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E42,E82) to Guillaume de Machaut (E21)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Ersetzen der Inventarnummer TA959a durch GE34604 an einem Klagetuch aus dem 17. Jhd. im Benaki Museum, Athen
  • Zuweisung des Autors in der bibliothekarischen Titelaufnahme „Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749–1832. Faust. 1. Theil.“ zu einem Werk (E28 Begrifflicher Gegenstand)
  • Die Zuweisung des Personennamenseintrages „Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300–1377“ (E42 Kennung, E82 Akteurbenennung) zu Guillaume de Machaut (E21 Person) am 1. Juni 2001
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • of such identifiers include Find Numbers and Inventory Numbers. Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of an object in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an object.
  • replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η αντικατάσταση του αριθμού καταλόγου TA959a με τον GE34604 για ένα ύφασμα του 17ου αιώνα στο Μουσείο Μπενάκη, Αθήνα
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • assigning the author-uniform title heading “Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” for the respective work
  • on 1st June 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” to Guillaume de Machaut (Kelly, 2014)
English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
  • Le remplacement du numéro d’inventaire « TA959a » par « GE34604 » pour un tissu liturgique du XVIIe siècle au Musée Benaki à Athènes
  • Assignation du titre uniforme « Gœthe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil. » à l’œuvre
  • Le 1er juin 2001, assignation de la vedette de nom de personne « Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377 » à Guillaume de Machaut (Kelly, 2014)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.
  • The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.
  • Replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • Assigning the author-uniform title heading “Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” for a work (E28)
  • On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E42,E82) to Guillaume de Machaut (E21)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 雅典贝纳基博物馆(Museum Benaki, Athens)收藏的17世纪“哀悼用布”,其库存编号TA959a被换成GE34604的事件
  • 为作品指定统一作者名称“Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” (E28)的事件
  • 2001年6月1日,为Guillaume de Machaut 指定“Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E42,E82) 为其姓名标题(E21)的事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E15(x) ⇒ E13(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Identifier
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Identifier
P142 used constituent (was used in): E90 Symbolic Object
E16 Measurement
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Measurement
unaltered since version 4.2 / June 2005
previous value in version 4.1
Messung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Μέτρηση
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Mesurage
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Medição
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Событие Измерения
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
测量
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
Merkmalszuweisung
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
Assignation d’attribut
Atribuição de Característica
Присвоение Атрибута
属性赋值
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic, objective procedure of direct observation of particular states of physical reality.

An instance of E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Methods and devices employed should be associated with instances of E16 Measurement by properties such as P33 used specific technique: E29 Design or Procedure, P125 used object of type: E55 Type, P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon-14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type. Details of methods and devices reused or reusable in other instances of E16 Measurement should be documented for these entities rather than the measurements themselves, whereas details of particular execution may be documented by free text or by instantiating adequate sub-activities, if the detail may be of interest for an overarching query.

Regardless whether a measurement is made by an instrument or by human senses, it represents the initial transition from physical reality to information without any other documented information object in between within the reasoning chain that would represent the result of the interaction of the observer or device with reality. Therefore, determining properties of an instance of E90 Symbolic Object is regarded as an instance of E13 Attribute Assignment, which may be inferred from observing and measuring representative carriers. In the case that the carrier can be named, the property P16 used specific object (was used for) should be used to indicate the instance(s) of E18 Physical Thing that was used as the empirical basis for the attribute assignment. For instance, inferring properties of depicted items using image material, such as satellite images, is not regarded as an instance of E16 Measurement, but as a subsequent instance of E13 Attribute Assignment. Rather, only the production of the images, understood as arrays of radiation intensities, is regarded as an instance of E16 Measurement. The same reasoning holds for other sensor data.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst Aktionen, die physische Eigenschaften und andere Werte messen, die über ein systematisches Verfahren bestimmt werden können.

Beispiele schließen ein: Messen des Geldwertes einer Münzsammlung oder Laufzeit einer bestimmten Videokassette.

Das E16 Messung kann durch einfaches Zählen oder mittels Werkzeug, wie Zollstock oder Strahlungsmessgerät erfolgen. Das Interesse liegt auf der angewandten Methode und der Sorgfalt der Durchführung, so dass die Zuverlässigkeit des Ergebnisses zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt, wenn die Forschung mit bezugnehmenden Dokumenten fortgeführt wird, beurteilt werden kann. Die Dokumentation des Datums des Messereignisses ist in jedem Fall wichtig, da sich die Werte der Abmessungen im Laufe der Zeit verändern können, z.B. die Länge eines Gegenstandes auf Grund von Schrumpfungsvorgängen. Die detaillierte Dokumentation von Methoden und Geräten wird am besten in Form von Freitext gehandhabt, während grundlegende Verfahren, wie z.B. eine

„C-14 Datierung“ über die Eigenschaft P2 hat den Typus (ist Typus von): E55 Typus kodiert werden.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει ενέργειες μέτρησης φυσικών ιδιοτήτων και άλλων τιμών που μπορούν να καθοριστούν από μια συστηματική διαδικασία.

Παραδείγματα περιλαμβάνουν τη μέτρηση της χρηματικής αξίας μιας συλλογής νομισμάτων ή το χρόνο διάρκειας μιας βιντεοκασέτας.

Για τη Μέτρηση (E16) μπορούν να χρησιμοποιηθούν η απλή μέτρηση ή εργαλεία όπως σταδίες ή συσκευές ανίχνευσης ραδιενέργειας. Το ενδιαφέρον έγκειται στη μέθοδο και τη φροντίδα που εφαρμόζεται, έτσι ώστε να μπορεί να αξιολογηθεί η αξιοπιστία του αποτελέσματος σε ένα μετέπειτα στάδιο, ή να συνεχιστεί η έρευνα στα σχετιζόμενα έγγραφα. Η ημερομηνία των συμβάντων είναι σημαντική για μεγέθη, η τιμή των οποίων ενδέχεται να αλλάζει με την πάροδο του χρόνου, όπως για παράδειγμα το μήκος ενός αντικειμένου που είναι επιρρεπές στη συρρίκνωση. Οι λεπτομέρειες σχετικά με τις μεθόδους και τις συσκευές αναφέρονται καλύτερα ως ελεύθερο κείμενο, ενώ οι βασικές τεχνικές όπως για παράδειγμα "μέθοδος ραδιοχρονολόγησης άνθρακας 14" θα πρέπει να κωδικοποιούνται χρησιμοποιώντας την P2 έχει τύπο (είναι ο τύπος του/της): E55 Τύπος.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises actions measuring quantitative physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic, objective procedure of direct observation of particular states of physical reality.

An instance of E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Methods and devices employed should be associated with instances of E16 Measurement by properties such as P33 used specific technique: E29 Design or Procedure, P125 used object of type: E55 Type, P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon-14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type. Details of methods and devices reused or reusable in other instances of E16 Measurement should be documented for these entities rather than the measurements themselves, whereas details of particular execution may be documented by free text or by instantiating adequate sub-activities, if the detail may be of interest for an overarching query.

Regardless whether a measurement is made by an instrument or by human senses, it represents the initial transition from physical reality to information without any other documented information object in between within the reasoning chain that would represent the result of the interaction of the observer or device with reality. Therefore, determining properties of an instance of E90 Symbolic Object is regarded as an instance of E13 Attribute Assignment, which may be inferred from observing and measuring representative carriers. In the case that the carrier can be named, the property P16 used specific object (was used for): should be used to indicate the instance(s) of E18 Physical Thing that was used as the empirical basis for the attribute assignment. For instance, inferring properties of depicted items using image material, such as satellite images, is not regarded as an instance of E16 Measurement, but as a subsequent instance of E13 Attribute Assignment. Rather, only the production of the images, understood as arrays of radiation intensities, is regarded as an instance of E16 Measurement. The same reasoning holds for other sensor data.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend les actions permettant de mesurer les propriétés physiques quantitatives et les autres valeurs qui peuvent être déterminées par une procédure systématique et objective d'observation directe des états particuliers de la réalité physique.

Une instance de E16_Mesurage peut impliquer un simple comptage ou l'utilisation d'outils, tels que des étalons ou des détecteurs de radiation. L'intérêt de cette approche est dans la méthode appliquée et le soin apporté, de manière à pouvoir juger ultérieurement de la fiabilité du résultat ou de poursuivre la recherche sur les documents associés. La date de l'événement est importante pour les dimensions, qui peuvent changer de valeur au fil du temps, comme la longueur d'un objet sujet au rétrécissement. Les méthodes et dispositifs employés doivent être associés à des instances de E16_Mesurage par des propriétés telles que P33_a_mobilisé_comme_technique_spécifique : E29_Conceptualisation_ou_procédure, P125_a_mobilisé_l'objet_du_type : E55_Type, P16_a_mobilisé_l’objet_spécifique (a_été_mobilisé_pour) : E70_Chose, alors que les techniques de base telles que la datation au carbone 14 doivent être encodées en utilisant P2_a_pour_type (est_le_type_de) : E55_Type. Les détails concernant les méthodes et les dispositifs réutilisés ou réutilisables dans d'autres instances de E16_Mesurage doivent être documentés pour ces entités plutôt que pour les mesures elles-mêmes, tandis que les détails concernant une exécution particulière peuvent être documentés en texte libre ou en instanciant des sous-activités adéquates, si ces détails peuvent être d'intérêt pour une requête plus globale.

Qu'une mesure soit effectuée par un instrument ou par les sens humains, celle-ci représente la transition initiale de la réalité physique à l'information sans qu'aucun autre objet d'information documenté entre les deux dans la chaîne de raisonnement puisse représenter le résultat de l'interaction de l'observateur ou de l'appareil avec la réalité. Par conséquent, le fait de déterminer des propriétés d’une instance de E90_Objet_symbolique est considéré comme une instance de E13_Assignation_d’attribut, qui peut être inférée de l’observation et du mesurage de supports représentatifs de l’objet. Dans le cas où le support peut être nommé, la propriété P16_a_mobilisé_l’objet_spécifique (a_été_mobilisé_pour) doit être utilisée pour indiquer la ou les instances de E18_Chose_matérielle qui ont été utilisées comme base empirique pour l’assignation d’attribut. Par exemple, les propriétés inférées des entités représentées à l'aide d'images, comme des images satellites, ne sont pas considérées comme des instances de E16_Mesurage, mais comme des instances subséquentes de E13_Assignation_d’attribut. Plutôt, seule la production des images, comprises comme des réseaux d'intensités de radiation, est considérée comme une instance de E16_Mesurage. Le même raisonnement vaut pour les autres données captées.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс включает действия, измеряющие физические свойства и другие значения, которые могут определяться посредством систематической процедуры.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵能通过系统性程序加以确定的物质属性或其他价值的测量或计算行为。

例如:计算某个钱币收藏的货币价值、某录像带的播放时间等。

E16-测量使用的可能是些简单的测量工具,例如码尺或辐射探测器。关键的因素在於其测量的方法、用心程度,以便日后能判断测量结果的可靠度,或是利用相关文件於后续的研究。发生事件的日期对尺寸而言是重要的,尺寸的值可能随着时间而改变,例如收缩性对象的长度。有关方法和工具方面的细节最好通过自由文字进行描述,而基本技术如“碳14测年法”的编码应采用“P2-有类型(被用来分类〕:E55-类型”。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • measurement of the height of silver cup 232 on 31st August 1997 (fictitious)
  • the carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 [The carbon 14 dating of an approximately 400.000 year old complete Old Palaeolithic wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany, in 1995.] (Kouwenhoven, 1997)
unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1
  • include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette.
  • The E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of:) E55 Type.
  • measurement of height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997
  • the carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 [an about 400.000 years old Palaeolithic complete wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany in 1995]
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Messung der Höhe der Silbertasse 232 am 31. August 1997
  • C-14 Datierung des neolithischen Holzspeers im Jahre 1996 [ein über ca.
  • 400.000 Jahre alter, komplett erhaltener Holzspeer, der in Schöningen, Niedersachsen, Deutschland im Jahre 1995 gefunden wurde]
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette.
  • The E16 Measurement Event may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of:) E55 Type.
  • measurement of height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997
  • the carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 [an about 400.000 years old Palaeolithic complete wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany in 1995]
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • μέτρηση του ύψους στο ασημένιο κύπελο 232 στις 31. Αυγούστου 1997
  • η μέθοδος ραδιοχρονολόγησης άνθρακας 14 του “Schoeninger Speer II” το 1996 [ένα πλήρες ξύλινο δόρυ περίπου 400.000 ετών της παλαιολιθικής εποχής που βρέθηκε στο Schoeningen, Κάτω Σαξονία, της Γερμανίας το 1995]
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La mesure de la hauteur de la coupe en argent « 232 » le 31 août 1997 (fictif)
  • La datation au carbone 14 de la « Schœninger Speer II » en 1996 [la datation au carbone 14 d'une lance en bois paléolithique complète datant d'environ 400 000 ans trouvée en 1995 à Schœningen, Niedersachsen, en Allemagne] (Kouwenhoven, 1997)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette.
  • The E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of:) E55 Type.
  • measurement of height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997
  • the carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 [an about 400.000 years old Palaeolithic complete wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany in 1995]
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 1997年8月31日,测量编号232银杯高度的事件
  • 1996年,采用碳14测年法测量 “Schoeninger Speer II”年份[约有40万年历史的旧石器时代完好木制长矛,於1995年在德国下萨克森州Schoeningen村被发现]的事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E16(x) ⇒ E13(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P39 measured (was measured by): E18 Physical Thing
P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension
E17 Type Assignment
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Type Assignment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Typuszuweisung
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Απόδοση Τύπου
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Assignation de type
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Atribuição de Tipo
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Присвоение Типа
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
类型赋值
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
Merkmalszuweisung
Απόδοση Ιδιοτήτων
Assignation d’attribut
Atribuição de Característica
Присвоение Атрибута
属性赋值
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the actions of classifying items of whatever kind. Such items include objects, specimens, people, actions, and concepts.

This class allows for the documentation of the context of classification acts in cases where the value of the classification depends on the personal opinion of the classifier, and the date that the classification was made. This class also encompasses the notion of “determination,” i.e. the systematic and molecular identification of a specimen in biology.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004

Diese Klasse umfasst Aktionen des Klassifizierens von Gegenständen jedweder Art. Sie beinhaltet Gegenstände, Exemplare, Leute, Aktionen und begriffliche Konzepte.

Diese Klasse ermöglicht die Dokumentation des Zusammenhanges von Klassifizierungshandlungen in Fällen, in denen der Wert der Klassifizierung von der persönlichen Meinung des Klassifikators und dem Datum abhängt, zu dem die Klassifizierung erfolgte. Diese Klasse umfasst auch die Vorstellung von „Bestimmung“, z. B. der systematischen und molekularen Identifizierung biologischer Exemplare.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει ενέργειες ταξινόμησης στοιχείων οποιουδήποτε είδους. Τέτοια στοιχεία περιλαμβάνουν αντικείμενα, δείγματα, ανθρώπους, δραστηριότητες και έννοιες.

Η κλάση αυτή επιτρέπει την τεκμηρίωση των συμφραζομένων των ταξινομήσεων σε περιπτώσεις όπου η τιμή της ταξινόμησης εξαρτάται από την προσωπική γνώμη του ταξινομητή και την ημερομηνία που έγινε η ταξινόμηση. Η κλάση επίσης περιλαμβάνει την έννοια της «αποφασιστικότητας» δηλαδή την συστηματική και μοριακή ταύτιση ενός δείγματος στη βιολογία.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Cette classe comprend les actions de classification d'éléments de toute nature. Ces éléments comprennent des objets, des spécimens, des personnes, des actions et des concepts.

Cette classe permet de documenter le contexte des actions de classification pour lesquelles la valeur dépend de l'opinion de la personne effectuant la classification et de la date à laquelle la classification a été effectuée. Cette classe englobe également la notion de « détermination », c.-à-d. l'identification systématique et moléculaire d'un spécimen en biologie.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

Данный класс охватывает действия по классификации предметов любого вида. Такими предметами могут быть объекты, образцы, люди, действия или концепты. Этот класс допускает документацию контекста действий классификации в тех случаях, когда значение классификации зависит от личного мнения классифицирующего и от даты классификации. Данный класс также подразумевает понятие определения, т.е. систематическую и молекулярную идентификацию образцов в биологии.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005

此类别包涵各类项目的分类行为。这些项目包括各种对象、标本、人物、行动和概念。

在许多情况中,分类结果取决於分类者的个人意见以及分类日期,E17-类型指定提供可对分类行为的背景进行记录的机制。此类别也包涵“确定”(determination)的概念,用来在生物学里对标本进行系统性分子鉴定。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
Examples:
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lamentation cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as Cereus hildmannianus K.Schum., July 2003
unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth, October 2nd
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as ‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’, July 2003
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die erste Klassifizierung des Gegenstands GE34604 als Klagetuch, am 2. Oktober
  • die Bestimmung eines Kaktus in Martin Doerrs Garten als Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann im Juli 2003
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth, October 2nd
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as ‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’, July 2003
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η πρώτη ταξινόμηση του αντικειμένου GE34604 ως Υφάσματος, 2. Οκτωβρίου
  • ο προσδιορισμός ενός κάκτου στον κήπο του Martin Doerr ‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’, Ιούλιος 2003
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as ‘Cereus hildmannianus K. Schumann’, July 2003
English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
  • La première classification de l'objet « GE34604 » comme tissu liturgique au musée Benaki à Athènes
  • L'identification d'un cactus dans le jardin de Martin Dœrr comme Cereus hildmannianus K. Schumann en juillet 2003
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth, October 2nd
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as ‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’, July 2003
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 10月2日,首次把物件GE34604归类为“哀悼用布”的事件
  • 2003年7月,鉴定Martin Doerr花园里种植的仙人掌品种为‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’的事件
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E17(x) ⇒ E13(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P41 classified (was classified by): E1 CRM Entity
P42 assigned (was assigned by): E55 Type
E18 Physical Thing
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Thing
unaltered since version 4.2 / June 2005
previous value in version 4.1
Materielles
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Υλικό Πράγμα
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Chose matérielle
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Coisa Material
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Физическая Вещь
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
实物
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E72 Legal Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E72
Rechtsobjekt
Νομικό Αντικείμενο
Objet juridique
Objeto Jurídico
Объект Права
法律对象
SuperClass Of:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E26 Physical Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E19
Materieller Gegenstand
Υλικό Αντικείμενο
Objet matériel
Objeto Material
Физический Объект
物质对象

E24
Hergestelltes
Ανθρωπογενές Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle élaborée par l’humain
Coisa Material Fabricada
Физическая Рукотворная Вещь
人造实物

E26
Materielles Merkmal
Υλικό Μόρφωμα
Caractéristique physique
Característica Material
Физический Признак
物理特征
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, human-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CIDOC CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land, etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

An instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space at any instant of its existence, but in the course of its existence it also forms a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the interior of a box. For the purpose of more detailed descriptions of the presence of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in space and time it can be associated with its specific instance of E92 Spacetime Volume by the property P196 defines (is defined by).

The CIDOC CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states, as long as they are not confined in an identifiable way for an identifiable minimal time-span.

unaltered since version 6.2.9 / April 2020
previous value in version 6.2.8

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst alle dauerhaften, physischen Gegenstände, künstliche wie natürliche mit einer relativ stabilen Gestalt.

In Abhängigkeit von der Existenz natürlicher Begrenzungen der Dinge unterscheidet das CIDOC CRM die Instanzen der Klasse E19 Materieller Gegenstand von Instanzen der Klasse E26 Materielles Merkmal wie Löcher, Flüsse, Stücke von Land etc. Die meisten Instanzen der Klasse E19 Materieller Gegenstand können bewegt werden, während „features“ als integraler Bestandteil die Sache umgeben.

Das CIDOC CRM beschäftigt sich generell nicht mit Sachinhalten in flüssigen oder gasförmigen Zuständen.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει όλα τα σταθερά φυσικά στοιχεία με μια σχετικά σταθερή μορφή, ανθρωπογενή ή φυσική.

Ανάλογα με την ύπαρξη φυσικών ορίων τέτοιων πραγμάτων, το CIDOC CRM διαχωρίζει τις πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Αντικειμένου (E19) από τις πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Μορφώματος (E26), όπως για παράδειγμα τρύπες, ποτάμια, τεμάχια γης κτλ. Οι περισσότερες πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Αντικειμένου (E19) μπορούν να μετακινηθούν (εφόσον δεν είναι υπερβολικά βαριά), ενώ οι διαμορφώσεις αποτελούν αναπόσπαστο μέρος της περιβάλλουσας ύλης.

Το CIDOC CRM δεν ασχολείται γενικά με ύλη σε υγρή ή αέρια μορφή.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend toutes les entités physiques persistantes présentant une forme raisonnablement stable, [n.d.t.qu’elles aient été] élaborées par l’humain ou [n.d.t. qu’elles soient] naturelles.

[n.d.t. Selon que ces instances de E18_Chose_matérielle présentent ou non des limites naturelles, le CIDOC CRM les considère soit comme des instances de E19_Objet_matériel, soit comme des instances de E26_Caractéristique_physique, comme les trous, les rivières, les terrains, etc.] La plupart des instances de E19_Objet_matériel peuvent être déplacées (si celles-ci ne sont pas trop lourdes), tandis que les caractéristiques [n.d.t. (E26_Caractéristique_physique)] font partie intégrante de la matière environnante.

Une instance de E18_Chose_matérielle occupe non seulement un espace géométrique particulier à tout instant de son existence, mais au cours de cette dernière elle forme également une trajectoire dans l’espace et le temps. Celle-ci occupe un volume réel dans l’espace-temps, c.-à-d. que ce volume est de nature phénoménale [n.d.t. en d’autres termes, il peut être perçu par les sens ou lors d’une expérience.] L’espace que la matière de la chose matérielle remplit ainsi que tous ses espaces intérieurs, comme l’intérieur d’une boîte, sont inclus dans cette conception de l’espace occupé. Aux fins des descriptions plus détaillées de la présence d’une instance de E18_Chose_matérielle dans l’espace et le temps, elle peut être associée à son instance spécifique de E92_Volume_spatio-temporel par la propriété P196_définit (est_défini_par).

Le CIDOC CRM ne traite généralement pas des cas d’amas de matière à l’état liquide ou gazeux tant qu’ils ne sont pas confinés d’une manière identifiable au sein d’un intervalle temporel minimalement identifiable.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает все постоянные физические вещи с относительно стабильной формой, рукотворные или нерукотворные. В зависимости от существования природных границ таких вещей, CRM отличает экземпляры класса E19.Материальный Объект от экземпляров класса E26.Физический Признак, такие как ямы (дыры или скважины), реки, участки суши и т.д. Большинство экземпляров класса E19.Материальный Объект могут быть перемещены (если они не тяжелые), в то время как признаки являются неотъемлемой частью окружающих предметов. Обычно CRM не описывает количества вещества в жидком или газообразном состоянии.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵所有持续性实体项目,这些项目的形式,无论是人造或自然的,都持有相对稳定性。

CRM对E19-实体物件实例和E26-实体外貌表征(例如洞穴、河流、土地等)加以区分,主要取决於这些实体物是否拥有自然界线。大部分的E19-实体物件实例都能够被移动(若不是太重),而E26-实体外貌表征则是与其环境/周遭物质不可分割的。

CRM一般上不涉及液状或气体的物质含量。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19) (Scarratt and Shor, 2006)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26) (Smith, 1844-49)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22) (Mohen, 2006)
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • der Cullinan-Diamant (E19 Materieller Gegenstand)
  • die Höhle „Ideon Andron“ in Kreta (E26 Materielles Merkmal)
  • die Mona Lisa (E22 Künstlicher Gegenstand)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • το διαμάντι Cullinan (E19)
  • το σπήλαιο Ιδαίον Άντρον στην Κρήτη (E26)
  • η Μόνα Λίζα (E22)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Le diamant Cullinan (E19_Objet_matériel) (Scarratt & Shor, 2006)
  • La grotte Ideon Andron en Crète (E26_Caractéristique_physique) (Smith, 1844-49)
  • La Monna Lisa (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain) (Mohen, 2006)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 库利南钻石(E19)
  • 希腊克里特岛的“Ideon Andron” 洞窟(E26)
  • 蒙娜丽莎(E22)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E18(x) ⇒ E72(x)
unaltered since version 6.2.8 / February 2020
previous value in version 6.2.7
Properties:
P44 has condition (is condition of): E3 Condition State
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place
P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object
P156 occupies (is occupied by): E53 Place
P196 defines (is defined by): E92 Spacetime Volume
P198 holds or supports (is held or supported by): E18 Physical Thing
E19 Physical Object
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Materieller Gegenstand
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Υλικό Αντικείμενο
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Objet matériel
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Objeto Material
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Физический Объект
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
物质对象
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Materielles
Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle
Coisa Material
Физическая Вещь
实物
SuperClass Of:
E20 Biological Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E22 Human-Made Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E20
Biologischer Gegenstand
Βιολογικό Ακτικείμενο
Objet biologique
Objeto Biológico
Биологический Объект
生物对象

E22
Künstlicher Gegenstand
Ανθρωπογενές Αντικείμενο
Objet élaboré par l’humain
Objeto Fabricado
Рукотворный Объект
人造对象
Scope Note:

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects”, i.e. naturally defined objects (Smith & Varzi, 2000).

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be purely administrative or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst Gegenstände materieller Natur, die Einheiten der Dokumentation bilden und physische Grenzen haben, die sie vollkommen auf einem objektiven Weg von anderen Gegenständen trennen.

Die Klasse schließt auch alle Zusammenstellungen (Aggregate) von Gegenständen ein, die zu irgendeinem funktionellen Zweck gemacht wurden, unabhängig ihrer physischen Kohärenz, z. B. ein Satz von Schachfiguren. Typischer Weise können Instanzen der Klasse E19 Materieller Gegenstand bewegt werden.

In einigen Zusammenhängen werden solche Gegenstände, mit Ausnahme von Zusammenstellungen (Aggregaten), auch „bona fide-Gegenstände“ [B. Smith & A.Varzi 2000, 401–420] genannt, damit sind natürlich definierte Gegenstände gemeint.

Die Entscheidung, was als ein vollständiger Gegenstand dokumentiert wird und nicht als Teil oder Bestandteil, kann ausschließlich administrativ oder aber ein Ergebnis aus der Erwerbsgeschichte des Gegenstandes sein.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει στοιχεία υλικής φύσης που είναι μονάδες τεκμηρίωσης και έχουν φυσικά σύνορα που τα διαχωρίζουν απόλυτα με αντικειμενικό τρόπο από άλλα αντικείμενα.

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει επίσης σύνολα αντικειμένων που γίνονται για λειτουργικούς σκοπούς κάθε είδους, ανεξάρτητα από φυσική συνοχή όπως για παράδειγμα ένα σύνολο από πιόνια σκακιού. Χαρακτηριστικά, πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Αντικειμένου (E19) μπορούν να μετακινηθούν (εφόσον δεν είναι υπερβολικά βαριά).

Σε ορισμένα συμφραζόμενα, τέτοια αντικείμενα, εκτός από σύνολα, αποκαλούνται επίσης “αντικείμενα bona fide” (Smith & Varzi 2000, σσ. 401-420), δηλαδή φυσικά καθορισμένα αντικείμενα.

Η απόφαση για το τι τεκμηριώνεται ως ολοκληρωμένο στοιχείο και όχι ως μέρη ή συνιστώντα μέρη ενδέχεται να είναι μια εντελώς διοικητική απόφαση ή μπορεί να είναι το αποτέλεσμα της σειράς με την οποία αποκτήθηκε το στοιχείο.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e., naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend les entités de nature matérielle qui constituent des unités pour la documentation et possèdent des limites physiques qui les séparent complètement et objectivement d’autres objets.

Cette classe inclut aussi toutes les agrégations d’objets produits pour de quelconques buts fonctionnels, indépendamment de leur cohérence physique, comme un ensemble de pièces de jeu d’échecs. Généralement, les instances de E19_Objet_matériel peuvent être déplacées (si elles ne sont pas trop lourdes).

Dans certains contextes [n.d.t. comme dans le domaine de la philosophie de la spatialité], de tels objets, à l’exception des agrégats, sont aussi appelés « objets bona fide » (Smith et Varzi, 2000, p. 401-420), c.-à-d. des objets naturellement définis.

La décision de documenter un objet comme un ensemble complet plutôt que de documenter ses parties ou composants peut être motivée par des raisons purement administratives ou être le résultat de l’ordre d’acquisition des objets.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает предметы из природного материала, являющиеся единицами документации и имеющие физические границы, которые объективно и полностью отделяют их от других предметов. Этот класс также включает все совокупности объектов, созданных для функциональных целей какого бы то ни было вида, независимо от физической связи, как, например, набор шахмат. Обычно, экземпляры класса E19.Материальный Объект могут быть перемещены (если не являются слишком тяжелыми). В некоторых контекстах, такие объекты, за исключением совокупностей, также называются "bona fide objects" (Smith & Varzi 2000, pp.401-420), что означает объекты, определяемые естественным образом. Решение относительно того, что документируется в качестве полного (завершенного) предмета, нежели его части или компоненты, может быть чисто административным или являться результатом распоряжения, согласно которому данный предмет был приобретен.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵实体物项目,其拥有物质界线并能客观地把它们与其他对象完全区分开来, 这些项目是可以在文献中被个别记录的。

此类别也包涵所有具备特定功能的对象的组合,组合中的对象未必要具备一致的物质性质,例如一套棋子。E19-实体物件通常都可被移动(若不太重)。

在某些情况下,这类对象(除组合对象Aggregate之外)也被称为“自然界定对象”(“bona fide objects” ,见Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420),亦即能"自然而然"地界定的对象。

选择把对象视为完整项目,或将它分类成组件或零件来进行记录,可能是个纯粹行政上的决定,或可能是因项目的取得顺序所造成的结果。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • Aphrodite of Milos (E22) (Kousser, 2005)
  • the Cullinan Diamond (Scarratt and Shor, 2006)
  • Apollo 13 at the time of launch (E22) (Lovell and Kluger, 1994)
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • John Smith
  • Aphrodite of Milos
  • the Palace of Knossos
  • the Cullinan Diamond
  • Apollo 13 at the time of launch
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • John Smith
  • Aphrodite von Milo
  • der Palast von Knossos
  • der Cullinan-Diamant
  • Apollo 13 zur Startzeit
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • John Smith
  • Aphrodite of Milos
  • the Palace of Knossos
  • the Cullinan Diamond
  • Apollo 13 at the time of launch
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • ο Τζον Σμιθ
  • η Αφροδίτη της Μύλου
  • το ανάκτορο της Κνωσού
  • το διαμάντι Cullinan
  • το Apollo 13 τη στιγμή της εκτόξευσης
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • L’Aphrodite de Milos (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain) (Kousser, 2005)
  • Le diamant Cullinan (Scarratt & Shor, 2006)
  • Apollo 13 au moment de son lancement (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain) (Lovell & Kluger, 1994)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • John Smith
  • Aphrodite of Milos
  • the Palace of Knossos
  • the Cullinan Diamond
  • Apollo 13 at the time of launch
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 约翰•史密斯
  • 米洛斯的阿芙洛蒂忒
  • 希腊克诺索斯宫
  • 库利南钻石
  • 发射之际的阿婆罗13号
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E19(x) ⇒ E18(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
E20 Biological Object
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Biological Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Biologischer Gegenstand
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Βιολογικό Ακτικείμενο
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Objet biologique
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Objeto Biológico
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Биологический Объект
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
生物对象
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Materieller Gegenstand
Υλικό Αντικείμενο
Objet matériel
Objeto Material
Физический Объект
物质对象
SuperClass Of:
E21 Person unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E21
Person
Πρόσωπο
Personne
Pessoa
Личность
人物
Scope Note:

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived, or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Human-Made Object.

unaltered since version 6.2.7 / October 2019
previous value in version 6.2.6

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst individuelle Objekte materieller Natur, die leben, gelebt haben oder natürliche Produkte lebender Organismen.

Künstliche Gegenstände, die biologische Elemente integrieren, wie Victorianische Schmetterlingsrahmen, können sowohl als Instanzen der Klasse E20 Biologischer Gegenstand wie als Instanzen der Klasse E22 Künstlicher Gegenstand dokumentiert werden.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει μεμονωμένα στοιχεία υλικής φύσης, τα οποία ζουν, έχουν ζήσει ή είναι τα φυσικά προϊόντα ζωντανών οργανισμών.

Τεχνητά αντικείμενα που ενσωματώνουν βιολογικά στοιχεία όπως για παράδειγμα κάδρα πεταλούδων της βικτωριανής εποχής μπορούν να τεκμηριωθούν τόσο ως πραγματώσεις του Βιολογικού Αντικειμένου (E20) όσο και ως πραγματώσεις του Ανθρωπογενούς Αντικειμένου (E22).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend les entités distinctes de nature matérielle qui vivent, ont vécu ou sont les produits naturels provenant d’organismes vivants ou issus par ces derniers.

Les objets artificiels qui intègrent des éléments biologiques, tels que des cadres d’époque victorienne contenant des papillons, peuvent être documentés à la fois comme des instances de E20_Objet_biologique et E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает индивидуальные экземпляры материального мира, которые живут, проживали или являются естественными продуктами живых организмов или произошли от них. Искусственные объекты, которые включают в себя биологические элементы, такие так, например, рамка для бабочек викторианской эпохи, могут быть задокументированы либо как экземпляры класса E20.Биологический Объект либо как экземпляры класса E22.Техническией Объект.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵物质性个别项目,这些项目现在或曾经有生命,或者是源自生物的自然产 物。

人造对象若包含了生物性的组成部分,例如维多利亚式蝴蝶边筐架,可同时被归类为E20-生物体实例和E22-人造物件实例。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • me (fictitious)
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun (Edwards and Boltin, 1979)
  • Boukephalus [Horse of Alexander the Great] (Lamb, 2005)
  • petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • me
  • Tut-Ankh-AmunP
  • Boukephalas [Horse of Alexander the Great]
  • petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Ich
  • Tut Ankh Amun (Ägyptischer Pharo)
  • Boukephalos (Das Lieblingspferd von Alexander dem Großen)
  • der versteinerte Dinosaurierkot PA1906-344
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • me
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Boukephalas [Horse of Alexander the Great]
  • petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • εγώ
  • Τουταγχαμών
  • ο Βουκεφάλας [το άλογο του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου]
  • απολιθωμένα περιττώματα δεινόσαυρου PA1906-344
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Moi (fictif)
  • Toutânkhamon (Edwards & Boltin, 1979)
  • Bucéphale [le cheval d’Alexandre le Grand] (Lamb, 2005)
  • Coprolithe de dinosaure PA1906-344
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • me
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Boukephalas [Horse of Alexander the Great]
  • petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 埃及法老王图坦卡蒙(Tut-Ankh-Amun)
  • 亚历山大的战马包克法拉斯 (Boukephalas)
  • 恐龙的石化粪便PA1906-344
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E20(x) ⇒ E19(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
-
E21 Person
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Person
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Person
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Πρόσωπο
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Personne
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Pessoa
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Личность
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
人物
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E20 Biological Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E20
Biologischer Gegenstand
Βιολογικό Ακτικείμενο
Objet biologique
Objeto Biológico
Биологический Объект
生物对象

E39
Akteur
Δράστης
Actant
Agente
Агент
参与者
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CIDOC CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

In a bibliographic context, a name presented following the conventions usually employed for personal names will be assumed to correspond to an actual real person (an instance of E21 Person), unless evidence is available to indicate that this is not the case. The fact that a persona may erroneously be classified as an instance of E21 Person does not imply that the concept comprises personae.

unaltered since version 6.2.8 / February 2020
previous value in version 6.2.7

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst wirkliche Personen, die leben oder von denen angenommen wird, dass sie gelebt haben.

Sagenfiguren, deren reale Existenz nicht belegt ist, wie Odysseus oder König Arthur, fallen ebenso in diese Klasse, wenn sich die Dokumentation auf sie als historische Figuren bezieht.

In Fällen, in denen Zweifel bestehen, in wie weit verschiedene Personen identisch sind, können mehrfache Instanzen geschaffen und miteinander verbunden werden, um ihre Beziehung anzuzeigen. Das CRM schlägt kein bestimmtes Verfahren vor, um ein Schlussfolgern über eine mögliche Identität zu unterstützen.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει πραγματικά άτομα που ζουν ή υποτίθεται ότι έχουν ζήσει.

Μυθικές φιγούρες που ίσως έχουν υπάρξει, όπως ο Οδυσσέας και ο βασιλιάς Αρθούρος εμπίπτουν στην κατηγορία αυτή, εάν η τεκμηρίωση αναφέρεται σ' αυτούς ως ιστορικά πρόσωπα. Σε περιπτώσεις όπου υπάρχουν αμφιβολίες σχετικά με το εάν ορισμένα πρόσωπα ταυτίζονται στην πραγματικότητα, μπορούν να δημιουργηθούν πολλαπλές πραγματώσεις και να συνδεθούν μεταξύ τους προκειμένου να καταδειχτεί η σχέση τους. Το CIDOC CRM δεν προτείνει μια συγκεκριμένη μορφή προκειμένου να υποστηρίξει το συλλογισμό σχετικά με την πιθανή ταυτότητα.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend les personnes réelles qui vivent ou sont admises avoir vécu.

Des personnages légendaires comme Ulysse ou le Roi Arthur sont des exemples de personnes s’inscrivant dans cette classe dans la mesure où elles sont considérées comme des figures historiques plutôt que fictives [n.d.t. dans le cadre de leur enregistrement d’origine]. Dans la mesure où il y aurait un doute quant au fait que plusieurs personnes ne constituent qu’un seul et unique individu, plusieurs instances peuvent être créées et liées afin d’indiquer leur relation. Le CIDOC CRM ne propose pas de forme spécifique de raisonnement quant aux identités possibles.

En contexte bibliographique, un nom présenté selon les conventions régissant normalement l’utilisation de noms personnels sera admis correspondre à une personne réelle (une instance de E21_Personne) à moins que d’autres éléments n’indiquent le contraire. Le fait qu’un personnage fictif soit classifié de manière erronée comme une instance de E21_Personne n’implique pas l’inclusion de tels personnages dans le concept de personne.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает реальных людей, которые живут в настоящее время или допускается, что они жили. К этому классу относятся легендарные личности, которые могли существовать, такие как Улисс и Король Артур, если документация рассматривает их как исторические фигуры. В сомнительных случаях, когда несколько человек являются фактически идентичными, можно создать и связать множество экземпляров для определения их отношений. CRM не предлагает специальной формы для рассуждений по поводу возможной идентичности.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵现在或被假设曾经生活在世上的真实人物。

希腊神话英雄尤利西斯和英国著名的阿瑟王等传说人物,若在文献记录中被称为历史人物,那么他们都属於此类别。若怀疑所提出的数名“人物”是否属於同一个人,可设计多个实例,并把它们联系起来,以便显示个中关系。CRM并不会提出特定形式去为某个可能身份寻找支持论据。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun (Edwards and Boltin, 1979)
  • Nelson Mandela (Brown and Hort, 2006)
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Nelson Mandela
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Tut Ankh Amun (Ägyptischer Pharao)
  • Nelson Mandela (Freiheitskämpfer, südafrikanischer Präsident in der Zeit von Juli 1991 bis Dezember 1997)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Nelson Mandela
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • Τουταγχαμών
  • Νέλσον Μαντέλα
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Toutânkhamon (Edwards & Boltin, 1979)
  • Nelson Mandela (Brown & Hort, 2006)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Nelson Mandela
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 埃及法老王图坦卡蒙 (Tut-Ankh-Amun)
  • 南非之子曼德拉 (Nelson Mandela)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E21(x) ⇒ E20(x)
  • E21(x) ⇒ E39(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P152 has parent (is parent of): E21 Person
E22 Human-Made Object
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Human-Made Object
unaltered since version 6.2.7 / October 2019
previous value in version 6.2.6
Man-Made Object
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Künstlicher Gegenstand
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Man-Made Object
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Ανθρωπογενές Αντικείμενο
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Objet élaboré par l’humain
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Man-Made Object
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Objeto Fabricado
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Man-Made Object
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Рукотворный Объект
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Man-Made Object
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
人造对象
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
SubClass Of:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E19
Materieller Gegenstand
Υλικό Αντικείμενο
Objet matériel
Objeto Material
Физический Объект
物质对象

E24
Hergestelltes
Ανθρωπογενές Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle élaborée par l’humain
Coisa Material Fabricada
Физическая Рукотворная Вещь
人造实物
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical objects of any size that are purposely created by human activity and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen.

unaltered since version 7.0.1 / October 2020
previous value in version 7.0

This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst konkrete Gegenstände, die von menschlicher Aktivität bewusst geschaffen werden.

Ab wann ein Gegenstand als künstlich geschaffenes Objekt aufgefasst wird, obliegt allein der individuellen Einschätzung. So kann sowohl ein beschriebenes Stück Felsen oder auch ein Schmetterlingspräparat als Instanzen von E22 Künstlicher Gegenstand begriffen werden.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει υλικά αντικείμενα που έχουν σκόπιμα δημιουργηθεί από ανθρώπινη δραστηριότητα.

Δεν γίνονται υποθέσεις σχετικά με την έκταση της τροποποίησης που απαιτείται προκειμένου να δικαιολογηθεί η θεώρηση ενός αντικειμένου ως ανθρωπογενές. Για παράδειγμα, ένα κομμάτι βράχου με επιγραφή ή μια πεταλούδα που έχει συλλεχθεί και διατηρηθεί εκλαμβάνονται ως πραγματώσεις του Ανθρωπογενούς Αντικειμένου (Ε22).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend tous les objets physiques persistants, quelle que soit leur taille, qui sont créés intentionnellement par l’activité humaine et qui possèdent des limites physiques qui les séparent complètement et objectivement des autres objets.

Cette classe inclut aussi toutes les agrégations d’objets produits pour de quelconques buts fonctionnels, indépendamment de leur cohérence physique, comme un ensemble de pièces de jeu d’échecs.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает физические объекты специально созданные в результате деятельности человека. Не делается никаких предположений по поводу модификации, необходимой для того, чтобы определить объект как рукотворный. Например, и надписанный кусок скалы и засушенная бабочка рассматриваются как экземпляры класса E22.Техническией Объект.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵人类活动特意创造的各种实体物件。

CRM不假设任何用来作为认定人造物件的修改程度的标准。例如某块有刻字的岩石 或蝴蝶标本都可被视为E22-人造物件实例。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the Rosetta Stone (E22)
  • LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard [the World’s fastest steam locomotive, preserved at the National Railway Museum of York, UK] (Solomon, 2003)
  • the Portland Vase (Walker, 2004)
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • Mallard (the World’s fastest steam engine)
  • the Portland Vase
  • the Coliseum
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • Mallard (die schnellste Dampfmaschine der Welt)
  • die Portland-Vase
  • das Kolosseum in Rom (Circus Maximus)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • Mallard (the World’s fastest steam engine)
  • the Portland Vase
  • the Coliseum
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • Mallard (η γρηγορότερη ατμομηχανή του κόσμου)
  • το βάζο του Πόρτλαντ
  • το Κολοσσαίο
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La pierre de rosette (Rosetta Stone) (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain)
  • La Mallard LNER Class A4 4468 (la locomotive à vapeur la plus rapide du monde conservée au National Railway Museum of York au Royaume-Uni) (Solomon, 2003)
  • Le vase Portland (Walker, 2004)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • Mallard (the World’s fastest steam engine)
  • the Portland Vase
  • the Coliseum
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 英国绿头鸭“Mallard”(世界最快的蒸汽机车〕
  • 古罗马波特兰花瓶
  • 古罗马竞技场
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E22(x) ⇒ E19(x)
  • E22(x) ⇒ E24(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
-
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Human-Made Thing
unaltered since version 6.2.7 / October 2019
previous value in version 6.2.6
Physical Man-Made Thing
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Hergestelltes
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Physical Man-Made Thing
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Ανθρωπογενές Υλικό Πράγμα
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Chose matérielle élaborée par l’humain
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Physical Man-Made Thing
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Coisa Material Fabricada
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Physical Man-Made Thing
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Физическая Рукотворная Вещь
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Physical Man-Made Thing
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
人造实物
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E71 Human-Made Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E18
Materielles
Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle
Coisa Material
Физическая Вещь
实物

E71
Künstliches
Ανθρώπινο Δημιούργημα
Chose élaborée par l’humain
Coisa Fabricada
Рукотворная Вещь
人造事物
SuperClass Of:
E22 Human-Made Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E25 Human-Made Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E78 Curated Holding unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E22
Künstlicher Gegenstand
Ανθρωπογενές Αντικείμενο
Objet élaboré par l’humain
Objeto Fabricado
Рукотворный Объект
人造对象

E25
Hergestelltes Merkmal
Ανθρωπογενές Μόρφωμα
Caractéristique élaborée par l'humain
Característica Fabricada
Искусственный Признак
人为特征

E78
Sammlung
Συλλογή
Collection
Coleção
Коллекция
藏品
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items of any size that are purposely created by human activity. This class comprises, besides others, human-made objects, such as a sword, and human-made features, such as rock art. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

Instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing may be the result of modifying pre-existing physical things, preserving larger parts or most of the original matter and structure, which poses the question if they are new or even human-made, the respective interventions of production made on such original material should be obvious and sufficient to regard that the product has a new, distinct identity and intended function and is human-made. Substantial continuity of the previous matter and structure in the new product can be documented by describing the production process also as an instance of E81 Transformation.

Whereas interventions of conservation and repair are not regarded to produce a new instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing, the results of preparation of natural history specimens that substantially change their natural or original state should be regarded as instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Things, including the uncovering of petrified biological features from a solid piece of stone. On the other side, scribbling a museum number on a natural object should not be regarded to make it human-made. This notwithstanding, parts, sections, segments, or features of an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing may continue to be non-human-made and preserved during the production process, for example natural pearls used as a part of an eardrop.

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.

This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst alle dauerhaften, durch menschliche Aktivität, absichtlich geschaffenen Gegenstände und Merkmale.

Diese Klasse umfasst demgemäß künstliche Gegenstände, wie ein Schwert und künstliche Merkmale, wie z. B. die in Stonehenge zusammengestellten Felsen. Es werden keine Annahmen darüber gemacht, wie viele Veränderungen notwendig sind, um einen Gegenstand als künstlich zu betrachten.

Zum Beispiel werden eine auf einem Felsen eingeritzte „Tasse und Ring“ als Instanzen von E24 Hergestelltes betrachtet.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.

This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει κάθε σταθερό φυσικό στοιχείο που δημιουργείται σκόπιμα από ανθρώπινη δραστηριότητα.

Η κλάση αυτή αποτελείται από ανθρωπογενή αντικείμενα, όπως για παράδειγμα ξίφη, και ανθρωπογενή μορφώματα, όπως βραχογραφίες. Δεν γίνονται υποθέσεις σχετικά με την έκταση της τροποποίησης που απαιτείται προκειμένου να δικαιολογηθεί η θεώρηση ενός αντικειμένου ως ανθρωπογενές. Για παράδειγμα, προϊστορικές βραχογραφίες εκλαμβάνονται ως πραγμάτωση του Ανθρωπογενούς Υλικού Πράγματος (Ε24).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises all persistent physical items of any size that are purposely created by human activity. This class comprises, besides others, Human-Made objects, such as a sword, and Human-Made features, such as rock art. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

Instances of Human-Made thing may be the result of modifying pre-existing physical things, preserving larger parts or most of the original matter and structure, which poses the question if they are new or even Human-Made, the respective interventions of production made on such original material should be obvious and sufficient to regard that the product has a new, distinct identity and intended function and is human-made. Substantial continuity of the previous matter and structure in the new product can be documented by describing the production process also as an instance of E81 Transformation.

Whereas interventions of conservation and repair are not regarded to produce a new Human-Made thing, the results of preparation of natural history specimens that substantially change their natural or original state should be regarded as physical Human-Made things, including the uncovering of petrified biological features from a solid piece of stone. On the other side, scribbling a museum number on a natural object should not be regarded to make it Human-Made. This notwithstanding, parts, sections, segments, or features of a physical Human-Made thing may continue to be non-Human-Made and preserved during the production process, for example natural pearls used as a part of an eardrop.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend toutes les entités physiques persistantes de n’importe quelle taille qui sont créées volontairement par l’activité humaine. Cette classe comprend, entre autres, des instances de E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain, comme une épée, ainsi que des instances de E25_Caractéristique_élaborée_par_l’humain, comme une œuvre d’art rupestre. Par exemple, une « cupule » gravée dans un substrat rocheux est considérée comme une instance de E24_Chose_matérielle_élaborée_par_l’humain.

Les instances de E71_Chose_élaborée_par_l’humain peuvent être le résultat de la modification de choses matérielles préexistantes, tant que de grandes parties ou la majorité de la matière originale et de la structure sont préservées. [n.d.t. Le fait que ces instances peuvent provenir d’une modification] soulève la question de savoir si elles sont nouvelles ou même élaborées par l’humain. [n.d.t. Afin de déterminer s’il s’agit effectivement d’une nouvelle instance de E24_Chose_matérielle_élaborée_par_l’humain, il faut que] les interventions de production sur ce matériau d’origine soient respectivement évidentes et suffisantes pour considérer que le produit a une identité nouvelle et distincte, une fonction prévue ainsi qu’il soit fabriqué par l’humain. La continuité substantielle de la matière et de la structure précédentes dans le nouveau produit peut être documentée en décrivant le processus de production également comme une instance de E81_Transformation.

Alors que les interventions de conservation et de réparation ne sont pas considérées comme produisant une nouvelle instance de E71_Chose_élaborée_par_l’humain, les résultats de préparation de spécimens d’histoire naturelle qui modifient substantiellement leur état naturel ou original devraient être considérés comme des instances de E71_Chose_élaborée_par_l’humain, y compris la découverte de composants biologiques pétrifiés au sein d’un morceau de pierre solide. D’un autre côté, griffonner un numéro de musée sur un objet naturel ne devrait pas être considéré comme une activité créant une chose élaborée par l’humain. Nonobstant cela, des parties, sections ou caractéristiques d’une instance de E24_Chose_matérielle_élaborée_par_l’humain peuvent continuer à ne pas être élaborées par l’humain et préservées pendant le processus de production, par exemple les perles naturelles utilisées comme une partie de boucle d’oreille.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.

This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает все постоянные физические составляющие, специально созданные в результате деятельности человека. Этот класс включает рукотворные объекты, такие как мечи, и рукотворные признаки, такие как рок-искусство. Не делается никаких предположений по поводу модификации, необходимой для определения объекта как рукотворного. Например, “кубок и кольцо”, вырезанные в породе, считаются экземплярами класса E24.Материальный Продукт Деятельности Человека.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.

This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵所有持续性物质项目,这些项目是人类活动有意创制而成的。

此类别包涵各种人造对象(例如剑〕和人造外貌表征(例如岩石艺术〕。CRM不假设任何用来作为认定人造实体物的修改程度的标准。例如岩床上刻着的“杯一环印”,便属於E24-人造实体物的实例。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the Forth Railway Bridge (Shipway, Bouch, Baker and Fowler, 1990).
  • the Channel Tunnel (E25) (Holliday, Marcou and Vickerman, 1991)
  • the Palace of Knossos (Evans, 1921)
  • the Colosseum in Rome, Italy (Hopkins and Beard, 2011)
  • the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78) (Georgoula, 2005)
  • the Rosetta Stone (E22)
  • my paperback copy of Crime & Punishment (E22) (fictitious)
  • the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM v.3.2 (E22)
  • my empty DVD disk (E22) (fictitious)
unaltered since version 7.1.2 / June 2022
previous value in version 7.1.1
  • the Forth Railway Bridge (E22)
  • the Channel Tunnel (E25)
  • the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78)
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • die Forth-Brücke (E22 Künstlicher Gegenstand)
  • der Kanaltunnel (E25 Hergestelltes Merkmal)
  • die historische Sammlung des Museum Benaki in Athen (E78 Sammlung)
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the Forth Railway Bridge (E22)
  • the Channel Tunnel (E25)
  • the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78)
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • η γέφυρα Forth Railway (E22)
  • το Κανάλι της Μάγχης (E25)
  • η ιστορική συλλογή του Μουσείου Μπενάκη στην Αθήνα (E78)
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Le Pont du Forth (Forth Railway Bridge) (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain) (Shipway, Bouch, Baker & Fowler, 1990)
  • Le tunnel sous la manche (E25_Caractéristique_élaborée_par_l’humain) (Holliday, Marcou & Vickerman, 1991)
  • Le palais de Knossos (Evans, 1921)
  • Le Colisée de Rome en Italie (Hopkins & Beard, 2011)
  • La collection historique du Musée Benaki à Athènes (E78_Collection) (Georgoula, 2005)
  • La pierre de Rosette (Rosetta Stone) (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain)
  • Ma copie de poche de Crime et Châtiment Преступление и наказание (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain) (fictif)
  • Le disque informatique à l’Institute of Computer Science - Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (ICS-FORTH) qui contient la Définition canonique du CIDOC CRM v.3.2 (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain)
  • Mon disque DVD vide (E22_Objet_élaboré_par_l’humain) (fictif)
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the Forth Railway Bridge (E22)
  • the Channel Tunnel (E25)
  • the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78)
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 福斯铁路桥(E22)
  • 英法海底隧道 (E25)
  • 雅典贝纳基博物馆的历史收藏品 (E78)
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E24(x) ⇒ E18(x)
  • E24(x) ⇒ E71(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
E25 Human-Made Feature
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Human-Made Feature
unaltered since version 6.2.7 / October 2019
previous value in version 6.2.6
Man-Made Feature
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Hergestelltes Merkmal
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Man-Made Feature
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Ανθρωπογενές Μόρφωμα
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Caractéristique élaborée par l'humain
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Man-Made Feature
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Característica Fabricada
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Man-Made Feature
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Искусственный Признак
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
Man-Made Feature
English text for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
人为特征
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 6.2.1
SubClass Of:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E26 Physical Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24
Hergestelltes
Ανθρωπογενές Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle élaborée par l’humain
Coisa Material Fabricada
Физическая Рукотворная Вещь
人造实物

E26
Materielles Merkmal
Υλικό Μόρφωμα
Caractéristique physique
Característica Material
Физический Признак
物理特征
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc. In particular, it includes the information encoding features on mechanical or digital carriers.

unaltered since version 7.0.1 / October 2020
previous value in version 7.0

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even “cup and ring” carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst physische bzw. dingliche Merkmale, die von menschlicher Aktivität, beabsichtigt geschaffen werden, wie Schrammen, künstliche Höhlen, künstliche Wasserkanäle, etc.

Es werden keine Annahmen über den Umfang der Modifikation gemacht, ab dem ein Merkmal als künstlich zu betrachten ist. Zum Beispiel: Künstlich zusammengestellte Felsen (Stonehenge) oder sogar eine „Tasse und Ring“ eingeritzt, auf Felsen werden als Instanz vom E25 Hergestelltes Merkmal betrachtet.

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even “cup and ring” carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει φυσικά μορφώματα που έχουν δημιουργηθεί σκόπιμα από ανθρώπινη δραστηριότητα, όπως γρατζουνιές, τεχνητές σπηλιές, τεχνητά κανάλια νερού κτλ.

Δεν γίνονται υποθέσεις σχετικά με την έκταση της τροποποίησης που απαιτείται προκειμένου να δικαιολογηθεί η θεώρηση ενός μορφώματος ως ανθρωπογενούς. Για παράδειγμα βραχογραφίες ή ακόμα και προϊστορικές βραχογραφίες εκλαμβάνονται ως τύποι του Ανθρωπογενούς Μορφώματος (E25).

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

Cette classe comprend les caractéristiques physiques créées délibérément par l'activité humaine, telles que les rayures, les grottes artificielles, les chenaux artificiels, etc. En particulier, elle comprend les caractéristiques d'encodage de l'information sur des supports mécaniques ou numériques.

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even “cup and ring” carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает физические признаки, намеренно созданные в результате деятельности человека, такие как царапины, искусственные пещеры, искусственные водные каналы и т.д. Не делается никаких предположений по поводу модификации, необходимой для определения признака как рукотворного. Например, рок-искусство или даже вырезанные в породе “кубок и кольцо” считаются экземплярами класса E25.Искусственный Признак.

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even “cup and ring” carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类别包涵人类活动有意创制的各种物质性的外貌表征,例如刮痕、人造洞穴、人造海底隧道等。

CRM不假设任何用来作为认定人造外貌表征的修改程度的标准。例如岩石艺术或甚至岩床上刻着的“杯一环印”都被视为E25-人造外貌表征的类型。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the Manchester Ship Canal (Farnie, 1980)
  • Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
  • the laser-readable “pits” engraved June 2014 on Martin Doerr’s CD-R, copying songs of Edith Piaf
  • the carved letters on the Rosetta Stone
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • the Manchester Ship Canal
  • Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • der Manchester Schiff Kanal
  • Michael Jacksons Nase nach einem plastisch chirurgischen Eingriff
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the Manchester Ship Canal
  • Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • το κανάλι του Μάντσεστερ
  • η μύτη του Michael Jackson μετά από πλαστική χειρουργική
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • Le Canal maritime de Manchester (Farnie, 1980)
  • Le nez de Michæl Jackson après la chirurgie esthétique
  • Les « creux » lisibles au laser et gravés en juin 2014 sur le CD-R de Martin Dœrr, copiant des chansons d'Édith Piaf
  • Les lettres gravées sur la pierre de Rosette
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the Manchester Ship Canal
  • Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 曼彻斯特(Mahchester)运河
  • 麦克杰逊(Michael Jackson)接受整容手术后的鼻子
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E25(x) ⇒ E24(x)
  • E25(x) ⇒ E26(x)
unaltered since version 6.2.5 / March 2019
previous value in version 6.2.4
Properties:
-
E26 Physical Feature
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Feature
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Materielles Merkmal
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Υλικό Μόρφωμα
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Caractéristique physique
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Característica Material
'Portuguese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Физический Признак
'Russian' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
物理特征
'Chinese' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Materielles
Υλικό Πράγμα
Chose matérielle
Coisa Material
Физическая Вещь
实物
SuperClass Of:
E25 Human-Made Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E27 Site unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E25
Hergestelltes Merkmal
Ανθρωπογενές Μόρφωμα
Caractéristique élaborée par l'humain
Característica Fabricada
Искусственный Признак
人为特征

E27
Gelände
Φυσικός Χώρος
Site
Lugar
Участок
场地
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of “fiat objects”, with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000).

unaltered since version 7.1.3 / February 2024
previous value in version 7.1.2

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009

Diese Klasse umfasst identifizierbare Merkmale, die dinglich eine Einheit mit dem Gegenstand bilden, an dem sie angebracht sind.

Instanzen von E26 Materielles Merkmal teilen sich zahlreiche Merkmale mit Instanzen von E19 Materieller Gegenstand. Die Instanzen können von ein-, zwei- oder dreidimensionaler geometrischer Gestalt sein. Es gibt jedoch keine natürlichen Abgrenzungen, durch die sie sich eindeutig von den Trägerobjekten absetzen. So ist eine Türöffnung sicherlich ein Merkmal der Tür, jedoch zählt die mit Scharnieren befestigte Tür selbst nicht dazu.

Ausprägungen von E26 Materielles Merkmal können Merkmale wie Schrammen, Löcher, Erhebungen, Oberflächenfarbe, Reflektionsbereiche in einem Opalkristall oder eine Veränderung der Dichte in einem Stück Holz sein. Im weitesten Sinn sind diese Ausprägungen Bestandteil besonderer Gegenstände mit zum Teil imaginären Grenzen wie der Kern der Erde, Grundbesitz als Eigentumsanspruch auf ein Areal der Erdoberfläche, eine Landschaft oder ein zu einer Marmorstatue passender Kopf. Diese Ausprägungen können gemessen und datiert werden und es ist unter Umständen möglich zu klären, wer oder was für das Entstehen verantwortlich war.

Sie können jedoch nicht vom Trägergegenstand getrennt existieren, dennoch kann ein Teil des Trägergegenstandes, der das Merkmal vollständig beinhaltet, durchaus als eigenständig identifiziert (oder manchmal entfernt) werden.

Diese Festlegung deckt sich mit der Definition der ‚fiat objects‘ durch [B. Smith & A. Varzi 2000, 401–420] mit Ausnahme der Zusammenstellungen (Aggregate) von ‚bona-fide Objekten‘ (bona fide = In gutem Glauben).

'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005

Η κλάση αυτή περιλαμβάνει αναγνωρίσιμα μορφώματα που είναι φυσικά προσαρμοσμένα με αναπόσπαστο τρόπο σε συγκεκριμένα φυσικά αντικείμενα.

Πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Μορφώματος (E26) έχουν πολλά κοινά χαρακτηριστικά με τις πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Αντικειμένου (E19). Ενδέχεται να έχουν μονοδιάστατη, δισδιάστατη ή τρισδιάσταση γεωμετρική έκταση, αλλά δεν υπάρχουν φυσικά σύνορα που τα διαχωρίζουν απόλυτα, με αντικειμενικό τρόπο από τα αντικείμενα φορείς. Για παράδειγμα, ένα κούφωμα αποτελεί μόρφωμα αλλά η ίδια η πόρτα, στερεωμένη σε μεντεσέδες, όχι.

Πραγματώσεις του Υλικού Μορφώματος (E26) μπορούν να είναι μορφώματα με μια στενότερη έννοια όπως γρατζουνιές, τρύπες, ανάγλυφα, χρώματα επιφάνειας, ζώνες ανάκλασης σε ένα οπάλ κρύσταλλο ή την αλλαγή πυκνότητας σε ένα κομμάτι ξύλου. Με την ευρύτερη έννοια, είναι μέρη συγκεκριμένων αντικειμένων με μερικά φανταστικά σύνορα, όπως ο πυρήνας του κόσμου, μια ιδιοκτησία στην επιφάνεια της γης, ένα τοπίο ή το κεφάλι σε ένα μαρμάρινο άγαλμα. Μπορούν να μετρηθούν και να χρονολογηθούν και μερικές φορές είναι δυνατόν να δηλωθεί ποιος ή τι είναι ή ήταν υπεύθυνος για αυτά. Δεν μπορούν να χωριστούν από το φορέα αντικειμένου, αλλά ένα τμήμα του φορέα αντικειμένου μπορεί να καθοριστεί (η μερικές φορές να απομακρυνθεί) φέροντας ολόκληρο το μόρφωμα.

Ο ορισμός αυτός συνάδει με τον ορισμό "fiat objects" [Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp. 401-420], με την εξαίρεση συνόλων των “αντικειμένων bona fide”.

'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

English text for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022

Cette classe comprend des caractéristiques identifiables qui sont physiquement attachées de manière intégrale à des objets physiques particuliers.

Les instances de E26_Caractéristique_physique partagent de nombreux attributs avec les instances de E19_Objet_matériel. Elles peuvent avoir une étendue géométrique à une, deux ou trois dimensions, mais il n'y a pas de limites naturelles qui les séparent complètement et objectivement des objets auxquels elles s'intègrent. Par exemple, l'embrasure d'une porte est une caractéristique, mais la porte elle-même, étant fixée par des charnières, ne l'est pas.

Les instances de E26_Caractéristique_physique peuvent être des caractéristiques au sens strict, telles que des rayures, des trous, des reliefs, des couleurs de surface, des zones de réflexion dans un cristal d'opale ou un changement de densité dans un morceau de bois. Au sens large, ce sont des parties d'objets particuliers aux limites partiellement imaginaires, comme le noyau de la Terre, une zone de propriété à la surface de la Terre, un paysage ou la tête d'une statue de marbre contiguë. Ces parties peuvent être mesurées et datées, et il est parfois possible d'indiquer qui ou quoi en est ou en était le responsable. Les instances de E26_Caractéristique_physique ne peuvent pas être séparées de l'objet auquel elles s'intègrent, mais un segment de cet objet intégrant une caractéristique complète peut être identifié (ou parfois retiré).

Cette définition coïncide avec celle des « objets fiat » [n.d.t. dont les limites sont artificielles] (Smith et Varzi, 2000, pp. 401-420), à l'exception des agrégats d'« objets bona fide » [n.d.t. dont les limites sont naturelles].

'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 7.1.2
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

English text for version: 4.2 / June 2005

Данный класс охватывает различимые признаки, которые физически прикрепляются к определенным физическим объектам и являются их неотъемлемой частью. Экземпляры класса E26.Физический Признак имеют многие атрибуты экземпляров класса E19.Материальный Объект. Они могут иметь одно-, двух- или трехмерную геометрическую протяженность, но не существует естественных границ, которые полностью объективно отделяют их от носителя. Например, дверной проем, является признаком, но дверь сама по себе, присоединяемая при помощи петель нет. Экземпляры класса E26.Физический Признак могут быть признаками в более узком смысле, как, например, царапины, щели, рельефы, цвета поверхности, зоны отражения в кристалле опала или изменения плотности в куске дерева. В более широком смысле, они являются частями определенных объектов с частично воображаемыми границами, как, например, центр Земли, ландшафт или голова находящейся близко мраморной статуи. Они могут быть измерены и датированы, и иногда возможно установить, кто или что является или являлось причиной их появления. Они не могут быть отделены от объекта носителя, но сегмент объекта носителя может быть идентифицирован (а иногда и удален), неся весь признак полностью. Это определение совпадает с определением “fiat objects” (fiat – указ, декрет) [B.Smith & A.Varzi], за исключением совокупностей "bona fide objects".

'Russian' translation created on May 2007 for version: 4.2 / June 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.2

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010

此类型包涵可辨认外貌表征,这些外貌表征都是特定物质对象不可分割的一部分。

E26-实体外貌表征实例拥有许多和E19-实体物件相同的属性。它们可能拥有一、二或三 维几何领域,但是却没有能够完全以客观方式把它们与承载对象分开的自然界线。例如 门口是门的一个外貌表征,但安上门栓的门本身并不是。

E26-实体外貌表征可以是狭义的外貌表征,例如刮痕、洞穴、浮雕、表面颜色、蛋白石水晶的反光区或木头的密度变化。从广义而言,它们是特定对象的组成部分,其拥有局部的虚构界线,例如地球核心、地球上的某个房地产区、一道地形或大理石雕像的头部。它们可被测量和论定发生时间,在某些情况也能注明造成这些外貌表征的人或事。它们不能脱离承载物件,但可识别(或去除)拥有完整外貌表征的部分承载对象。

此定义与“fiat objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420)的定义相符,但(bona fide objects)的聚集属於例外。

'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
Examples:
  • the cave of Dirou, Mani, Greece (Psimenos. 2005)
  • the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock (E25) (Hawass, 2000)
  • Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great (E25) (Strauss, 1974)
  • the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza (Temple, 2009)
  • Michael Jackson’s nose prior to plastic surgery
unaltered since version 7.1.1 / May 2021
previous value in version 7.1
  • the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock
  • Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great
  • the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza
  • Michael Jackson’s nose prior to plastic surgery
English text for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
  • der Tempel von Abu Simbel, der in festen Fels geschnitten war, bevor er verlagert wurde
  • die Signatur von Albrecht Dürer auf seinem Gemälde von Karl dem Großen
  • die Beschädigung an der Nase der großen Sphinx in Gize
  • die Nase von Michael Jackson, wie sie vor dem plastisch-chirurgischen Eingriff war
'German' translation created on August 2010 for version: 5.0.1 / November 2009
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.1
  • the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock
  • Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great
  • the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza
  • Michael Jackson’s nose prior to plastic surgery
English text for version: 4.1 / April 2005
  • ο ναός στο Abu Simbel πριν την απομάκρυνσή του, ο οποίος ήταν λαξευμένος σε συμπαγή πέτρα
  • η υπογραφή του Άλμπρεχτ Ντίρερ στον πίνακά του με τίτλο Καρλομάγνος
  • η φθορά στη μύτη της Μεγάλης Σφίγγας στη Γκίζα
  • η μύτη του Michael Jackson πριν από την πλαστική χειρουργική
'Greek' translation created on August 2005 for version: 4.1 / April 2005
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 4.1
  • La cave de Diros à Mani en Grèce (Psimenos, 2005)
  • Le temple d'Abou Simbel avant son démontage, qui a été taillé dans la roche solide (E25_Caractéristique_élaborée_par_l’humain) (Hawass, 2000)
  • La signature d'Albrecht Dürer sur son œuvre peinte de Charles le Grand (E25_Caractéristique_élaborée_par_l’humain) (Strauss, 1974)
  • Les dommages causés au nez du Grand Sphinx de Gizeh (Temple, 2009)
  • Le nez de Michæl Jackson avant la chirurgie esthétique
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022
Missing translation in 'Portuguese' language
Missing translation in 'Russian' language
  • the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock
  • Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great
  • the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza
  • Michael Jackson’s nose prior to plastic surgery
English text for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
  • 移除之前的从岩石凿刻而成的阿布辛贝勒庙(Abu Simbel)
  • 丢勒(Albrecht Duerer)在其作品《查理曼大帝》上的签名
  • 吉萨人头狮身像鼻子的损坏区域
  • 麦克杰逊(Michael Jackson)接受整容手术后的鼻子
'Chinese' translation created on March 2011 for version: 5.0.2 / December 2010
English text changed - translation needs updating. View English text of version: 5.0.2
In First Order Logic:
  • E26(x) ⇒ E18(x)
unaltered since version 6.1 / February 2015
Properties:
-
E27 Site
(show all properties)
Version: 7.1.3
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Site
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Gelände
'German' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Φυσικός Χώρος
'Greek' translation created on June 2021 for version: 6.2.1 / October 2015
Site
'French' translation created on January 2024 for version: 7.1.2 / June 2022