Classes & Properties Declarations of CIDOC-CRM version: 7.1.1

CIDOC-CRM version 7.1.1 was released on May 2021 including 81 Classes and 160 Properties.

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The following table lists the Classes and Properties included in CIDOC-CRM version 7.1.1.

Classes Properties
E1 CRM Entity P1 is identified by (identifies)
E2 Temporal Entity P2 has type (is type of)
E3 Condition State P3 has note
E4 Period P4 has time-span (is time-span of)
E5 Event P5 consists of (forms part of)
E6 Destruction P7 took place at (witnessed)
E7 Activity P8 took place on or within (witnessed)
E8 Acquisition P9 consists of (forms part of)
E9 Move P10 falls within (contains)
E10 Transfer of Custody P11 had participant (participated in)
E11 Modification P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E12 Production P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment P14 carried out by (performed)
E14 Condition Assessment P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E15 Identifier Assignment P16 used specific object (was used for)
E16 Measurement P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E17 Type Assignment P19 was intended use of (was made for)
E18 Physical Thing P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E19 Physical Object P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
E20 Biological Object P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)
E21 Person P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)
E22 Human-Made Object P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing P25 moved (moved by)
E25 Human-Made Feature P26 moved to (was destination of)
E26 Physical Feature P27 moved from (was origin of)
E27 Site P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)
E28 Conceptual Object P29 custody received by (received custody through)
E29 Design or Procedure P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E30 Right P31 has modified (was modified by)
E31 Document P32 used general technique (was technique of)
E32 Authority Document P33 used specific technique (was used by)
E33 Linguistic Object P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E34 Inscription P35 has identified (was identified by)
E35 Title P37 assigned (was assigned by)
E36 Visual Item P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
E37 Mark P39 measured (was measured by)
E39 Actor P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
E41 Appellation P41 classified (was classified by)
E42 Identifier P42 assigned (was assigned by)
E52 Time-Span P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
E53 Place P44 has condition (is condition of)
E54 Dimension P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
E55 Type P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E56 Language P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
E57 Material P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)
E58 Measurement Unit P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)
E59 Primitive Value P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)
E60 Number P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
E61 Time Primitive P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
E62 String P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)
E63 Beginning of Existence P55 has current location (currently holds)
E64 End of Existence P56 bears feature (is found on)
E65 Creation P57 has number of parts
E66 Formation P59 has section (is located on or within)
E67 Birth P62 depicts (is depicted by)
E68 Dissolution P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
E69 Death P67 refers to (is referred to by)
E70 Thing P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by)
E71 Human-Made Thing P69 has association with (is associated with)
E72 Legal Object P70 documents (is documented in)
E73 Information Object P71 lists (is listed in)
E74 Group P72 has language (is language of)
E77 Persistent Item P73 has translation (is translation of)
E78 Curated Holding P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)
E79 Part Addition P75 possesses (is possessed by)
E80 Part Removal P76 has contact point (provides access to)
E81 Transformation P79 beginning is qualified by
E83 Type Creation P80 end is qualified by
E85 Joining P81 ongoing throughout
E86 Leaving P82 at some time within
E87 Curation Activity P86 falls within (contains)
E89 Propositional Object P89 falls within (contains)
E90 Symbolic Object P90 has value
E92 Spacetime Volume P91 has unit (is unit of)
E93 Presence P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E94 Space Primitive P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E95 Spacetime Primitive P94 has created (was created by)
E96 Purchase P95 has formed (was formed by)
E97 Monetary Amount P96 by mother (gave birth)
E98 Currency P97 from father (was father for)
E99 Product Type P98 brought into life (was born)
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
P100 was death of (died in)
P101 had as general use (was use of)
P102 has title (is title of)
P103 was intended for (was intention of)
P104 is subject to (applies to)
P105 right held by (has right on)
P106 is composed of (forms part of)
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
P108 has produced (was produced by)
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)
P110 augmented (was augmented by)
P111 added (was added by)
P112 diminished (was diminished by)
P113 removed (was removed by)
P121 overlaps with
P122 borders with
P123 resulted in (resulted from)
P124 transformed (was transformed by)
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
P126 employed (was employed in)
P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
P128 carries (is carried by)
P129 is about (is subject of)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on)
P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with
P133 is spatiotemporally separated from
P134 continued (was continued by)
P135 created type (was created by)
P136 was based on (supported type creation)
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)
P138 represents (has representation)
P139 has alternative form
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
P141 assigned (was assigned by)
P142 used constituent (was used in)
P143 joined (was joined by)
P144 joined with (gained member by)
P145 separated (left by)
P146 separated from (lost member by)
P147 curated (was curated by)
P148 has component (is component of)
P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for)
P151 was formed from (participated in)
P152 has parent (is parent of)
P156 occupies (is occupied by)
P157 is at rest relative to (provides reference space for)
P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of)
P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of)
P164 is temporally specified by (temporally specifies)
P165 incorporates (is incorporated in)
P166 was a presence of (had presence)
P167 was within (includes)
P168 place is defined by (defines place)
P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by)
P170 defines time (time is defined by)
P171 at some place within
P172 contains
P173 starts before or with the end of (ends after or with the start of)
P174 starts before the end of (ends after the start of)
P175 starts before or with the start of (starts after or with the start of)
P176 starts before the start of (starts after the start of)
P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned)
P179 had sales price (was sales price of)
P180 has currency (was currency of)
P182 ends before or with the start of (starts after or with the end of)
P183 ends before the start of (starts after the end of)
P184 ends before or with the end of (ends with or after the end of)
P185 ends before the end of (ends after the end of)
P186 produced thing of product type (is produced by)
P187 has production plan (is production plan for)
P188 requires production tool (is production tool for)
P189 approximates (is approximated by)
P190 has symbolic content
P191 had duration (was duration of)
P195 was a presence of (had presence)
P196 defines (is defined by)
P197 covered parts of (was partially covered by)
P198 holds or supports (is held or supported by)

E1 CRM Entity
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
- -
SuperClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity
E52 Time-Span
E53 Place
E54 Dimension
E59 Primitive Value
E77 Persistent Item
E92 Spacetime Volume
E2
E52
E53
E54
E59
E77
E92
Scope Note:

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

  • Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier
  • Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to
  • Attachment of free text and other unstructured data for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

All other classes within the CIDOC CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

Examples:
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) (Chester, 2001)
In First Order Logic:
  • E1(x)
Properties:
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P3 has note: E62 String
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type
E2 Temporal Entity
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
E3 Condition State
E4 Period
E3
E4
Scope Note:

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods and E5 Events, which happen over a limited extent in time. This extent in time must be contiguous, i.e., without gaps. In case the defining kinds of phenomena for an instance of E2 Temporal Entity cease to happen, and occur later again at another time, we regard that the former instance of E2 Temporal Entity has ended and a new instance has come into existence. In more intuitive terms, the same event cannot happen twice.

In some contexts, such phenomena are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item and is an abstract class that typically has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.

Examples:
  • Bronze Age (E4) (Childe, 1963)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) (Chester, 2001)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3) (Maddox, 2015)
In First Order Logic:
  • E2(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P173 starts before or with the end of (ends after or with the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P174 starts before the end of (ends after the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P175 starts before or with the start of (starts after or with the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P176 starts before the start of (starts after the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P182 ends before or with the start of (starts after or with the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
P183 ends before the start of (starts after the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
P184 ends before or with the end of (ends with or after the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
P185 ends before the end of (ends after the end of): E2 Temporal Entity
E3 Condition State
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity E2
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific instance of E52 Time Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the instance of E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847” can be characterized as an instance “wrecked” of E55 Type.

Examples:
  • the "reconstructed" state of the “Amber Room” in Tsarskoje Selo from summer 2003 until now (Owen, 2009)
  • the "ruined" state of Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg from 1944 to 1946 (Maddox, 2015)
  • the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 [P2 has type: E55 Type “still not cooked”] (fictitious)
  • the topography of the leaves of Sinai Printed Book 3234.2361 on the 10th of July 2007 [described as: of type "cockled"] (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • E3(x) ⇒ E2(x)
Properties:
P5 consists of (forms part of): E3 Condition State
E4 Period
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity
E92 Spacetime Volume
E2
E92
SuperClass Of:
E5 Event E5
Scope Note:

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an instance of E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.

Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore, E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical birth, an instance of E67 Birth, can be seen as both a single event, i.e., an instance of E5 Event, and as an extended period, i.e., an instance of E4 Period, that consists of multiple physical processes and complementary activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

As the actual extent of an instance of E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies.

Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units.

Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However, it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area.

We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime Volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CIDOC CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel, 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance, we can discuss the physical extent of an instance of E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomenon while an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore, this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

Typical use of this class in cultural heritage documentation is for documenting cultural and artistic periods. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period in the European sphere of influence lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

A geopolitical unit as a specific case of an instance of E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena related to the claim of power, the consequences of belonging to a jurisdictional area and an administrative system that establishes a geopolitical unit. Examples from the modern period are countries or administrative areas of countries such as districts whose actions and structures define activities and phenomena in the area that they intend to govern. The borders of geopolitical units are often defined in contracts or treaties although they may deviate from the actual practice. The spatiotemporal properties of Geopolitical units can be modelled through the properties inherited from E92 Spacetime Volume.

Another specific case of an instance of E4 Period is the actual extent of the set of activities and phenomena as evidenced by their physical traces that define a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

Examples:
  • Jurassic (Hallam, 1975)
  • Populated Period of Nineveh
  • Imperial Rome under Marcus Aurelius
  • European Bronze Age (Harrison, 2004)
  • Italian Renaissance (Macdonald, 1992)
  • Thirty Years War (Lee, 1991)
  • Sturm und Drang (Berkoff, 2013)
  • Cubism (Cox, 2000)
In First Order Logic:
  • E4(x) ⇒ E2(x)
  • E4(x) ⇒ E92(x)
Properties:
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
E5 Event
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E4 Period E4
SuperClass Of:
E7 Activity
E63 Beginning of Existence
E64 End of Existence
E7
E63
E64
Scope Note:

This class comprises distinct, delimited and coherent processes and interactions of a material nature, in cultural, social or physical systems, involving and affecting instances of E77 Persistent Item in a way characteristic of the kind of process. Typical examples are meetings, births, deaths, actions of decision taking, making or inventing things, but also more complex and extended ones such as conferences, elections, building of a castle, or battles.

While the continuous growth of a tree lacks the limits characteristic of an event, its germination from a seed does qualify as an event. Similarly, the blowing of the wind lacks the distinctness and limits of an event, but a hurricane, flood or earthquake would qualify as an event. Mental processes are considered as events, in cases where they are connected with the material externalization of their results; for example, the creation of a poem, a performance or a change of intention that becomes obvious from subsequent actions or declarations.

The effects of an instance of E5 Event may not lead to relevant permanent changes of properties or relations of the items involved in it, for example an unrecorded performance. Of course, in order to be documented, some kind of evidence for an event must exist, be it witnesses, traces or products of the event.

While instances of E4 Period always require some form of coherence between its constituent phenomena, in addition, the essential constituents of instances of E5 Event should contribute to an overall effect; for example, the statements made during a meeting and the listening of the audience.

Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an instance of E5 Event may appear as if it had an ‘instantaneous’ overall effect, but any process or interaction of material nature in reality have an extent in time and space. At a fine level, instances of E5 Event may be analyzed into component phenomena and phases within a space and timeframe, and as such can be seen as a period, regardless of the size of the phenomena. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy overall effect and are thus not instances of E5 Event.

Examples:
  • the birth of Cleopatra (E67) (Pomeroy, 1984)
  • the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (E6) (Camardo, 2013)
  • World War II (E7) (Barber, 1994)
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (E7) (Hoyt, 1993)
  • the Yalta Conference (E7) (Harbutt, 2010)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday (fictitious)
  • the CIDOC conference 2003 (E7)
In First Order Logic:
  • E5(x) ⇒ E4(x)
Properties:
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
E6 Destruction
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E64 End of Existence E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an instance of E6 Destruction and of E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

  1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as an instance of E6 Destruction.
  2. An event should also be documented as an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.
  3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as an instance of E11 Modification.
Examples:
  • the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (Camardo, 2013)
  • the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7) (River, 2016)
  • the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • E6(x) ⇒ E64(x)
Properties:
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Thing
E7 Activity
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E5 Event E5
SuperClass Of:
E8 Acquisition
E9 Move
E10 Transfer of Custody
E11 Modification
E13 Attribute Assignment
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E85 Joining
E86 Leaving
E87 Curation Activity
E8
E9
E10
E11
E13
E65
E66
E85
E86
E87
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.

This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.

Examples:
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (Hoyt, 1993)
  • the Yalta Conference (Harbutt, 2010)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65) (Williams, 2020)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66) (Droste, 2006)
  • calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ ‘Quyunjig’ by the people of Iraq
  • Kira Weber working in glass art from 1984 to 1993
  • Kira Weber working in oil and pastel painting from 1993
In First Order Logic:
  • E7(x) ⇒ E5(x)
Properties:
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Human-Made Thing
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
E8 Acquisition
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
E96 Purchase E96
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

  1. the beginning of ownership
  2. the end of ownership
  3. the transfer of ownership
  4. the acquisition from an unknown source
  5. the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CIDOC CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

Examples:
  • the collection of a hammer-head shark of the genus Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 (Carchariniformes) by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940. (Steinbeck, 2000)
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s painting entitled ‘The Apostles Peter and Paul’ by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg. (https://hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/digital-collection/01.+Paintings/32730)
  • the loss of my stuffed chaffinch ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ due to insect damage last year (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • E8(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E18 Physical Thing
E9 Move
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object.

Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event.

Examples:
  • the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA. (Wildfang, 2005)
  • the movement of the exhibition “Tutankhamun: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh” between 15th September and 2nd November 2019.
In First Order Logic:
  • E9(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object
P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place
P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place
E10 Transfer of Custody
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of the physical custody or the legal responsibility for the physical custody of objects. The recording of the donor or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient.

Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

  1. the beginning of custody (there is no previous custodian)
  2. the end of custody (there is no subsequent custodian)
  3. the transfer of custody (transfer from one custodian to the next)
  4. the receipt of custody from an unknown source (the previous custodian is unknown)
  5. the declared loss of an object (the current or subsequent custodian is unknown)

In the event that only a single kind of transfer of custody occurs, either the legal responsibility for the custody or the actual physical possession of the object but not both, this difference should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of).

The sense of physical possession requires that the object of custody be in the hands of the keeper at least with a part representative for the whole. The way, in which a representative part is defined, should ensure that it is unambiguous who keeps a part and who the whole and should be consistent with the identity criteria of the kept instance of E18 Physical Thing.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CIDOC CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

Theft is a specific case of illegal transfer of custody.

Examples:
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
  • the return of Picasso’s “Guernica” to Madrid’s Prado in 1981 (Chipp, 1988)
In First Order Logic:
  • E10(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor
P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through): E18 Physical Thing
E11 Modification
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
E12 Production
E79 Part Addition
E80 Part Removal
E12
E79
E80
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E7 Activity that are undertaken to create, alter or change instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials and other so far undocumented objects. It also includes the conservation treatment of an object.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in an instance of E11 Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

An activity undertaken on an object which was designed to alter it, but which, in fact, it did not in any seemingly significant way (such as the application of a solvent during conservation which failed to dissolve any part of the object), is still considered as an instance of E11 Modification. Typically, any such activity will leave at least forensic traces of evidence on the object.

If the instance of E29 Design or Procedure utilized for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using property P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material of E29 Design or Procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

Examples:
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12) (Gregor, 1971)
  • the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956 (Håfors, 2010)
  • the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81) (Yakel, 2000)
  • the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan (Cali and Dougil, 2012)
In First Order Logic:
  • E11(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P31 has modified (was modified by): E18 Physical Thing
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
E12 Production
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification
E63 Beginning of Existence
E11
E63
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using an instance of E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

Examples:
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (Gregor, 1971)
  • the first casting of the Little Mermaid from the harbour of Copenhagen (Dewey, 2003)
  • Rembrandt’s creating of the seventh state of his etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, identified by Bartsch Number 197 (E12, E65, E81) (Hind, 1923)
In First Order Logic:
  • E12(x) ⇒ E11(x)
  • E12(x) ⇒ E63(x)
Properties:
P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
P186 produced thing of product type (is produced by): E99 Product Type
E13 Attribute Assignment
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
E14 Condition Assessment
E15 Identifier Assignment
E16 Measurement
E17 Type Assignment
E14
E15
E16
E17
Scope Note:

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about one property of an object or any single relation between two items or concepts. The type of the property asserted to hold between two items or concepts can be described by the property P177 assigned property type: E55 Type.

For example, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain scientific/scholarly procedures, e.g., the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on whether this information should be accessible by structured queries.

This class allows for the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. Note that all instances of properties described in a knowledge base are the opinion of someone. Per default, they are the opinion of the team maintaining the knowledge base. This fact must not individually be registered for all instances of properties provided by the maintaining team, because it would result in an endless recursion of whose opinion was the description of an opinion. Therefore, the use of instances of E13 Attribute Assignment marks the fact, that the maintaining team is in general neutral to the validity of the respective assertion, but registers someone else’s opinion and how it came about.

All properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly relating the respective pair of items or concepts. Multiple use of instances of E13 Attribute Assignment may possibly lead to a collection of contradictory values.

All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through a subclass of E13 Attribute Assignment are characterised as "short cuts" of a path via this subclass. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action of assertion or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

Examples:
  • the examination of MS Sinai Greek 418 by Nicholas Pickwoad in November 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad , 2010)
  • the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr’s silver cup in February 1997 (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • E13(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned): E55 Type
E14 Condition Assessment
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

Examples:
  • last year’s inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village (fictitious)
  • the condition assessment of the endband cores of MS Sinai Greek 418 by Nicholas Pickwoad in November 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
  • the condition assessment of the cover of MS Sinai Greek 418 by Nicholas Pickwoad in November 2003 (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • E14(x) ⇒ E13(x)
Properties:
P34 concerned (was assessed by): E18 Physical Thing
P35 has identified (was identified by): E3 Condition State
E15 Identifier Assignment
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. Instances of E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.

The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.

Examples:
  • replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • assigning the author-uniform title heading “Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” for the respective work
  • on June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” to Guillaume de Machaut (Kelly, 2014)
In First Order Logic:
  • E15(x) ⇒ E13(x)
Properties:
P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Identifier
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Identifier
P142 used constituent (was used in): E90 Symbolic Object
E16 Measurement
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions measuring quantitative physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic, objective procedure of direct observation of particular states of physical reality.

An instance of E16 Measurement may us simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Methods and devices employed should be associated with instances of E16 Measurement by properties such as P33 used specific technique: E29 Design or Procedure, P125 used object of type: E55 Type, P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type. Details of methods and devices reused or reusable in other instances of E16 Measurement should be documented for these entities rather than the measurements themselves, whereas details of particular execution may be documented by free text or by instantiating adequate sub-activities, if the detail may be of interest for an overarching query.

Regardless whether a measurement is made by an instrument or by human senses, it represents the initial transition from physical reality to information without any other documented information object in between within the reasoning chain that would represent the result of the interaction of the observer or device with reality. Therefore, determining properties of an instance of E90 Symbolic Object is regarded as an instance of E13 Attribute Assignment, which may be inferred from observing and measuring representative carriers. In the case that the carrier can be named, the property P16 used specific object (was used for): should be used to indicate the instance(s) of E18 Physical Thing that was used as the empirical basis for the attribute assignment. For instance, inferring properties of depicted items using image material, such as satellite images, is not regarded as an instance of E16 Measurement, but as a subsequent instance of E13 Attribute Assignment. Rather, only the production of the images, understood as arrays of radiation intensities, is regarded as an instance of E16 Measurement. The same reasoning holds for other sensor data.

Examples:
  • measurement of the height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997 (fictitious)
  • the carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 [The carbon 14 dating of an approximately 400.000 year old complete Old Palaeolithic wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany, in 1995.] (Kouwenhoven, 1997)
In First Order Logic:
  • E16(x) ⇒ E13(x)
Properties:
P39 measured (was measured by): E18 Physical Thing
P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension
E17 Type Assignment
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the actions of classifying items of whatever kind. Such items include objects, specimens, people, actions and concepts.

This class allows for the documentation of the context of classification acts in cases where the value of the classification depends on the personal opinion of the classifier, and the date that the classification was made. This class also encompasses the notion of "determination," i.e., the systematic and molecular identification of a specimen in biology.

Examples:
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as ‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’, July 2003
In First Order Logic:
  • E17(x) ⇒ E13(x)
Properties:
P41 classified (was classified by): E1 CRM Entity
P42 assigned (was assigned by): E55 Type
E18 Physical Thing
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E72 Legal Object E72
SuperClass Of:
E19 Physical Object
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E26 Physical Feature
E19
E24
E26
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, human-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CIDOC CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

An instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space at any instant of its existence, but in the course of its existence it also forms a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the interior of a box. For the purpose of more detailed descriptions of the presence of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in space and time it can be associated with its specific instance of E92 Spacetime Volume by the property P196 defines (is defined by).

The CIDOC CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states, as long as they are not confined in an identifiable way for an identifiable minimal time-span.

Examples:
  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19) (Scarratt and Shor, 2006)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26) (Smith, 1844-49)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22) (Mohen, 2006)
In First Order Logic:
  • E18(x) ⇒ E72(x)
Properties:
P44 has condition (is condition of): E3 Condition State
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place
P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object
P156 occupies (is occupied by): E53 Place
P196 defines (is defined by): E92 Spacetime Volume
P198 holds or supports (is held or supported by): E18 Physical Thing
E19 Physical Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SuperClass Of:
E20 Biological Object
E22 Human-Made Object
E20
E22
Scope Note:

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e., naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

Examples:
  • Aphrodite of Milos (E22) (Kousser, 2005)
  • the Cullinan Diamond (Scarratt and Shor, 2006)
  • Apollo 13 at the time of launch (E22) (Lovell and Kluger, 1994)
In First Order Logic:
  • E19(x) ⇒ E18(x)
Properties:
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
E20 Biological Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E19 Physical Object E19
SuperClass Of:
E21 Person E21
Scope Note:

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Human-Made Object.

Examples:
  • me (fictitious)
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun (Edwards and Boltin, 1979)
  • Boukephalus [Horse of Alexander the Great] (Lamb, 2005)
  • petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
In First Order Logic:
  • E20(x) ⇒ E19(x)
Properties:
-
E21 Person
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E20 Biological Object
E39 Actor
E20
E39
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CIDOC CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

In a bibliographic context, a name presented following the conventions usually employed for personal names will be assumed to correspond to an actual real person (an instance of E21 Person), unless evidence is available to indicate that this is not the case. The fact that a persona may erroneously be classified as an instance of E21 Person does not imply that the concept comprises personae.

Examples:
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun (Edwards and Boltin, 1979)
  • Nelson Mandela (Brown and Hort, 2006)
In First Order Logic:
  • E21(x) ⇒ E20(x)
  • E21(x) ⇒ E39(x)
Properties:
P152 has parent (is parent of): E21 Person
E22 Human-Made Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E19 Physical Object
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E19
E24
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical objects of any size that are purposely created by human activity and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen.

Examples:
  • the Rosetta Stone (E22)
  • LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard [the World’s fastest steam locomotive, preserved at the National Railway Museum of York, UK] (Solomon, 2003)
  • the Portland Vase (Walker, 2004)
In First Order Logic:
  • E22(x) ⇒ E19(x)
  • E22(x) ⇒ E24(x)
Properties:
-
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing
E71 Human-Made Thing
E18
E71
SuperClass Of:
E22 Human-Made Object
E25 Human-Made Feature
E78 Curated Holding
E22
E25
E78
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items of any size that are purposely created by human activity. This class comprises, besides others, Human-Made objects, such as a sword, and Human-Made features, such as rock art. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

Instances of Human-Made thing may be the result of modifying pre-existing physical things, preserving larger parts or most of the original matter and structure, which poses the question if they are new or even Human-Made, the respective interventions of production made on such original material should be obvious and sufficient to regard that the product has a new, distinct identity and intended function and is human-made. Substantial continuity of the previous matter and structure in the new product can be documented by describing the production process also as an instance of E81 Transformation.

Whereas interventions of conservation and repair are not regarded to produce a new Human-Made thing, the results of preparation of natural history specimens that substantially change their natural or original state should be regarded as physical Human-Made things, including the uncovering of petrified biological features from a solid piece of stone. On the other side, scribbling a museum number on a natural object should not be regarded to make it Human-Made. This notwithstanding, parts, sections, segments, or features of a physical Human-Made thing may continue to be non-Human-Made and preserved during the production process, for example natural pearls used as a part of an eardrop.

Examples:
  • the Forth Railway Bridge (Shipway, Bouch, Baker and Fowler, 1990).
  • the Channel Tunnel (E25) (Holliday, Marcou and Vickerman, 1991)
  • the Palace of Knossos (Evans, 1921)
  • the Coliseum in Rome, Italy (Hopkins and Beard, 2011)
  • the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78) (Georgoula, 2005)
  • the Rosetta Stone (E22)
  • my paperback copy of Crime & Punishment (E22) (fictitious)
  • the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM v.3.2 (E22)
  • my empty DVD disk (E22) (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • E24(x) ⇒ E18(x)
  • E24(x) ⇒ E71(x)
Properties:
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
E25 Human-Made Feature
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E26 Physical Feature
E24
E26
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc. In particular, it includes the information encoding features on mechanical or digital carriers.

Examples:
  • the Manchester Ship Canal (Farnie, 1980)
  • Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
  • the laser-readable “pits” engraved June 2014 on Martin Doerr’s CD-R, copying songs of Edith Piaf.
  • the carved letters on the Rosetta Stone
In First Order Logic:
  • E25(x) ⇒ E24(x)
  • E25(x) ⇒ E26(x)
Properties:
-
E26 Physical Feature
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SuperClass Of:
E25 Human-Made Feature
E27 Site
E25
E27
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

Examples:
  • the cave of Dirou, Mani, Greece (Psimenos. 2005)
  • the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock (E25) (Hawass, 2000)
  • Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great (E25) (Strauss, 1974)
  • the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza (Temple, 2009)
  • Michael Jackson’s nose prior to plastic surgery
In First Order Logic:
  • E26(x) ⇒ E18(x)
Properties:
-
E27 Site
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E26 Physical Feature E26
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises pieces of land or sea floor.

In contrast to the purely geometric notion of E53 Place, this class describes constellations of matter on the surface of the Earth or other celestial body, which can be represented by photographs, paintings and maps.

Instances of E27 Site are composed of relatively immobile material items and features in a particular configuration at a particular location.

Examples:
  • the Amazon river basin (Hegen, 1966)
  • Knossos (Evans, 1921)
  • the Apollo 11 landing site (Siegler and Smrekar, 2014)
  • Heathrow Airport (Wicks, 2014)
  • the submerged harbour of the Minoan settlement of Gournia, Crete (Watrous, 2012)
  • the island of Crete
In First Order Logic:
  • E27(x) ⇒ E26(x)
Properties:
-
E28 Conceptual Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E71 Human-Made Thing E71
SuperClass Of:
E55 Type
E89 Propositional Object
E90 Symbolic Object
E55
E89
E90
Scope Note:

This class comprises non-material products of our minds and other human produced data that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation or historical implication. The production of such information may have been supported by the use of technical devices such as cameras or computers.

Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as paper, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.

They cannot be destroyed. They exist as long as they can be found on at least one carrier or in at least one human memory. Their existence ends when the last carrier and the last memory are lost.

Examples:
  • Beethoven’s “Ode an die Freude” (Ode to Joy) (E73) (Kershaw, 1999)
  • the definition of “ontology” in the Oxford English Dictionary (E73) (Oxford University Press, 1989)
  • the knowledge about the victory at Marathon carried by the famous runner (E89) (Lagos & Karyanos, 2020)
  • [Explanation note: In the following examples we illustrate the distinction between a propositional object, its names and its encoded forms. The Maxwell equations (Ball, 1962) are a good example, because they belong to the fundamental laws of physics and their mathematical content yields identical, unambiguous results regardless formulation and encoding.]
  • “Maxwell equations” (E41) [preferred subject access point from LCSH, http://lccn.loc.gov/sh85082387, accessed 18th April 2021. This is only the name for the Maxwell equations as standardized by the Library of Congress and not the equations themselves.]
  • “Equations, Maxwell” (E41) [variant subject access point from LCSH, http://lccn.loc.gov/sh85082387, accessed 18th April 2021. This is another name for the equation standardized by the Library of Congress and not the equations themselves.]
  • Maxwell's equations (E89) [This is the propositional content of the equations proper, independent of any particular notation or mathematical formalism.] (Ball, 1962)
  • The encoding of Maxwells equations as in https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Maxwell%27sEquations.svg (E73) [accessed 18th April 2021. This is one possible symbolic encoding of the propositional content of the equations.]
In First Order Logic:
  • E28(x) ⇒ E71(x)
Properties:
-
E29 Design or Procedure
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object E73
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular, it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that may result in new instances of E71 Human-Made Thing or for shaping or guiding the execution of an instance of E7 Activity.

Instances of E29 Design or Procedure can be structured in parts and sequences or depend on others.

This is modelled using P69 has association with (is associated with): E29 Design or Procedure.

Designs or procedures can be seen as one of the following

  1. A schema for the activities it describes
  2. A schema of the products that result from their application.
  3. An independent intellectual product that may have never been applied, such as Leonardo da Vinci’s famous plans for flying machines.

Because designs or procedures may never be applied or only partially executed, the CIDOC CRM models a loose relationship between the plan and the respective product.

Examples:
  • the ISO standardisation procedure
  • the musical notation for Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy” (Kershaw, 1999)
  • the architectural drawings for the Kölner Dom (Cologne Cathedral) in Cologne, Germany (Wolff, 1999)
  • the drawing on the folio 860 of the Codex Atlanticus from Leonardo da Vinci, 1486-1490, kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan
In First Order Logic:
  • E29(x) ⇒ E73(x)
Properties:
P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material
P69 has association with (is associated with): E29 Design or Procedure
E30 Right
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E89 Propositional Object E89
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises legal privileges concerning material and immaterial things or their derivatives.

These include reproduction and property rights.

Examples:
  • copyright held by ISO on ISO/CD 21127
  • ownership of the “Mona Lisa” by the museum of the Louvre, Paris, France
In First Order Logic:
  • E30(x) ⇒ E89(x)
Properties:
-
E31 Document
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object E73
SuperClass Of:
E32 Authority Document E32
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable immaterial items that make propositions about reality.

These propositions may be expressed in text, graphics, images, audiograms, videograms or by other similar means. Documentation databases are regarded as instances of E31 Document. This class should not be confused with the concept “document” in Information Technology, which is compatible with E73 Information Object.

Examples:
  • the Encyclopaedia Britannica (E32) (Kogan, 1958)
  • the image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945 (E36)
  • Domesday Book [a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror] (Hallam 1986)
In First Order Logic:
  • E31(x) ⇒ E73(x)
Properties:
P70 documents (is documented in): E1 CRM Entity
E32 Authority Document
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E31 Document E31
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises encyclopaedia, thesauri, authority lists and other documents that define terminology or conceptual systems for consistent use.

Examples:
  • Webster's Dictionary (Herbert, 1994)
  • Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (Getty Trust, 1990)
  • the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (Gergatsoulis et al., 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • E32(x) ⇒ E31(x)
Properties:
P71 lists (is listed in): E1 CRM Entity
E33 Linguistic Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object E73
SuperClass Of:
E34 Inscription
E35 Title
E34
E35
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable expressions in natural language or languages.

Instances of E33 Linguistic Object can be expressed in many ways: e.g., as written texts, recorded speech or sign language. However, the CIDOC CRM treats instances of E33 Linguistic Object independently from the medium or method by which they are expressed. Expressions in formal languages, such as computer code or mathematical formulae, are not treated as instances of E33 Linguistic Object by the CIDOC CRM. These should be modelled as instances of E73 Information Object.

In general, an instance of E33 Linguistic Object may also contain non-linguistic information, often of artistic or aesthetic value. Only in cases in which the content of an instance of E33 Linguistic Object can completely be expressed by a series of binary-encoded symbols, its content may be documented within a respective knowledge base by the property P190 has symbolic content: E62 String. Otherwise, it should be understood as an identifiable digital resource only available independently from the respective knowledge base.

In other cases, such as pages of an illuminated manuscript or recordings containing speech in a language supported by a writing system, the linguistic part of the content of an instance of E33 Linguistic Object may be documented within a respective knowledge base in a note by P3 has note: E62 String. Otherwise, it may be described using the property P165 incorporates (is incorporated in): E73 Information Object as a different object with its own identity.

Examples:
  • the text of the Ellesmere Chaucer manuscript (Hilmo, 2019)
  • the lyrics of the song "Blue Suede Shoes" (Cooper, 2008)
  • the text of the “Jabberwocky” by Lewis Carroll (Carroll, 1981)
  • the text of "Doktoro Jekyll kaj Sinjoro Hyde" [an Esperanto translation of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde]. (Stevenson, Morrison and Mann, 1909)
  • the free dialog in the local dialect recorded in 1958, Telemark, Norway stored on tape or.7-89.s1 (00.15:46-00:34), The Language Collection at the University Library in Bergen, Norway (as by 2020)
In First Order Logic:
  • E33(x) ⇒ E73(x)
Properties:
P72 has language (is language of): E56 Language
P73 has translation (is translation of): E33 Linguistic Object
E34 Inscription
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E33 Linguistic Object
E37 Mark
E33
E37
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises recognisable, texts attached to instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

The transcription of the text can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String. The alphabet used can be documented by P2 has type: E55 Type. This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of an inscription, but the underlying prototype. The physical embodiment is modelled in the CIDOC CRM as instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

The relationship of a physical copy of a book to the text it contains is modelled using E18 Physical Thing. P128 carries (is carried by): E33 Linguistic Object.

Examples:
  • “keep off the grass” [on a sign stuck in the lawn of the quad of Balliol College, Oxford, UK]
  • the text published in Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V 895 (Mommsen, 1872)
  • Kilroy was here”
In First Order Logic:
  • E34(x) ⇒ E33(x)
  • E34(x) ⇒ E37(x)
Properties:
-
E35 Title
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E33 Linguistic Object
E41 Appellation
E33
E41
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises textual strings that within a cultural context can be clearly identified as titles due to their form. Being a subclass of E41 Appellation, E35 Title can only be used when such a string is actually used as a title of a work, such as a text, an artwork, or a piece of music.

Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as “chair”, “painting” or “book” (the latter are common nouns that stand for instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group.

This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.

Examples:
  • “The Merchant of Venice” (McCullough, 2005)
  • “Mona Lisa” (Mohen, Menu and Mottin, 2006)
  • “La Pie” (Bortolatto, 1981)
  • “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” (Lennon, 1967)
In First Order Logic:
  • E35(x) ⇒ E33(x)
  • E35(x) ⇒ E41(x)
Properties:
-
E36 Visual Item
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object E73
SuperClass Of:
E37 Mark E37
Scope Note:

This class comprises the intellectual or conceptual aspects of recognisable marks, images and other visual works.

This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of a visual item, but the underlying prototype. For example, a mark such as the ICOM logo is generally considered to be the same logo when used on any number of publications. The size, orientation and colour may change, but the logo remains uniquely identifiable. The same is true of images that are reproduced many times. This means that visual items are independent of their physical support.

The class E36 Visual Item provides a means of identifying and linking together instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing that carry the same visual qualities (symbols, marks or images etc.). The property P62 depicts (is depicted by) between E24 Physical Human-Made Thing and depicted subjects (E1 CRM Entity) is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Human-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity, which in addition captures the optical features of the depiction.

Examples:
  • the visual appearance of Monet’s “La Pie” (Bortolatto, 1981)
  • the Coca-Cola logo (E34)
  • the Chi-Rho (E37)
  • the communist red star (E37)
  • the surface shape of Auguste Rodin's statue "Le Penseur" [there exist more than 20 copies, even of different size. Therefore, this is a good example that it is only the common surface shape, an immaterial visual item, which justifies displaying these copies as works of Auguste Rodin. As usual practice, Rodin himself did not produce the bronze statue, but only the prototype model]
In First Order Logic:
  • E36(x) ⇒ E73(x)
Properties:
P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity
E37 Mark
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E36 Visual Item E36
SuperClass Of:
E34 Inscription E34
Scope Note:

This class comprises symbols, signs, signatures or short texts applied to instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing by arbitrary techniques, often in order to indicate such things as creator, owner, dedications, purpose or to communicate information generally. Instances of E37 Mark do not represent the actual image of a mark, but the abstract ideal (or archetype) as used for codification in reference documents forming cultural documentation.

This class specifically excludes features that have no semantic significance, such as scratches or tool marks. These should be documented as instances of E25 Human-Made Feature.

Examples:
  • Minoan double axe mark (Lowe Fri, 2011)
  • ©
In First Order Logic:
  • E37(x) ⇒ E36(x)
Properties:
-
E39 Actor
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E77 Persistent Item E77
SuperClass Of:
E21 Person
E74 Group
E21
E74
Scope Note:

This class comprises people, either individually or in groups, who have the potential to perform intentional actions of kinds for which someone may be held responsible.

Examples:
  • London and Continental Railways (E74)
  • the Governor of the Bank of England in 1975 (E21)
  • Sir Ian McKellan (E21) (Gibson, 1986)
In First Order Logic:
  • E39(x) ⇒ E77(x)
Properties:
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of): E53 Place
P75 possesses (is possessed by): E30 Right
P76 has contact point (provides access to): E41 Appellation
E41 Appellation
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E90 Symbolic Object E90
SuperClass Of:
E35 Title
E42 Identifier
E61 Time Primitive
E94 Space Primitive
E95 Spacetime Primitive
E35
E42
E61
E94
E95
Scope Note:

This class comprises signs, either meaningful or not, or arrangements of signs following a specific syntax, that are used or can be used to refer to and identify a specific instance of some class or category within a certain context.

Instances of E41 Appellation do not identify things by their meaning, even if they happen to have one, but instead by convention, tradition, or agreement. Instances of E41 Appellation are cultural constructs; as such, they have a context, a history, and a use in time and space by some group of users. A given instance of E41 Appellation can have alternative forms, i.e., other instances of E41 Appellation that are always regarded as equivalent independent from the thing it denotes.

Different languages may use different appellations for the same thing, such as the names of major cities. Some appellations may be formulated using a valid noun phrase of a particular language. In these cases, the respective instances of E41 Appellation should also be declared as instances of E33 Linguistic Object. Then the language using the appellation can be declared with the property P72 has language: E56 Language.

Instances of E41 Appellation may be used to identify any instance of E1 CRM Entity and sometimes are characteristic for instances of more specific subclasses E1 CRM Entity, such as for instances of E52 Time-Span (for instance “dates”), E39 Actor, E53 Place or E28 Conceptual Object. Postal addresses and E-mail addresses are characteristic examples of identifiers used by services transporting things between clients.

Even numerically expressed identifiers for extents in space or time are also regarded as instances of E41 Appellation, such as Gregorian dates or spatial coordinates, even though they allow for determining some time or location by a known procedure starting from a reference point and by virtue of that fact play a double role as instances of E59 Primitive Value.

E41 Appellation should not be confused with the act of naming something. Cf. E15 Identifier Assignment

Examples:
  • "Martin"
  • “Aquae Sulis Minerva”
  • "the Merchant of Venice" (E35) (McCullough, 2005)
  • "Spigelia marilandica (L.) L." [not the species, just the name] (Hershberger, Robacker and Jenkins, 2015)
  • "information science" [not the science itself, but the name through which we refer to it in an English-speaking context]
  • “安” [Chinese “an”, meaning “peace”]
  • “6°5’29”N 45°12’13”W” [example of a spatial coordinate]
  • “Black queen’s bishop 4” [chess coordinate, example of an identifier in a conceptual space (E89)]
  • “19-MAR-1922” [example of date]
  • “+41 22 418 5571” [example of contact point]
  • "weasel@paveprime.com" [example of contact point]
  • “CH-1211, Genève” [example of place appellation]
  • “1-29-3 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 121, Japan” [example of a postal address]
  • “the poop deck of H.M.S Victory” [example of a section definition on a human-made object (E22)]
  • “the Venus de Milo’s left buttock” [example of a section definition on a human-made object (E22)]
In First Order Logic:
  • E41(x) ⇒ E90(x)
Properties:
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation
E42 Identifier
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation E41
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises strings or codes assigned to instances of E1 CRM Entity in order to identify them uniquely and permanently within the context of one or more organisations. Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. Postal addresses, telephone numbers, urls and e-mail addresses are characteristic examples of identifiers used by services transporting things between clients.

The class E42 Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents.

Examples:
  • “MM.GE.195”
  • “13.45.1976”
  • “OXCMS: 1997.4.1” (fictitious)
  • “ISSN 0041-5278” [Identifier for “The Unesco courier (Print)”]
  • “ISRC FIFIN8900186” [Identifier for : Kraft (29 min 14 s) / Magnus Lindberg, comp. ; Toimii Ensemble ; Swedish Radio symphony orchestra ; Esa-Pekka Salonen, dir.]
  • Shelf mark “Res 8 P 10”
  • “Guillaume de Machaut (1300?-1377)” [a controlled personal name heading that follows the French rules] (Reaney, 1974)
  • “+41 22 418 5571”
  • weasel@paveprime.com
  • “Rue David Dufour 5, CH-1211, Genève”
  • “1-29-3 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 121, Japan”
In First Order Logic:
  • E42(x) ⇒ E41(x)
Properties:
-
E52 Time-Span
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises abstract temporal extents, in the sense of Galilean physics, having a beginning, an end and a duration.

Instances of E52 Time-Span have no semantic connotations about phenomena happening within the temporal extent they represent. They do not convey any meaning other than a positioning on the “time-line” of chronology. The actual extent of an instance of E52 Time-Span can be approximated by properties of E52 Time-Span giving inner and outer bounds in the form of dates (instances of E61 Time Primitive). Comparing knowledge about time-spans is fundamental for chronological reasoning.

Some instances of E52 Time-Span may be defined as the actual, in principle observable, temporal extent of instances of E2 Temporal Entity via the property P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span. They constitute phenomenal time-spans as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel 2013). Since our knowledge of history is imperfect and physical phenomena are fuzzy in nature, the extent of phenomenal time-spans can only be described in approximation. An extreme case of approximation, might, for example, define an instance of E52 Time-Span having unknown beginning, end and duration. It may, nevertheless, be associated with other descriptions by which we can infer knowledge about it, such as in relative chronologies.

Some instances of E52 may be defined precisely as representing a declaration of a temporal extent, as, for instance, done in a business contract. They constitute declarative time-spans as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel 2013) and can be described via the property E61 Time Primitive P170 defines time (time is defined by): E52 Time-Span.

When used as a common E52 Time-Span for two events, it will nevertheless describe them as being simultaneous, even if nothing else is known.

Examples:
  • 1961
  • From 12-17-1993 to 12-8-1996
  • 14h30 – 16h22 4th July 1945
  • 9.30 am 1.1.1999 to 2.00 pm 1.1.1999
  • the time-span of the Ming Dynasty (Chan, 2011)
In First Order Logic:
  • E52(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
P79 beginning is qualified by: E62 String
P80 end is qualified by: E62 String
P81 ongoing throughout: E61 Time Primitive
P82 at some time within: E61 Time Primitive
P86 falls within (contains): E52 Time-Span
P191 had duration (was duration of): E54 Dimension
E53 Place
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises extents in space, in particular on the surface of the earth, in the pure sense of physics: independent from temporal phenomena and matter.

The instances of E53 Place are usually determined by reference to the position of “immobile” objects such as buildings, cities, mountains, rivers, or dedicated geodetic marks, but may also be determined by reference to mobile objects. A Place can be determined by combining a frame of reference and a location with respect to this frame.

It is sometimes argued that instances of E53 Place are best identified by global coordinates or absolute reference systems. However, relative references are often more relevant in the context of cultural documentation and tend to be more precise. In particular, we are often interested in position in relation to large, mobile objects, such as ships. For example, the Place at which Nelson died is known with reference to a large mobile object – H.M.S Victory. A resolution of this Place in terms of absolute coordinates would require knowledge of the movements of the vessel and the precise time of death, either of which may be revised, and the result would lack historical and cultural relevance.

Any instance of E18 Physical Thing can serve as a frame of reference for an instance of E53 Place. This may be documented using the property P157 is at rest relative to (provides reference space for).

Examples:
  • the extent of the UK in the year 2003
  • the position of the hallmark on the inside of my wedding ring (fictitious)
  • the place referred to in the phrase: “Fish collected at three miles north of the confluence of the Arve and the Rhone”
  • here -> <- [the place between these two arrows in one of the reader's paper copy of this document. Each copy constitutes a different place of this spot.]
In First Order Logic:
  • E53(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
P89 falls within (contains): E53 Place
P121 overlaps with: E53 Place
P122 borders with: E53 Place
P157 is at rest relative to (provides reference space for): E18 Physical Thing
P168 place is defined by (defines place): E94 Space Primitive
P171 at some place within: E94 Space Primitive
P172 contains: E94 Space Primitive
P189 approximates (is approximated by): E53 Place
E54 Dimension
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
E97 Monetary Amount E97
Scope Note:

This class comprises quantifiable properties that can be measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by values, i.e., by points or regions in a mathematical or conceptual space, such as natural or real numbers, RGB values etc.

An instance of E54 Dimension represents the empirical or theoretically derived quantity, including the precision tolerances resulting from the particular method or calculation. The identity of an instance of E54 Dimension depends on the method of its determination because each method may produce different values even when determining comparable qualities. For instance, the wingspan of a bird alive or dead is a different dimension. Thermoluninescence dating and Rehydroxylation [RHX] dating are different dimensions of temporal distance from now, even if they aim at dating the same object. The method of determination should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). Note that simple terms such as “diameter” or “length” are normally insufficient to unambiguously describe a respective dimension. In contrast, “maximum linear extent” may be sufficient.

The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation of the values of instances of E54 Dimension adequate to the precision of the applied method of determination. If the respective quantity belongs to a non-discrete space according to the laws of physics, such as spatial distances, it is recommended to record them as approximations by intervals or regions of indeterminacy enclosing the assumed true values. For instance, a length of 5 cm may be recorded as 4.5-5.5 cm, according to the precision of the respective observation. Note, that comparability of values described in different units depends critically on the representation as value regions.

Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension, as appropriate.

Examples:
  • the weight of the Luxor Obelisk [250 metric tons]
  • the vertical height of the statue of David by Michaelangelo [5.17 metres]
  • the weight of the Great Star of Africa diamond [530.2 carats]
  • the calibrated C14 date for the Shroud of Turin [AD1262-1312, 1303-1384]
  • the horizontal diameter of the Stonehenge Sarsen Circle [33 metres] (Pryor, 2016)
  • the length of the sides of the Great Pyramid at Giza [230.34 metres] (Lehner and Hawass, 2017)
  • the duration of the time span of the Battle of Issos/Issus on 15th November 333 B.C.E. [less than 12 hours] (Howard, 2012)
  • Christie’s hammer price, in British Pounds, for Vincent van Gogh's "Still Life: Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers" in London on 30th March 1987 (E97) [24.75 million GBP (Brithish Pounds)]
In First Order Logic:
  • E54(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
P90 has value: E60 Number
P91 has unit (is unit of): E58 Measurement Unit
E55 Type
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E28 Conceptual Object E28
SuperClass Of:
E56 Language
E57 Material
E58 Measurement Unit
E99 Product Type
E56
E57
E58
E99
Scope Note:

This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CIDOC CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CIDOC CRM classes.

E55 Type is the CIDOC CRM’s interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CIDOC CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e., instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type. Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties.

Examples:
  • weight, length, depth [types for instances of E54]
  • portrait, sketch, animation [types for instances of E36]
  • French, English, German (E56)
  • excellent, good, poor [types for instances of E3]
  • Ford Model T, chop stick [types for instances of E22]
  • cave, doline, scratch [types for instances of E26]
  • poem, short story [types for instances of E33]
  • wedding, earthquake, skirmish [types for instances of E5]
In First Order Logic:
  • E55(x) ⇒ E28(x)
Properties:
P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type
P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for): E55 Type
E56 Language
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E55 Type E55
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the natural languages in the sense of concepts.

This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e., the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E56 Language, e.g.: “instances of Mandarin Chinese”.

It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used to denote instances of E56 Language, such as those defined in ISO 639-1:2002 and later versions.

Examples:
  • el [Greek] (Palmer, 1980)
  • en [English] (Wilson, 1983)
  • eo [Esperanto] (Nuessel, 2000)
  • es [Spanish] (Pineda, 1993)
  • fr [French] (Rickard, 1974)
In First Order Logic:
  • E56(x) ⇒ E55(x)
Properties:
-
E57 Material
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E55 Type E55
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the concepts of materials.

Instances of E57 Material may denote properties of matter before its use, during its use, and as incorporated in an object, such as ultramarine powder, tempera paste, reinforced concrete. Discrete pieces of raw-materials kept in museums, such as bricks, sheets of fabric, pieces of metal, should be modelled individually in the same way as other objects. Discrete used or processed pieces, such as the stones from Nefer Titi's temple, should be modelled as parts (cf. P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing).

This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e., the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E57 Material, e.g.: “instances of gold”.

It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used.

Examples:
  • brick (Gurcke, 1987)
  • gold (Watson, 1990)
  • aluminium (Norman, 1986)
  • polycarbonate (Mhaske, 2011)
  • resin (Barton, 1992)
In First Order Logic:
  • E57(x) ⇒ E55(x)
Properties:
-
E58 Measurement Unit
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E55 Type E55
SuperClass Of:
E98 Currency E98
Scope Note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the types of measurement units: feet, inches, centimetres, litres, lumens, etc.

This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e., the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E58 Measurement Unit, e.g.: “instances of cm”.

Système International (SI) units or internationally recognized non-SI terms should be used whenever possible, such as those defined by ISO80000:2009. Archaic Measurement Units used in historical records should be preserved.

Examples:
  • cm [centimetre]
  • km [kilometre]
  • m [meter]
  • m/s [meters per second] (Hau et al., 1999)
  • A [Ampere]
  • GRD [Greek Drachme] (E98) (Daniel, 2014)
  • C [degrees centigrade] (Beckman, 1998)
In First Order Logic:
  • E58(x) ⇒ E55(x)
Properties:
-
E59 Primitive Value
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
E60 Number
E61 Time Primitive
E62 String
E94 Space Primitive
E95 Spacetime Primitive
E60
E61
E62
E94
E95
Scope Note:

This class comprises values of primitive data types of programming languages or database management systems and data types composed of such values used as documentation elements, as well as their mathematical abstractions.

The instances of E59 Primitive Value and its subclasses are not considered elements of the universe of discourse the CIDOC CRM aims to define and analyze. Rather, they play the role of a symbolic interface between the scope of the model and the world of mathematical and computational manipulations and the symbolic objects they define and handle.

In particular, they comprise lexical forms encoded as "strings" or series of characters and symbols based on encoding schemes (characterised by being a limited subset of the respective mathematical abstractions) such as UNICODE and values of datatypes that can be encoded in a lexical form, including quantitative specifications of time-spans and geometry. They have in common that instances of E59 Primitive Value define themselves by virtue of their encoded value, regardless of the nature of their mathematical abstractions.

Therefore, in an implementation, instances of E59 Primitive should be represented directly in the encoded symbolic form supported by the respective platform, such as a character string or a formatted date. They must not be represented in an implementation indirectly via, another a universal resource identifier, which in turn is linked to the actual encoded symbolic form. In a concrete application, it is recommended that the primitive value system from a chosen implementation platform and/or data definition language be used to substitute for this class and its subclasses.

Examples:
  • “ABCDEFG” (E62)
  • 3.14 (E60)
  • 0 (E60)
  • 1921-01-01 (E61)
In First Order Logic:
  • E59(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
-
E60 Number
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E59 Primitive Value E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises any encoding of computable (algebraic) values such as integers, real numbers, complex numbers, vectors, tensors etc., including intervals of these values to express limited precision.

Numbers are fundamentally distinct from numerically expressed identifiers in continua, which are instances of E41 Appellation, such as Gregorian dates or spatial coordinates, even though their encoding may be similar. Instances of E60 Number can be combined with each other in algebraic operations to yield other instances of E60 Number, e.g., 1+1=2. Identifiers in continua may be combined with numbers expressing distances to yield new identifiers, e.g., 1924-01-31 + 2 days = 1924-02-02. Cf. E54 Dimension.

Examples:
  • 5
  • 3+2i
  • 1.5e-04
  • (0.5, - 0.7,88)
In First Order Logic:
  • E60(x) ⇒ E59(x)
Properties:
-
E61 Time Primitive
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation
E59 Primitive Value
E41
E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for time that should be implemented with appropriate validation, precision and references to temporal coordinate systems to express time in some context relevant to cultural and scientific documentation.

Instantiating different instances of E61 Time Primitive relative to the same instance of E52 Time Span allows for the expression of multiple opinions/approximations of the same phenomenon. When representing different opinions/approximations of the E52 Time Span of some E2 Temporal Entity, multiple instances of E61 Time Primitive should be instantiated relative to one E52 Time Span. Only one E52 Time Span should be instantiated since there is only one real phenomenal time extent of any given temporal entity.

The instances of E61 Time Primitive are not considered as elements of the universe of discourse that the CIDOC CRM aims at defining and analysing. Rather, they play the role of a symbolic interface between the scope of this model and the world of mathematical and computational manipulations and the symbolic objects they define and handle.

Therefore, they must not be represented in an implementation by a universal identifier associated with a content model of different identity. In a concrete application, it is recommended that the primitive value system from a chosen implementation platform and/or data definition language be used to substitute for this class.

Examples:
  • “1994 – 1997”
  • “13th May 1768”
  • “2000/01/01 00:00:59.7”
  • “85th century BCE”
In First Order Logic:
  • E61(x) ⇒ E41(x)
  • E61(x) ⇒ E59(x)
Properties:
P170 defines time (time is defined by): E52 Time-Span
E62 String
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E59 Primitive Value E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises coherent sequences of binary-encoded symbols. They correspond to the content of an instance of E90 Symbolic object. Instances of E62 String represent only the symbol sequence itself. They may or may not contain a language code.

In contrast, instances of other subclasses of E59 Primitive value represent entities in mathematical spaces other than that of symbol sequences, by using binary-encoded symbols, such as date expressions or numbers in decimal encoding. For instance, different syntactic forms of a date expression may represent the same date but consist of different strings.

Examples:
  • “the Quick Brown Fox Jumps Over the Lazy Dog”
  • “6F 6E 54 79 70 31 0D 9E”
In First Order Logic:
  • E62(x) ⇒ E59(x)
Properties:
-
E63 Beginning of Existence
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E5 Event E5
SuperClass Of:
E12 Production
E65 Creation
E66 Formation
E67 Birth
E81 Transformation
E12
E65
E66
E67
E81
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that bring into existence any instance of E77 Persistent Item.

It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (intellectual products, physical items, groups of people, living beings) beginning to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a “terminus post quem” or “terminus ante quem”.

Examples:
  • the birth of my child (E67) (fictitious)
  • the birth of Snoopy, my dog (fictitious)
  • the calving of the iceberg that sank the Titanic
  • the construction of the Eiffel Tower (E12) (Tissandier, 1889)
In First Order Logic:
  • E63(x) ⇒ E5(x)
Properties:
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
E64 End of Existence
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E5 Event E5
SuperClass Of:
E6 Destruction
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E81 Transformation
E6
E68
E69
E81
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that end the existence of any instance of E77 Persistent Item.

It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (physical items, groups of people, living beings) ceasing to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a “terminus post quem” or “terminus ante quem”. In cases where substance from an instance of E64 Persistent Item continues to exist in a new form, the process would be documented as instances of E81 Transformation.

Examples:
  • the death of Snoopy, my dog (fictitious)
  • the melting of the snowman (E6)
  • the burning of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesos by Herostratos in 356BC (E7,E6) (Trell, 1945)
In First Order Logic:
  • E64(x) ⇒ E5(x)
Properties:
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
E65 Creation
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity
E63 Beginning of Existence
E7
E63
SuperClass Of:
E83 Type Creation E83
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that result in the creation of conceptual items or immaterial products, such as legends, poems, texts, music, images, movies, laws, types etc.

Examples:
  • the framing of the U.S. Constitution (Farrand, 1913)
  • the drafting of U.N. resolution 1441 (United Nations Security Council, 2002)
In First Order Logic:
  • E65(x) ⇒ E7(x)
  • E65(x) ⇒ E63(x)
Properties:
P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object
E66 Formation
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity
E63 Beginning of Existence
E7
E63
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation.

E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective.

The formation of an instance of E74 Group does not require that the group is populated with members at the time of formation. In order to express the joining of members at the time of formation, the respective activity should be simultaneously an instance of both E66 Formation and E85 Joining.

Examples:
  • the formation of the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group in 2000
  • the formation of the Soviet Union (Pipes, 1964)
  • the conspiring of the murderers of Caesar (Irwin, 1935)
In First Order Logic:
  • E66(x) ⇒ E7(x)
  • E66(x) ⇒ E63(x)
Properties:
P95 has formed (was formed by): E74 Group
P151 was formed from (participated in): E74 Group
E67 Birth
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence E63
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the births of human beings. E67 Birth is a biological event focussing on the context of people coming into life. (E63 Beginning of Existence comprises the coming into life of any living being).

Twins, triplets etc. are typically brought into life by the same instance of E67 Birth. The introduction of E67 Birth as a documentation element allows the description of a range of family relationships in a simple model. Suitable extensions may describe more details and the complexity of motherhood with the intervention of modern medicine. In this model, the biological father is not seen as a necessary participant in the birth.

Examples:
  • the birth of Alexander the Great (Stoneman, 2004)
In First Order Logic:
  • E67(x) ⇒ E63(x)
Properties:
P96 by mother (gave birth): E21 Person
P97 from father (was father for): E21 Person
P98 brought into life (was born): E21 Person
E68 Dissolution
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E64 End of Existence E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the events that result in the formal or informal termination of an instance of E74 Group.

If the dissolution was deliberate, the Dissolution event should also be instantiated as an instance of E7 Activity.

Examples:
  • the fall of the Roman Empire (Whittington, 1964)
  • the liquidation of Enron Corporation (Atlas, 2001)
In First Order Logic:
  • E68(x) ⇒ E64(x)
Properties:
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group
E69 Death
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E64 End of Existence E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the deaths of human beings.

If a person is killed, the death should be documented as an instance of both E69 Death and E7 Activity. The death or perishing of other living beings should be documented as instances of E64 End of Existence.

Examples:
  • the murder of Julius Caesar (E69, E7) (Irwin, 1935)
  • the death of Senator Paul Wellstone (Monast and Tao, 2002)
In First Order Logic:
  • E69(x) ⇒ E64(x)
Properties:
P100 was death of (died in): E21 Person
E70 Thing
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E77 Persistent Item E77
SuperClass Of:
E71 Human-Made Thing
E72 Legal Object
E71
E72
Scope Note:

This general class comprises discrete, identifiable, instances of E77 Persistent Item that are documented as single units, that either consist of matter or depend on being carried by matter and are characterized by relative stability.

They may be intellectual products or physical things. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be a logical concept or structure.

Examples:
  • my photograph collection (E78) (fictitious)
  • the bottle of milk in my refrigerator (E22) (fictitious)
  • the Riss A1 plan of the Straßburger Münster (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg) (E29) (Liess, R., 1985)
  • the thing on the top of Otto Hahn’s desk (E19)
  • the form of the no-smoking sign (E36)
  • the cave of Dirou, Mani, Greece (E26) (Psimenos, 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • E70(x) ⇒ E77(x)
Properties:
P43 has dimension (is dimension of): E54 Dimension
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing
E71 Human-Made Thing
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E70 Thing E70
SuperClass Of:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E28 Conceptual Object
E24
E28
Scope Note:

This class comprises discrete, identifiable human-made items that are documented as single units.

These items are either intellectual products or human-made physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concepts or structures.

Examples:
  • Beethoven’s 5th Symphony (E73) (Lockwood, 2015)
  • Michelangelo’s David (E22) (Paoletti and Bagemihl, 2015)
  • Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity (E89) (Hartle, 2003)
  • the taxon ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus,1758’ (E55) (Sinkevicius and Narusevicius, 2002)
In First Order Logic:
  • E71(x) ⇒ E70(x)
Properties:
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
E72 Legal Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E70 Thing E70
SuperClass Of:
E18 Physical Thing
E90 Symbolic Object
E18
E90
Scope Note:

This class comprises those material or immaterial items to which instances of E30 Right, such as the right of ownership or use, can be applied.

This is true for all instances of E18 Physical Thing. In the case of instances of E28 Conceptual Object, however, the identity of an instance of E28 Conceptual Object or the method of its use may be too ambiguous to reliably establish instances of E30 Right, as in the case of taxa and inspirations. Ownership of corporations is currently regarded as out of scope of the CIDOC CRM.

Examples:
  • the Cullinan diamond (E19) (Scarratt and Shor, 2006)
  • definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Version 5.0.4 (E73) (ISO 21127: 2014)
In First Order Logic:
  • E72(x) ⇒ E70(x)
Properties:
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor
E73 Information Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E89 Propositional Object
E90 Symbolic Object
E89
E90
SuperClass Of:
E29 Design or Procedure
E31 Document
E33 Linguistic Object
E36 Visual Item
E29
E31
E33
E36
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable immaterial items, such as poems, jokes, data sets, images, texts, multimedia objects, procedural prescriptions, computer program code, algorithm or mathematical formulae, that have an objectively recognizable structure and are documented as single units. The encoding structure known as a "named graph" also falls under this class, so that each "named graph" is an instance of E73 Information Object.

An instance of E73 Information Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously.

Instances of E73 Information Object of a linguistic nature should be declared as instances of the E33 Linguistic Object subclass. Instances of E73 Information Object of a documentary nature should be declared as instances of the E31 Document subclass. Conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E73 Information Object, nor are ideas without a reproducible expression.

Examples:
  • image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London (E31) (Natural History Museum, 2021)
  • E. A. Poe's "The Raven" (Poe, 1869)
  • the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa (Mellen, 2002)
  • the text of Huray describing the Maxwell Equations (Huray, 2010)
  • the Getty AAT as published as Linked Open Data, accessed 1/10/2014
In First Order Logic:
  • E73(x) ⇒ E89(x)
  • E73(x) ⇒ E90(x)
Properties:
P165 incorporates (is incorporated in): E90 Symbolic Object
E74 Group
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E39 Actor E39
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of human individuals or groups that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship. In the wider sense this class also comprises official positions which used to be regarded in certain contexts as one actor, independent of the current holder of the office, such as the president of a country. In such cases, it may happen that the group never had more than one member. A joint pseudonym (i.e., a name that seems indicative of an individual but that is actually used as a persona by two or more people) is a particular case of E74 Group.

A gathering of people becomes an instance of E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modelled as membership in an instance of E74 Group. Married couples and other concepts of family are regarded as particular examples of E74 Group.

Examples:
  • the impressionists (Wilson, 1994)
  • the Navajo (Correll, 1972)
  • the Greeks (Williams, 1993)
  • the peace protestors in New York City on 15th February 2003
  • Exxon-Mobil (Raymond, 2006)
  • King Solomon and his wives (Thieberger, 1947)
  • the President of the Swiss Confederation
  • Nicolas Bourbaki [the collective pseudonym of a group of mathematicians, predominantly French alumni of the École normale supérieure] (Aczel, 2007)
  • Betty Crocker (Crocker, 2012)
  • Ellery Queen [Ellery Queen is a pseudonym created in 1929 by American crime fiction writers Frederic Dannay and Manfred Bennington Lee.] (Wheat, 2005)
  • Greenpeace
  • Paveprime Ltd
  • the National Museum of Denmark
In First Order Logic:
  • E74(x) ⇒ E39(x)
Properties:
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of): E39 Actor
E77 Persistent Item
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
E39 Actor
E70 Thing
E39
E70
Scope Note:

This class comprises items that have persistent characteristics of structural nature substantially related to their identity and their integrity, sometimes known as “endurants” in philosophy. Persistent Items may be physical entities, such as people, animals or things, conceptual entities such as ideas, concepts, products of the imagination or even names.

Instances of E77 Persistent Item may be present or be part of interactions in different periods or events. They can repeatedly be recognized at disparate occasions during their existence by characteristics of structural nature. The respective characteristics need not be exactly the same during all the existence of an instance of E77 Persistent Item. Often, they undergo gradual change, still bearing some similarities with that of previous times, or disappear completely and new emerge. For instance, a person, from the time of being born on, will gradually change all its features and acquire new ones, such as a scar. Even the DNA in different body cells will develop defects and mutations. Nevertheless, relevant characteristics use to be sufficiently similar to recognize the instance for some substantial period of time.

The more specific criteria that determine the identity of instances of subclasses of E77 Persistent Item may vary considerably and are described of referred to in the respective scope notes. The decision about which exact criteria to use depends on whether the observable behaviour of the respective part of reality such confined conforms to the reasoning the user is interested in. For example, a building can be regarded as no longer existing if it is dismantled and the materials reused in a different configuration. On the other hand, human beings go through radical and profound changes during their life-span, affecting both material composition and form, yet preserve their identity by other criteria, such as being bodily separated from other persons. Similarly, inanimate objects may be subject to exchange of parts and matter. On the opposite, the identity of a (version of a) text of a scientific publication is given by the exact arrangement of its relevant symbols.

The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope of the E77 Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and acts, and descriptive properties.

An instance of E77 Persistent Item does not require actual knowledge of the identifying features of the instance being currently known. There may be cases, where the actual identifying features of an instance of E77 Persistent Item are not decidable at a particular state of knowledge.

Examples:
  • Leonard da Vinci (E21) (Strano, 1953)
  • Stonehenge (E24) (Pryor, 2016)
  • the hole in the ozone layer (E4) (Hufford and Horwitz, 2005)
  • the First Law of Thermodynamics (E89) (Craig and Gislason, 2002)
  • the Bermuda Triangle (E53) (Dolan, 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • E77(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
-
E78 Curated Holding
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing E24
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises aggregations of instances of E18 Physical Thing that are assembled and maintained (“curated” and “preserved,” in museological terminology) by one or more instances of E39 Actor over time for a specific purpose and audience, and according to a particular collection development plan. Typical instances of curated holdings are museum collections, archives, library holdings and digital libraries. A digital library is regarded as an instance of E18 Physical Thing because it requires keeping physical carriers of the electronic content.

Items may be added or removed from an E78 Curated Holding in pursuit of this plan. This class should not be confused with the E39 Actor maintaining the E78 Curated Holding often referred to with the name of the E78 Curated Holding (e.g., “The Wallace Collection decided…”).

Collective objects in the general sense, like a tomb full of gifts, a folder with stamps or a set of chessmen, should be documented as instances of E19 Physical Object, and not as instances of E78 Curated Holding. This is because they form wholes either because they are physically bound together or because they are kept together for their functionality.

Examples:
  • the John Clayton Herbarium (Blake, 1918), (Natural History Museum, 2021)
  • the Wallace Collection (Ingamells, 1990)
  • Mikael Heggelund Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Trondheim, Norway (Woelkerling et al., 2005)
  • the Digital Collections of the Munich DigitiZation Center (MDZ) accessible via https://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/ at least in January 2018.
In First Order Logic:
  • E78(x) ⇒ E24(x)
Properties:
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of): E39 Actor
E79 Part Addition
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification E11
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that result in an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing being increased, enlarged or augmented by the addition of a part.

Typical scenarios include the attachment of an accessory, the integration of a component, the addition of an element to an aggregate object, or the accessioning of an object into a curated instance of E78 Curated Holding. Objects to which parts are added are, by definition, human-made, since the addition of a part implies a human activity. Following the addition of parts, the resulting human-made assemblages are treated objectively as single identifiable wholes, made up of constituent or component parts bound together either physically (for example the engine becoming a part of the car), or by sharing a common purpose (such as the 32 chess pieces that make up a chess set). This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history and continuity of identity of objects that are integrated into other objects over time, such as precious gemstones being repeatedly incorporated into different items of jewellery, or cultural artifacts being added to different museum instances of E78 Curated Holding over their lifespan.

Examples:
  • the setting of the Koh-I-Noor diamond into the crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (Dalrymple, 2017)
  • the addition of the painting “Room in Brooklyn” by Edward Hopper to the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
In First Order Logic:
  • E79(x) ⇒ E11(x)
Properties:
P110 augmented (was augmented by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
P111 added (was added by): E18 Physical Thing
E80 Part Removal
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification E11
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E18 Physical Thing being decreased by the removal of a part.

Typical scenarios include the detachment of an accessory, the removal of a component or part of a composite object, or the deaccessioning of an object from a curated collection, an instance of E78 Curated Holding. If the instance of E80 Part Removal results in the total decomposition of the original object into pieces, such that the whole ceases to exist, the activity should instead be modelled as an instance of E81 Transformation, i.e., a simultaneous destruction and production. In cases where the part removed has no discernible identity prior to its removal but does have an identity subsequent to its removal, the activity should be modelled as both an instance of E80 Part Removal and E12 Production. This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history, and continuity of identity over time, of objects that are removed from other objects, such as precious gemstones being extracted from different items of jewellry, or cultural artifacts being deaccessioned from different museum collections over their lifespan.

Examples:
  • the removal of the engine from my car (fictitious)
  • the disposal of object number 1976:234 from the collection (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • E80(x) ⇒ E11(x)
Properties:
P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
P113 removed (was removed by): E18 Physical Thing
E81 Transformation
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence
E64 End of Existence
E63
E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the events that result in the simultaneous destruction of one or more than one E18 Physical Thing and the creation of one or more than one E18 Physical Thing that preserves recognizable substance and structure from the first one(s) but has fundamentally different nature or identity.

Although the old and the new instances of E18 Physical Thing are treated as discrete entities having separate, unique identities, they are causally connected through the E81 Transformation; the destruction of the old E18 Physical Thing(s) directly causes the creation of the new one(s) using or preserving some relevant substance and structure. Instances of E81 Transformation are therefore distinct from re-classifications (documented using E17 Type Assignment) or modifications (documented using E11 Modification) of objects that do not fundamentally change their nature or identity. Characteristic cases are reconstructions and repurposing of historical buildings or ruins, fires leaving buildings in ruins, taxidermy of specimen in natural history.

Even though such instances of E81 Transformation are often motivated by a change of intended use, substantial material changes should justify the documentation of the result as a new instance of E18 Physical Thing and not just the change of function. The latter may be documented as an extended activity (instance of E7 Activity) of using it.

Examples:
  • the mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E81, E12) [the mummification of the body of the deceased is a human production process and simultaneously preserves structures of the body at and before death] (Carter and Mace 1977)
  • the death, carbonization and petrification of some people of Pompeii in 79AD by the intense heat of a pyroclastic cloud and ashes from the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius (E69, E81)
  • the transformation of the Hephaisteion temple in Athens, better known as "Theseion", into a Christian church, dedicated to Saint George around AD 700 (E81,E12) [which actually helped preserving part of the antique temple structure from 449BC]
In First Order Logic:
  • E81(x) ⇒ E63(x)
  • E81(x) ⇒ E64(x)
Properties:
P123 resulted in (resulted from): E18 Physical Thing
P124 transformed (was transformed by): E18 Physical Thing
E83 Type Creation
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E65 Creation E65
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities formally defining new types of items.

It is typically a rigorous scholarly or scientific process that ensures a type is exhaustively described and appropriately named. In some cases, particularly in archaeology and the life sciences, E83 Type Creation requires the identification of an exemplary specimen and the publication of the type definition in an appropriate scholarly forum. The activity modelled as an instance of E83 Type Creation is central to research in the life sciences, where a type would be referred to as a “taxon,” the type description as a “protologue,” and the exemplary specimens as “original element” or “holotype”.

Examples:
  • creation of the taxon 'Penicillium brefeldianum’ (Dodge, 1933)
  • addition of class E85 Joining to the CIDOC CRM
In First Order Logic:
  • E83(x) ⇒ E65(x)
Properties:
P135 created type (was created by): E55 Type
P136 was based on (supported type creation): E1 CRM Entity
E85 Joining
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party. It may be the initiative of a third party.

Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, marriage, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position.

Examples:
  • the election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689 (Gleick,2003)
  • the inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 (Butson, 1986)
  • the implementation of the membership treaty between EU and Denmark, 1st January 1993
In First Order Logic:
  • E85(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P143 joined (was joined by): E39 Actor
P144 joined with (gained member by): E74 Group
E86 Leaving
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor to be disassociated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party. It may be the initiative of a third party.

Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, divorce, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position.

Examples:
  • the end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 (Gleick, 2003)
  • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797 (Jones, 1979)
  • the implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland’s membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland February 1. 1985
In First Order Logic:
  • E86(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P145 separated (left by): E39 Actor
P146 separated from (lost member by): E74 Group
E87 Curation Activity
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the activities that result in the continuity of management and the preservation and evolution of instances of E78 Curated Holding, following an implicit or explicit curation plan.

It specializes the notion of activity into the curation of a collection and allows the history of curation to be recorded.

Items are accumulated and organized following criteria like subject, chronological period, material type, style of art etc. and can be added or removed from an instance of E78 Curated Holding for a specific purpose and/or audience. The initial aggregation of items of a collection is regarded as an instance of E12 Production Event while the activity of evolving, preserving and promoting a collection is regarded as an instance of E87 Curation Activity.

Examples:
  • the curation of Mikael Heggelund Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium 1876 – 1909 (when Foslie died), now at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Norway (Woelkerling et al., 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • E87(x) ⇒ E7(x)
Properties:
P147 curated (was curated by): E78 Curated Holding
E89 Propositional Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E28 Conceptual Object E28
SuperClass Of:
E30 Right
E73 Information Object
E30
E73
Scope Note:

This class comprises immaterial items, including but not limited to stories, plots, procedural prescriptions, algorithms, laws of physics or images that are, or represent in some sense, sets of propositions about real or imaginary things and that are documented as single units or serve as topic of discourse.

This class also comprises items that are “about” something in the sense of a subject. In the wider sense, this class includes expressions of psychological value such as non-figural art and musical themes. However, conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E89 Propositional Object. This should not be confused with the definition of a type, which is indeed an instance of E89 Propositional Object.

Examples:
  • Maxwell’s Equations (Ball, 1962)
  • the ideational contents of Aristotle’s book entitled ‘Metaphysics’ as rendered in the Greek texts translated in Oxford edition
  • the underlying prototype of any “no-smoking” sign (E36)
  • the common ideas of the plots of the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa and the movie “The Magnificent Seven” by John Sturges (Mellen, 2002)
  • the image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945 (E36)
  • the character "Little Red Riding Hood", variants of which appear amongst others in Grimm brothers’ ‘Rotkäppchen’, other oral fairy tales and the film 'Hoodwinked'
  • the place "Havnor" as invented by Ursula K. Le Guin for her ‘Earthsea’ book series, the related maps and appearing in derivative works based on these novels
In First Order Logic:
  • E89(x) ⇒ E28(x)
Properties:
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity
P148 has component (is component of): E89 Propositional Object
E90 Symbolic Object
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E28 Conceptual Object
E72 Legal Object
E28
E72
SuperClass Of:
E41 Appellation
E73 Information Object
E41
E73
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable symbols and any aggregation of symbols, such as characters, identifiers, traffic signs, emblems, texts, data sets, images, musical scores, multimedia objects, computer program code or mathematical formulae that have an objectively recognizable structure and that are documented as single units.

It includes sets of signs of any nature, which may serve to designate something, or to communicate some propositional content. An instance of E90 Symbolic Object may or may not have a specific meaning, for example an arbitrary character string.

In some cases, the content of an instance of E90 Symbolic Object may completely be represented by a serialized digital content model, such as a sequence of ASCII-encoded characters, an XML or HTML document, or a TIFF image. The property P3 has note and its subproperty P190 has symbolic content allow for the description of this content model. In order to disambiguate which symbolic level is the carrier of the meaning, the property P3.1 has type can be used to specify the encoding (e.g., "bit", "Latin character", RGB pixel).

Examples:
  • ‘ecognizabl’
  • the “no-smoking” sign (E36)
  • “BM000038850.JPG” (E41) [identifies a digital image] (Natural History Museum, 2021)
  • image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London (E36) [depicts specimen of Verbesina virginica] (Natural History Museum, 2021)
  • the distribution of form, tone and colour found on Leonardo da Vinci’s painting named “Mona Lisa” in daylight (E36)
  • the Italian text of Dante’s “Divina Commedia” as found in the authoritative critical edition La Commedia secondo l’antica vulgata a cura di Giorgio Petrocchi, Milano: Mondadori, 1966-67 (= Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, Edizione Nazionale a cura della Società Dantesca Italiana, VII, 1-4) (Petrocchi, 1967) (E33)
In First Order Logic:
  • E90(x) ⇒ E28(x)
  • E90(x) ⇒ E72(x)
Properties:
P106 is composed of (forms part of): E90 Symbolic Object
P190 has symbolic content: E62 String
E92 Spacetime Volume
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SuperClass Of:
E4 Period
E93 Presence
E4
E93
Scope Note:

This class comprises 4-dimensional point sets (volumes) in physical spacetime (in contrast to mathematical models of it) regardless their true geometric forms. They may derive their identity from being the extent of a material phenomenon or from being the interpretation of an expression defining an extent in spacetime. Intersections of instances of E92 Spacetime Volume, E53 Place and E52 Timespan are also regarded as instances of E92 Spacetime Volume. An instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is either contiguous or composed of a finite number of contiguous subsets. Its boundaries may be fuzzy due to the properties of the phenomena it derives from or due to the limited precision up to which defining expression can be identified with a real extent in spacetime. The duration of existence of an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is its projection on time.

Examples:
  • the extent in space and time of the Event of Caesar’s murder (Irwin, 1935)
  • where and when the carbon 14 dating of the "Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996 took place (Kouwenhoven, 1997)
  • the spatio-temporal trajectory of the H.M.S. Victory from its building to its actual location (Goodwin, 2015)
  • the extent in space and time defined by a polygon approximating the Danube river flood in Austria between 6th and 9th of August 2002
In First Order Logic:
  • E92(x) ⇒ E1(x)
Properties:
P10 falls within (contains): E92 Spacetime Volume
P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with: E92 Spacetime Volume
P133 is spatiotemporally separated from: E92 Spacetime Volume
P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of): E52 Time-Span
P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of): E53 Place
E93 Presence
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E92 Spacetime Volume, whose temporal extent has been chosen in order to determine the spatial extent of a phenomenon over the chosen time-span. Respective phenomena may, for instance, be historical events or periods, but can also be the diachronic extent and existence of physical things. In other words, instances of this class fix a slice of another instance of E92 Spacetime Volume in time.

The temporal extent of an instance of E93 Presence typically is predetermined by the researcher so as to focus the investigation particularly on finding the spatial extent of the phenomenon by testing for its characteristic features. There are at least two basic directions such investigations might take. The investigation may wish to determine where something was during some time or it may wish to reconstruct the total passage of a phenomenon’s spacetime volume through an examination of discrete presences. Observation and measurement of features indicating the presence or absence of a phenomenon in some space allows for the progressive approximation of spatial extents through argumentation typically based on inclusion, exclusion and various overlaps.

Examples:
  • the Roman Empire on 19 August AD 14 (Clare and Edwards, 1992)
  • Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s whereabouts in December 1775 (Leppmann, 1970)
  • Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s whereabouts from November 19 1755 until April 9 1768 (Leppmann, 1970)
In First Order Logic:
  • E93(x) ⇒ E92(x)
Properties:
P164 is temporally specified by (temporally specifies): E52 Time-Span
P166 was a presence of (had presence): E92 Spacetime Volume
P167 was within (includes): E53 Place
P195 was a presence of (had presence): E18 Physical Thing
P197 covered parts of (was partially covered by): E53 Place
E94 Space Primitive
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation
E59 Primitive Value
E41
E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for space that should be implemented with appropriate validation, precision and references to spatial coordinate systems to express geometries on or relative to Earth, or on any other stable constellations of matter, relevant to cultural and scientific documentation.

An instance of E94 Space Primitive defines an instance of E53 Place in the sense of a declarative place as elaborated in CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel 2013), which means that the identity of the place is derived from its geometric definition. Such a declarative place may allow for the approximation of instances of E53 Place defined by the actual extent of some phenomenon, such as a settlement or a riverbed, or other forms of identification rather than by an instance of E94 Space Primitive. Note that using an instance of E94 Space Primitive for approximating the actual extent of some place always defines a (declarative) instance of E53 Place in its own right.

Definitions of instances of E53 Place using different spatial reference systems are always definitions of different instances of E53 Place.

Instances of E94 Space Primitive provide the ability to link CIDOC CRM encoded data to the kinds of geometries used in maps or Geoinformation systems. They may be used for visualization of the instances of E53 Place they define, in their geographic context and for computing topological relations between places based on these geometries. E94 Space Primitive is not further elaborated upon within this model. It is considered good practice to maintain compatibility with OGC standards.

Examples:
<gml:Point gml:id="p21" srsName="http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326">
  <gml:coordinates>45.67, 88.56</gml:coordinates>
</gml:Point>
[Coordinate Information in GML]
In First Order Logic:
  • E94(x) ⇒ E41(x)
  • E94(x) ⇒ E59(x)
Properties:
-
E95 Spacetime Primitive
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation
E59 Primitive Value
E41
E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for spacetime volumes that should be implemented with appropriate validation, precision and reference systems to express geometries being limited and varying over time on or relative to Earth, or any other stable constellations of matter, relevant to cultural and scientific documentation. An instance of E95 Spacetime Primitive may consist of one expression including temporal and spatial information such as in GML or a different form of expressing spacetime in an integrated way such as a formula containing all 4 dimensions.

An instance of E95 Spacetime Primitive defines an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume in the sense of a declarative spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr & Hiebel 2013), which means that the identity of the instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is derived from its geometric and temporal definition. This declarative spacetime volume allows for the application of all E92 Spacetime Volume properties to relate phenomenal spacetime volumes of periods and physical things to propositions about their spatial and temporal extents.

Instances of E92 Spacetime Volume defined by P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by) that use different spatiotemporal referring systems are always regarded as different instances of the E92 Spacetime Volume.

It is possible for a spacetime volume to be defined by phenomena causal to it, such as an expanding and declining realm, a settlement structure or a battle, or other forms of identification rather than by an instance of E95 Spacetime Primitive. Any spatiotemporal approximation of such a phenomenon by an instance of E95 Spacetime Primitive constitutes an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume in its own right.

E95 Spacetime Primitive is not further elaborated upon within this model. Compatibility with OGC standards is recommended.

Examples:
<Placemark>
  <name>Byzantine Empire</name>
    <TimeSpan>
      <begin>330</begin>
      <end>1453</end>
    </TimeSpan>
    <Polygon>
      <altitudeMode>clampToGround</altitudeMode>
        <outerBoundaryIs>
          <LinearRing>
            <coordinates>18.452787460,40.85553626,0 17.2223187,40.589098,....0 17.2223,39.783</coordinates>
          </LinearRing>
        </outerBoundaryIs>
    </Polygon>
</Placemark>
[spatial and temporal information in KML for the maximum extent of the Byzantine Empire]
In First Order Logic:
  • E95(x) ⇒ E41(x)
  • E95(x) ⇒ E59(x)
Properties:
P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by): E92 Spacetime Volume
E96 Purchase
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E8 Acquisition E8
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more different instances of E39 Actor, where the transferring party is completely compensated by the payment of a monetary amount. In more detail, a purchase agreement establishes a fixed monetary obligation at its initialization on the receiving party, to the giving party. An instance of E96 Purchase begins with the contract or equivalent agreement and ends with the fulfilment of all contractual obligations. In the case that the activity is abandoned before both parties have fulfilled these obligations, the activity is not regarded as an instance of E96 Purchase.

This class is a very specific case of the much more complex social business practices of exchange of goods and the creation and satisfaction of related social obligations. Purchase activities which define individual sales prices per object can be modelled by instantiating E96 Purchase for each object individually and as part of an overall instance of E96 Purchase transaction.

Examples:
  • the purchase of 10 okka of nails by the captain A. Syrmas on 18th September 1895 in Thessaloniki (Syrmas, 1896)
In First Order Logic:
  • E96(x) ⇒ E8(x)
Properties:
P179 had sales price (was sales price of): E97 Monetary Amount
E97 Monetary Amount
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E54 Dimension E54
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises quantities of monetary possessions or obligations in terms of their nominal value with respect to a particular currency. These quantities may be abstract accounting units, the nominal value of a heap of coins or bank notes at the time of validity of the respective currency, the nominal value of a bill of exchange or other documents expressing monetary claims or obligations. It specifically excludes amounts expressed in terms of weights of valuable items, like gold and diamonds, and quantities of other non-currency items, like goats or stocks and bonds.

Examples:
  • Christies’ hammer price for Vincent van Gogh’s “Still Life: Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers” in London on 30th March 1987
In First Order Logic:
  • E97(x) ⇒ E54(x)
Properties:
P180 has currency (was currency of): E98 Currency
E98 Currency
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E58 Measurement Unit E58
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the units in which a monetary system, supported by an administrative authority or other community, quantifies and arithmetically compares all monetary amounts declared in the unit. The unit of a monetary system must describe a nominal value which is kept constant by its administrative authority and an associated banking system if it exists, and not by market value. For instance, one may pay with grams of gold, but the respective monetary amount would have been agreed as the gold price in US dollars on the day of the payment. Under this definition, British Pounds, U.S. Dollars, and European Euros are examples of currency, but “grams of gold” is not. One monetary system has one and only one currency. Instances of this class must not be confused with coin denominations, such as “Dime” or “Sestertius”. Non-monetary exchange of value in terms of quantities of a particular type of goods, such as cows, do not constitute a currency.

Examples:
  • “As” [Roman mid republic]
  • “Euro”, (Temperton, 1997)
  • “US Dollar” (Rose, 1978)
In First Order Logic:
  • E98(x) ⇒ E58(x)
Properties:
-
E99 Product Type
(show all properties)
SubClass Of:
E55 Type E55
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This classes comprises types that stand as the models for instances of E22 Human-Made Object that are produced as the result of production activities using plans exact enough to result in one or more series of uniform, functionally and aesthetically identical and interchangeable items. The product type is the intended ideal form of the manufacture process. It is typical of instances of E22 that conform to an instance of E99 Product Type that its component parts are interchangeable with component parts of other instances of E22 made after the model of the same instance of E99. Frequently, the uniform production according to a given instance of E99 Product Type is achieved by creating individual tools, such as moulds or print plates that are themselves carriers of the design of the product type. Modern tools may use the flexibility of electronically controlled devices to achieve such uniformity. The product type itself, i.e., the potentially unlimited series of aesthetically equivalent items, may be the target of artistic design, rather than the individual object. In extreme cases, only one instance of a product type may have been produced, such as in a "print on demand" process which was only triggered once. However, this should not be confused with industrial prototypes, such as car prototypes, which are produced prior to the production line being set up, or test the production line itself.

Examples:
  • Volkswagen Type 11 (Beetle) (Rieger, 2013)
  • Dragendorff 54 samian vessel
  • 1937 Edward VIII brass threepenny bit
  • Qin Crossbow trigger un-notched Part B (Bg2u) (Li, 2012)
  • Nokia Cityman 1320 [The first Nokia mobile phone]
In First Order Logic:
  • E99(x) ⇒ E55(x)
Properties:
P187 has production plan (is production plan for): E29 Design or Procedure
P188 requires production tool (is production tool for): E19 Physical Object
P1 is identified by (identifies)
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity E1
Range:
E41 Appellation E41
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
E71 Human-Made Thing. P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title
E53 Place. P168 place is defined by (defines place): E94 Space Primitive
E92 Spacetime Volume. P169i spacetime volume is defined by (defines spacetime volume): E95 Spacetime Primitive
E52 Time-Span. P170i time is defined by (defines time): E61 Time Primitive
P48
P102
P168
P169i
P170i
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the naming or identification of any real-world item by a name or any other identifier.

This property is intended for identifiers in general use, which form part of the world the model intends to describe, and not merely for internal database identifiers which are specific to a technical system, unless these latter also have a more general use outside the technical context. This property includes in particular identification by mathematical expressions such as coordinate systems used for the identification of instances of E53 Place. The property does not reveal anything about when, where and by whom this identifier was used. A more detailed representation can be made using the fully developed (i.e., indirect) path through E15 Identifier Assignment.

This property is a shortcut for the path from E1 CRM Entity through P140i was attributed by, E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned to E42 Identifier.

It is also a shortcut for the path from E1 CRM Entity through P1 is identified by, E41 Appellation, P139 has alternative form to E41 Appellation.

Examples:
  • The capital of Italy (E53) is identified by “Rome” (E41). (Leach, 2017)
  • Text 25014–32 (E33) is identified by “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” (E35). (Gibbon, 2013)
In First Order Logic:
  • P1(x,y) ⇒ E1(x)
  • P1(x,y) ⇒ E41(y)
  • P1(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E15(z)˄ P140i(x,z) ˄ P37(z,y)]
  • P1(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E41(z)˄ P1(x,z) ˄ P139(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P2 has type (is type of)
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity E1
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type
E13 Attribute Assignment. P177 assigned property of type (is type of property assigned): E55 Type
P137
P177
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property allows sub typing of CIDOC CRM entities –a form of specialisation – through the use of a terminological hierarchy, or thesaurus.

The CIDOC CRM is intended to focus on the high-level entities and relationships needed to describe data structures. Consequently, it does not specialise entities any further than is required for this immediate purpose. However, entities in the isA hierarchy of the CIDOC CRM may by specialised into any number of sub entities, which can be defined in the E55 Type hierarchy. E41 Appellation, for example, may be specialised into “e-mail address”, “telephone number”, “post office box”, “URL” etc. none of which figures explicitly in the CIDOC CRM hierarchy. A comprehensive explanation about refining CIDOC CRM concepts by E55 Type is given in the section “About Types” in the section on “Specific Modelling Constructs” of this document.

This property is a shortcut for the path from E1 CRM Entity through P41i was classified by, E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned to E55 Type.

Examples:
  • “enquiries@cidoc-crm.org” (E41) has type e-mail address (E55). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P2(x,y) ⇒ E1(x)
  • P2(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • P2(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E17(z)] ˄ P41i(x,z) ˄ P42(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P3 has note
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity E1
Range:
E62 String E62
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E52 Time-Span. P79 beginning is qualified by: E62 String
E52 Time-Span. P80 end is qualified by: E62 String
E90 Symbolic Object. P190 has symbolic content: E62 String
P79
P80
P190
Quantification:

one to many (0,n:0,1)

Scope Note:

This property is a container for all informal descriptions about an object that have not been expressed in terms of CIDOC CRM constructs.

In particular, it captures the characterisation of the item itself, its internal structures, appearance etc.

Like property P2 has type (is type of), this property is a consequence of the restricted focus of the CIDOC CRM. The aim is not to capture, in a structured form, everything that can be said about an item; indeed, the CIDOC CRM formalism is not regarded as sufficient to express everything that can be said. Good practice requires use of distinct note fields for different aspects of a characterisation. The P3.1 has type property of P3 has note allows differentiation of specific notes, e.g., “construction”, “decoration” etc.

An item may have many notes, but a note is attached to a specific item.

Examples:
  • Coffee mug – OXCMS:1983.1.1 (E19) has note “chipped at edge of handle” (E62) has type Condition (E55). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P3(x,y) ⇒ E1(x)
  • P3(x,y) ⇒ E62(y)
  • P3(x,y,z) ⇒ [P3(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P3.1 has type: E55 Type

P4 has time-span (is time-span of)
Domain:
E2 Temporal Entity E2
Range:
E52 Time-Span E52
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E2 Temporal Entity with the instance of E52 Time-Span during which it was on-going. The associated instance of E52 Time-Span is understood as the real time-span during which the phenomena making up the temporal entity instance were active. More than one instance of E2 Temporal Entity may share a common instance of E52 Time-Span only if they come into being and end being due to identical declarations or events.

Examples:
  • The Yalta Conference (E7) has time-span Yalta Conference time-span (E52). (Harbutt, 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • P4(x,y) ⇒ E2(x)
  • P4(x,y) ⇒ E52(y)
Properties:
-
P5 consists of (forms part of)
Domain:
E3 Condition State E3
Range:
E3 Condition State E3
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the decomposition of an instance of E3 Condition State into discrete, subsidiary states.

It is assumed that the sub-states into which the condition state is analysed form a logical whole - although the entire story may not be completely known – and that the sub-states are in fact constitutive of the general condition state. For example, a general condition state of “in ruins” may be decomposed into the individual stages of decay.

This property is transitive and non-reflexive.

Examples:
  • The Condition State of the ruined Parthenon (E3) consists of the bombarded state after the explosion of a Venetian shell in 1687 (E3). (Mommsen, 1941)
In First Order Logic:
  • P5(x,y) ⇒ E3(x)
  • P5(x,y) ⇒ E3(y)
  • [P5(x,y) ∧ P5(y,z)] ⇒ P5(x,z)
  • P5(x,y) ⇒ ¬P5(y,x)
Properties:
-
P7 took place at (witnessed)
Domain:
E4 Period E4
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E92 Spacetime Volume. P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of): E53 Place P161
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the spatial location of an instance of E4 Period.

The related instance of E53 Place should be seen as a wider approximation of the geometric area within which the phenomena that characterise the period in question occurred, see below. P7 took place at (witnessed) does not convey any meaning other than spatial positioning (frequently on the surface of the earth). For example, the period “Révolution française” can be said to have taken place in “France in 1789”; the “Victorian” period may be said to have taken place in “Britain from 1837-1901” and its colonies, as well as other parts of Europe and North America. An instance of E4 Period can take place at multiple non-contiguous, non-overlapping locations.

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through P161 has spatial projection, E53 Place, P89 falls within to E53 Place. E4 Period is a subclass of E92 Spacetime Volume. By the definition of P161 has spatial projection an instance of E4 Period takes place on all its spatial projections, that is, instances of E53 Place. Something happening at a given place can also be considered to happen at a larger place containing the first. For example, the assault on the Bastille July 14th 1789 took place in the area covered by Paris in 1789 but also in the area covered by France in 1789.

Examples:
  • The period “Révolution française” (E4) took place at the area covered by France in 1789 (E53). (Bertaud, 2004)
In First Order Logic:
  • P7(x,y) ⇒ E4(x)
  • P7(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
Properties:
-
P8 took place on or within (witnessed)
Domain:
E4 Period E4
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the location of an instance of E4 Period with respect to an instance of E19 Physical Object.

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through P7 took place at, E53 Place, P156i is occupied by E18 Physical Thing.

It describes a period that can be located with respect to the space defined by an E19 Physical Object such as a ship or a building. The precise geographical location of the object during the period in question may be unknown or unimportant.

For example, the French and German armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed in the same railway carriage as the armistice of 11 November 1918.

Examples:
  • The coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (E7) took place on or within Westminster Abbey (E18). (Strong, 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • P8(x,y) ⇒ E4(x)
  • P8(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P8(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E53(z) ˄ P7(x,z) ˄ P156i(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P9 consists of (forms part of)
Domain:
E4 Period E4
Range:
E4 Period E4
SubProperty Of:
E92 Spacetime Volume. P10i contains (falls within): E92 Spacetime Volume P10i
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E4 Period with another instance of E4 Period that is defined by a subset of the phenomena that define the former. Therefore, the spacetime volume of the latter must fall within the spacetime volume of the former.

This property is transitive and non-symmetric.

Examples:
  • Cretan Bronze Age (E4) consists of Middle Minoan (E4). (Hood, 1971)
In First Order Logic:
  • P9(x,y) ⇒ E4(x)
  • P9(x,y) ⇒ E4(y)
  • P9(x,y) ⇒ P10(y,x)
  • [P9(x,y) ∧ P9(y,z)] ⇒ P9(x,z)
  • P9(x,y) ⇒ ¬P9(y,x)
Properties:
-
P10 falls within (contains)
Domain:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
Range:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
SubProperty Of:
E92 Spacetime Volume. P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with: E92 Spacetime Volume P132
SuperProperty Of:
E93 Presence. P166 was a presence of (had presence): E92 Spacetime Volume
E4 Period. P9i forms part of (consists of): E4 Period
P166
P9i
Quantification:

many to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E92 Spacetime Volume with another instance of E92 Spacetime Volume that falls within the latter. In other words, all points in the former are also points in the latter.

This property is transitive and reflexive.

Examples:
  • The Great Plague (E4) falls within The Gothic period (E4). (Porter, 2009)
In First Order Logic:
  • P10(x,y) ⇒ E92(x)
  • P10(x,y) ⇒ E92(y)
  • P10(x,y) ⇒ P132(x,y)
  • P10(x,y) ∧ P10(y,z)] ⇒ P10(x,z)
  • P10(x,x)
Properties:
-
P11 had participant (participated in)
Domain:
E5 Event E5
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item P12
SuperProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
E67 Birth. P96 by mother (gave birth): E21 Person
E68 Dissolution. P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group
E85 Joining. P143 joined (was joined by): E39 Actor
E85 Joining. P144 joined with (gained member by): E74 Group
E86 Leaving. P145 separated (left by): E39 Actor
E86 Leaving. P146 separated from (lost member by): E74 Group
E66 Formation. P151 was formed from (participated in): E74 Group
P14
P96
P99
P143
P144
P145
P146
P151
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the active or passive participation of instances of E39 Actors in an instance of E5 Event.

It documents known events in which an instance of E39 Actor has participated during the course of that actor’s life or history. The instances of E53 Place and E52 Time-Span where and when these events happened provide us with constraints about the presence of the related instances of E39 Actor in the past. Collective actors, i.e., instances of E74 Group, may physically participate in events via their representing instances of E21 Persons only. The participation of multiple actors in an event is most likely an indication of their acquaintance and interaction.

The property implies that the actor was involved in the event but does not imply any causal relationship. For instance, someone having been portrayed can be said to have participated in the creation of the portrait.

Examples:
  • Napoleon (E21) participated in The Battle of Waterloo (E7). (Dawson, 2018)
  • Maria (E21) participated in Photographing of Maria (E7). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P11(x,y) ⇒ E5(x)
  • P11(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P11(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
Properties:
-
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Domain:
E5 Event E5
Range:
E77 Persistent Item E77
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing
E9 Move. P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object
E11 Modification. P31 has modified (was modified by): E18 Physical Thing
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
E80 Part Removal. P113 removed (was removed by): E18 Physical Thing
P11
P16
P25
P31
P92
P93
P113
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the active or passive presence of an E77 Persistent Item in an instance of E5 Event without implying any specific role.

It documents known events in which an instance of E77 Persistent Item was present during the course of its life or history. For example, an object may be the desk, now in a museum, on which a treaty was signed. The instance of E53 Place and the instance of E52 Time-Span where and when these events happened provide us with constraints about the presence of the related instance E77 Persistent Item in the past. Instances of E90 Symbolic Object, in particular information objects, are physically present in events via at least one of the instances of E18 Physical Thing carrying them. Note, that the human mind can be such a carrier. A precondition for a transfer of information to a person or another new physical carrier is the presence of the respective information object and this person or physical thing in one event.

Examples:
  • Deckchair 42 (E19) was present at the sinking of the Titanic (E5). (Aldridge, 2008)
In First Order Logic:
  • P12(x,y) ⇒ E5(x)
  • P12(x,y) ⇒ E77(y)
Properties:
-
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
Domain:
E6 Destruction E6
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item P93
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E6 Destruction to an instance of E18 Physical Thing that has been destroyed by it.

Destruction implies the end of an item’s life as a subject of cultural documentation – the physical matter of which the item was composed may in fact continue to exist. An instance of E6 Destruction may be contiguous with an instance of E12 Production that brings into existence a derived object composed partly of matter from the destroyed object.

Examples:
  • The Tay Bridge Disaster (E6) destroyed The Tay Bridge (E22). (Thomas, 1972)
In First Order Logic:
  • P13(x,y) ⇒ E6 (x)
  • P13(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P13(x,y) ⇒ P93(x,y)
Properties:
-
P14 carried out by (performed)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
E8 Acquisition. P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor
E8 Acquisition. P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor
E10 Transfer of Custody. P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor
E10 Transfer of Custody. P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor
P22
P23
P28
P29
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the active participation of an instance of E39 Actor in an instance of E7 Activity.

It implies causal or legal responsibility. The P14.1 in the role of property of the property specifies the nature of an Actor’s participation.

Examples:
  • The painting of the Sistine Chapel (E7) carried out by Michaelangelo Buonaroti (E21) in the role of master craftsman (E55). (Goldscheider, 1953)
In First Order Logic:
  • P14(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P14(x,y)⇒ E39(y)
  • P14(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
  • P14(x,y,z) ⇒ [P14(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type

P15 was influenced by (influenced)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing
E7 Activity. P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
E7 Activity. P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
E83 Type Creation. P136 was based on (supported type creation): E1 CRM Entity
P16
P17
P134
P136
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This is a high-level property, which captures the relationship between an instance of E7 Activity and anything, that is, an instance of E1 CRM Entity that may have had some bearing upon it.

The property has more specific sub properties.

Examples:
  • The designing of the Sydney Harbour Bridge (E7) was influenced by the Tyne bridge (E22). (Dorman Long, 1932)
In First Order Logic:
  • P15(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P15(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
Properties:
-
P16 used specific object (was used for)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E70 Thing E70
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P12
P15
SuperProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure
E79 Part Addition. P111 added (was added by): E18 Physical Thing
E15 Identifier Assignment. P142 used constituent (was used in): E90 Symbolic Object
P33
P111
P142
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an instance of E7 Activity.

This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer.

Another example is the use of a particular name by a particular group of people over some span to identify a thing, such as a settlement. In this case, the physical carriers of this name are at least the people understanding its use.

Examples:
  • The writing of the scope note of the CIDOC CRM property “P16 used specific object” contained in the CIDOC CRM version 4.1 (E7) used specific object Nicholas Crofts’ computer (E22) mode of use Typing Tool; Storage Medium (E55). [the original scope note was later extended in the CIDOC CRM version 4.3]
  • The people of Iraq calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ (E7) used specific object “Quyunjig” (E41) mode of use current; vernacular (E55).
In First Order Logic:
  • P16(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P16(x,y) ⇒ E70(y)
  • P16(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
  • P16(x,y) ⇒ P15(x,y)
  • P16(x,y,z) ⇒ [P16(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type

P17 was motivated by (motivated)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity P15
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes an item or items that are regarded as a reason for carrying out the instance of E7 Activity.

For example, the discovery of a large hoard of treasure may call for a celebration, an order from headquarters can start a military manoeuvre.

Examples:
  • The resignation of the chief executive (E7) was motivated by the collapse of SwissAir (E68).
  • The coronation of Elizabeth II (E7) was motivated by the death of George VI (E69). (Strong, 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • P17(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P17(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P17(x,y) ⇒ P15(x,y)
Properties:
-
P19 was intended use of (was made for)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E71 Human-Made Thing E71
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property relates an instance of E7 Activity with instances of E71 Human-Made Thing, created specifically for use in the activity.

This is distinct from the intended use of an item in some general type of activity such as the book of common prayer which was intended for use in Church of England services (see P101 had as general use (was use of)).

Examples:
  • Lady Diana Spencer’s wedding dress (E71) was made for Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer (E7) mode of use To Be Worn (E55). (Daly, 1981)
In First Order Logic:
  • P19(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P19(x,y) ⇒ E71(y)
  • P19(x,y,z) ⇒ [P19(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E5 Event E5
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the relationship between a preparatory activity, an instance of E7 Activity and the instance of E7 Event it is intended to be preparation for.

This includes activities, orders and other organisational actions, taken in preparation for other activities or events.

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) implies that an activity succeeded in achieving its aim. If it does not succeed, such as the setting of a trap that did not catch anything, one may document the unrealized intention using P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type and/or P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure.

Examples:
  • Van Eyck’s pigment grinding in 1432 (E7) had specific purpose the painting of the Ghent altar piece (E12). (Borchert, 2008)
In First Order Logic:
  • P20(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P20(x,y) ⇒ E5(y)
Properties:
-
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes an intentional relationship between an instance of E7 Activity and some general goal or purpose, described as an instance of E55 Type.

This may involve activities intended as preparation for some type of activity or event. P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) differs from P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) in that no occurrence of an event is implied as the purpose.

Examples:
  • Van Eyck’s pigment grinding (E7) had general purpose painting (E55). (Borchert, 2008)
  • The setting of trap 2742 on 17th of May 1874 (E7) had general purpose catching moose (E55). [Activity type] (fictitious)
  • The construction of the Berlin Wall starting 13th of August 1961 (E12) had general purpose preventing emigration (E55). (History.com Editors, 2020)
  • The reinforcement of the Mexico-United States barrier between the United States of America and Mexico in Fall 2019 (E11) had general purpose preventing immigration (E55).
  • The rebuilding of the city walls of Heraklion by the Venetian rulers starting in 1462 (E12) had general purpose preventing conquest by enemy (E55). (YouIngGreece.com, 2020)
  • The building of the seawall in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan between 2014 and 2020 (E12) had general purpose preventing inland flooding by tsunami (E55).
In First Order Logic:
  • P21(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P21(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
Properties:
-
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)
Domain:
E8 Acquisition E8
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that acquires the legal ownership of an object as a result of an instance of E8 Acquisition.

The property will typically describe an Actor purchasing or otherwise acquiring an object from another Actor. However, title may also be acquired, without any corresponding loss of title by another Actor, through legal fieldwork such as hunting, shooting or fishing.

In reality the title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.

Examples:
  • The acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title to the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P22(x,y) ⇒ E8(x)
  • P22(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P22(x,y) ⇒ P14(x,y)
Properties:
-
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)
Domain:
E8 Acquisition E8
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance(s) of E39 Actor who relinquish legal ownership as the result of an instance of E8 Acquisition.

The property will typically be used to describe a person donating or selling an object to a museum. In reality title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.

Examples:
  • The acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title from the Heirs of Amoudrouz (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P23(x,y) ⇒ E8(x)
  • P23(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P23(x,y) ⇒ P14(x,y)
Properties:
-
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
Domain:
E8 Acquisition E8
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance(s) of E18 Physical Thing involved in an instance of E8 Acquisition.

In reality, an acquisition must refer to at least one transferred item.

Examples:
  • The acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title of the Amoudrouz Collection (E78).
In First Order Logic:
  • P24(x,y) ⇒ E8(x)
  • P24(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
Properties:
-
P25 moved (moved by)
Domain:
E9 Move E9
Range:
E19 Physical Object E19
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item P12
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an instance of E19 Physical Object that was moved by an instance of E9 Move. A move must concern at least one object.

The property implies the object’s passive participation. For example, Monet’s painting “Impression sunrise” was moved for the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874.

Examples:
  • Monet´s “Impression sunrise” (E22) moved by preparations for the First Impressionist Exhibition (E9).
In First Order Logic:
  • P25(x,y) ⇒ E9(x)
  • P25(x,y) ⇒ E19(y)
  • P25(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
Properties:
-
P26 moved to (was destination of)
Domain:
E9 Move E9
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies a destination, an instance of E53 place, of an instance of E9 Move.

A move will be linked to a destination, such as the move of an artifact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many terminal instances of E53 Place by multiple instances of this property. In this case the move describes a distribution of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin(s), route and destination(s).

Therefore, the described destination is an instance of E53 Place which P89 falls within (contains) the instance of E53 Place the move P7 took place at.

Examples:
  • The movement of the exhibition "Tutankhamun: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh" between 15th of September and 2nd of November 2019 (E9) moved to the Saatchi Gallery London (E53).
In First Order Logic:
  • P26(x,y) ⇒ E9(x)
  • P26(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • P26(x,y) ⇒ (∃z)[ E53(z) ∧ P7(x,z) ∧ P89(y,z)]
Properties:
-
P27 moved from (was origin of)
Domain:
E9 Move E9
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an origin, an instance of E53 Place, of an instance of E9 Move.

A move will be linked to an origin, such as the move of an artifact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many starting instances of E53 Place by multiple instances of this property. In this case the move describes the picking up of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin(s), route and destination(s).

Therefore, the described origin is an instance of E53 Place which P89 falls within (contains) the instance of E53 Place the move P7 took place at.

Examples:
  • The movement of the exhibition "Tutankhamun: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh" between 15th of September and 2nd of November 2019 (E9) moved from Paris, Grande Halle de la Villette (E53).
In First Order Logic:
  • P27(x,y) ⇒ E9(x)
  • P27(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • P27(x,y) ⇒ (∃z)[ E53(z) ∧ P7(x,z) ∧ P89(y,z)]
Properties:
-
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)
Domain:
E10 Transfer of Custody E10
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance(s) of E39 Actor who surrender custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody.

The property will typically describe an Actor surrendering custody of an object when it is handed over to someone else’s care. On occasion, physical custody may be surrendered involuntarily – through accident, loss or theft.

In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both.

Examples:
  • The Secure Deliveries Inc. crew (E74) surrendered custody through The delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10).
In First Order Logic:
  • P28(x,y) ⇒ E10(x)
  • P28(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P28(x,y) ⇒ P14(x,y)
Properties:
-
P29 custody received by (received custody through)
Domain:
E10 Transfer of Custody E10
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance(s) E39 Actor who receive custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody.

The property will typically describe Actors receiving custody of an object when it is handed over from another Actor’s care. On occasion, physical custody may be received involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.

In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both.

Examples:
  • Representatives of The National Gallery (E74) received custody through the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10).
In First Order Logic:
  • P29(x,y) ⇒ E10(x)
  • P29(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P29(x,y) ⇒ P14(x,y)
Properties:
-
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
Domain:
E10 Transfer of Custody E10
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance(s) of E18 Physical Thing concerned in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody.

The property will typically describe the object that is handed over by an instance of E39 Actor to to the custody of another instance of E39 Actor. On occasion, physical custody may be transferred involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.

Examples:
  • The delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10) transferred custody of paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E19).
In First Order Logic:
  • P30(x,y) ⇒ E10(x)
  • P30(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
Properties:
-
P31 has modified (was modified by)
Domain:
E11 Modification E11
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item P12
SuperProperty Of:
E12 Production. P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E79 Part Addition. P110 augmented (was augmented by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E80 Part Removal. P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
P108
P110
P112
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E18 Physical Thing modified in an instance of E11 Modification.

Examples:
  • The rebuilding of the German Reichstag in Berlin (E11) has modified the Reichstag in Berlin (E24). (Foster, 2000)
In First Order Logic:
  • P31(x,y) ⇒ E11(x)
  • P31(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P31(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
Properties:
-
P32 used general technique (was technique of)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type P125
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the technique or method, modelled as an instance of E55 Type, that was employed in an instance of E7 Activity.

These techniques should be drawn from an external E55 Type hierarchy of consistent terminology of general techniques or methods such as embroidery, oil-painting, carbon dating, etc. Specific documented techniques should be described as instances of E29 Design or Procedure.

Examples:
  • The ornamentation of silver cup 113 (E11) used general technique gold-plating (E55). [A Design or Procedure type] (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P32(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P32(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • P32(x,y) ⇒ P125(x,y)
Properties:
-
P33 used specific technique (was used by)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E29 Design or Procedure E29
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing P16
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies a specific instance of E29 Design or Procedure in order to carry out an instance of E7 Activity or parts of it.

The property differs from P32 used general technique (was technique of) in that P33 refers to an instance of E29 Design or Procedure, which is a concrete information object in its own right rather than simply being a term or a method known by tradition.

Typical examples would include intervention plans for conservation or the construction plans of a building.

Examples:
  • The ornamentation of silver cup 232 (E11) used specific technique ‘Instructions for golden chase work by A N Other’ (E29). (fictitious)
  • The rebuilding of the German Reichstag in Berlin (E11) used specific technique Architectural plans by Foster and Partners (E29). (Foster, 2000)
In First Order Logic:
  • P33(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P33(x,y) ⇒ E29(y)
  • P33(x,y) ⇒ P16(x,y)
Properties:
-
P34 concerned (was assessed by)
Domain:
E14 Condition Assessment E14
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E18 Physical Thing that was assessed during an instance of E14 Condition Assessment activity.

Conditions may be assessed either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the instance of E18 Physical Thing does not need to be present or extant at the time of assessment.

Examples:
  • The condition assessment of the silver collection in 1997 (E14) concerned silver cup 232 (E22). (fictitious)
  • The condition assessment of the cover of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E14) concerned the cover of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E22). (Honey and Pickwoad, 2010)
  • The condition assessment of the endband cores of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E14) concerned the endband cores of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E22). (Honey and Pickwoad, 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • P34(x,y) ⇒ E14(x)
  • P34(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P34(x,y) ⇒ P140(x,y)
Properties:
-
P35 has identified (was identified by)
Domain:
E14 Condition Assessment E14
Range:
E3 Condition State E3
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E3 Condition State that was observed in an instance of E14 Condition Assessment activity.

Examples:
  • The condition assessment of silver cup 232 in 1997 (E14) has identified oxidation traces were present in 1997 (E3). [which has type (P2) with oxidation traces (E55)] (fictitious)
  • The condition assessment of the cover of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E13) has identified the condition state in November 2003 (E3). [which has type fine (E55)] (Honey and Pickwoad, 2010)
  • The condition assessment of the endband cores of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E14) has identified the condition state in November 2003 (E3). [which has type broken (E55)] (Honey and Pickwoad, 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • P35(x,y) ⇒E14(x)
  • P35(x,y) ⇒ E3(y)
  • P35(x,y) ⇒ P141(x,y)
Properties:
-
P37 assigned (was assigned by)
Domain:
E15 Identifier Assignment E15
Range:
E42 Identifier E42
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the identifier that was assigned to an item in an instance of P37 Identifier Assignment.

The same identifier may be assigned on more than one occasion.

An Identifier might be created prior to an assignment.

Examples:
  • The identifier assignment on 1st of June 1997 of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned “232” (E42) (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P37(x,y) ⇒ E15(x)
  • P37(x,y) ⇒ E42(y)
  • P37(x,y) ⇒ P141(x,y)
Properties:
-
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
Domain:
E15 Identifier Assignment E15
Range:
E42 Identifier E42
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the identifier that was deassigned from an instance of E1 CRM Entity.

De-assignment of an identifier may be necessary when an item is taken out of an inventory, a new numbering system is introduced or items are merged or split up.

The same identifier may be deassigned on more than one occasion.

Examples:
  • The identifier assignment on 31st July 2001 of the silver cup OXCMS:2001.1.32 (E15) deassigned “232” (E42). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P38(x,y) ⇒ E15(x)
  • P38(x,y) ⇒ E42(y)
  • P38(x,y) ⇒ P141(x,y)
Properties:
-
P39 measured (was measured by)
Domain:
E16 Measurement E16
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E16 Measurement with the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it acted. The instance of E16 Measurement is specific to the measured object. An instance of E18 Physical Thing may be measured more than once with different results, constituting different instances of E16 Measurement.

Examples:
  • The measurement of the height of silver cup 232 on 31st of August 1997 (E16) measured silver cup 232 (E22). (fictitious)
  • The carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 (E16) measured the “Schoeninger Speer II” (E22). [The carbon 14 dating of an approximately 400.000 year old complete Old Palaeolithic wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany, in 1995. See also, E16 Measurement.] (Kouwenhoven, 1997)
In First Order Logic:
  • P39(x,y) ⇒ E16(x)
  • P39(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P39(x,y) ⇒ P140(x,y)
Properties:
-
P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
Domain:
E16 Measurement E16
Range:
E54 Dimension E54
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the dimension that was observed in an E16 Measurement Event.

E54 Dimension can be any quantifiable aspect of E70 Thing. Weight, image colour depth and monetary value are dimensions in this sense. One measurement activity may determine more than one dimension of one object.

Dimensions may be determined either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the measured Thing does not need to be present or extant.

Even though knowledge of the value of a dimension requires measurement, the dimension may be an object of discourse prior to, or even without, any measurement being made.

Examples:
  • The measurement of the height of silver cup 232 on 31st of August 1997 (E16) observed dimension silver cup 232 height (E54). [which has unit mm (E58), has value 224 (E60) ] (fictitious)
  • The carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 (E16) observed dimension the carbon 14 based temporal distance from 1996 to the growth of the wood of the “Schoeninger Speer II” (E60). [The carbon 14 dating of an approximately 400.000 year old complete Old Palaeolithic wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niederachsen, Germany, in 1995. See also: E16 Measurement.] (Kouwenhoven, 1997)
In First Order Logic:
  • P40(x,y) ⇒ E16(x)
  • P40(x,y)⇒ E54(y)
  • P40(x,y) ⇒ P141(x,y)
Properties:
-
P41 classified (was classified by)
Domain:
E17 Type Assignment E17
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the item to which a type was assigned in an E17 Type Assignment activity.

Any instance of a CIDOC CRM entity may be assigned a type through type assignment. Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41i was classified by, E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned, to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of).

Examples:
  • The classification of silver cup 232 on 31st of August 1997 (E17) classified silver cup 232 (E22). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P41(x,y) ⇒ E17(x)
  • P41(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P41(x,y) ⇒ P140(x,y)
Properties:
-
P42 assigned (was assigned by)
Domain:
E17 Type Assignment E17
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the type that was assigned to an entity by an E17 Type Assignment activity.

Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41i was classified by, E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned, to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of).

For example, a fragment of an antique vessel could be assigned the type “attic red figured belly handled amphora” by expert A. The same fragment could be assigned the type “shoulder handled amphora” by expert B.

A Type may be intellectually constructed independent from assigning an instance of it.

Examples:
  • The classification of silver cup 232 on 31st August 1997 (E17) assigned goblet (E55). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P42(x,y) ⇒ E17(x)
  • P42(x,y)⇒ E55(y)
  • P42(x,y) ⇒ P141(x,y)
Properties:
-
P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
Domain:
E70 Thing E70
Range:
E54 Dimension E54
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property records a E54 Dimension of some E70 Thing.

In the case that the recorded property is a result of a measurement of an instance of E18 Physical Thing, this property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P39i was measured by, E16 Measurement, P40 observed dimension to E54 Dimension.

It offers no information about how and when an E54 Dimension was established, nor by whom. Knowledge about an instance of E54 Dimension need not be the result of a measurement; it may be the result of evaluating data or other information, which should be documented as an instance of E13 Attribute Assignment.

An instance of E54 Dimension is specific to an instance of E70 Thing.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) has dimension height of silver cup 232 (E54). [which has unit (P91) mm (E58), has value (P90) 224 (E60) ] (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P43(x,y) ⇒ E70(x)
  • P43(x,y) ⇒ E54(y)
  • P43(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E16(z) ˄ P39i(x,z) ˄ P40(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P44 has condition (is condition of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E3 Condition State E3
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property records an E3 Condition State for some E18 Physical Thing.

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P34i was assessed by, E14 Condition Assessment, P35 has identified to E3 Condition State. It offers no information about how and when the E3 Condition State was established, nor by whom.

An instance of Condition State is specific to an instance of E18 Physical Thing.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) has condition oxidation traces were present in 1997 (E3). [which has type (P2) oxidation traces (E55)] (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P44(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P44(x,y) ⇒ E3(y)
  • P44(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E14(z) ˄ P34i(x,z) ˄ P35(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E57 Material E57
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instances of E57 Materials of which an instance of E18 Physical Thing is composed.

All physical things consist of physical materials. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) allows the different materials to be recorded. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) refers here to observed material as opposed to the consumed raw material.

A material, such as a theoretical alloy, may not have any physical instances.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) consists of silver (E57). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P45(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P45(x,y) ⇒ E57(y)
Properties:
-
P46 is composed of (forms part of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E19 Physical Object. P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature P56
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E18 Physical Thing with another instance of Physical Thing that forms part of it. The spatial extent of the composing part is included in the spatial extent of the whole.

Component elements, since they are themselves instances of E18 Physical Thing, may be further analysed into sub-components, thereby creating a hierarchy of part decomposition. An instance of E18 Physical Thing may be shared between multiple wholes, for example two buildings may share a common wall. This property does not specify when and for how long a component element resided in the respective whole. If a component is not part of a whole from the beginning of existence or until the end of existence of the whole, the classes E79 Part Addition and E90 Part Removal can be used to document when a component became part of a particular whole and/or when it stopped being a part of it. For the time-span of being part of the respective whole, the component is completely contained in the place the whole occupies.

This property is intended to describe specific components that are individually documented, rather than general aspects. Overall descriptions of the structure of an instance of E18 Physical Thing are captured by the P3 has note property.

The instances of E57 Material of which an instance of E18 Physical Thing is composed should be documented using P45 consists of (is incorporated in).

This property is transitive and non-reflexive

Examples:
  • The Royal carriage (E22) forms part of the Royal train (E22).
  • The “Hog’s Back” (E24) forms part of the “Fosseway” (E24).
In First Order Logic:
  • P46(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P46(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P46(x,y) ⇒ P132(x,y)
  • [P46(x,y) ∧ P46(y,z)] ⇒ P46(x,z)
  • P46(x,y) ⇒ (∃uzw)[E93(u) ∧ P195i (x,u) ∧ E52(z) ∧ P164(u,z) ∧ E93(w) ∧ P195i (w,y) ∧ P164(w,z) ∧ P10(w,u)]
  • ¬P46(x,x)
Properties:
-
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity E1
Range:
E42 Identifier E42
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation P1
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the preferred instance of E42 Identifier that was used to identify an instance of E1 CRM Entity at the time this property was recorded.

More than one preferred identifier may have been assigned to an item over time.

Use of this property requires an external mechanism for assigning temporal validity to the respective CIDOC CRM instance.

The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be better expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable instance of E55 Type to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment using the P2 has type property.

Examples:
  • The pair of Lederhosen donated by Dr Martin Doerr (E22) has preferred identifier “OXCMS:2001.1.32” (E42). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P48(x,y) ⇒ E1(x)
  • P48(x,y) ⇒ E42(y)
  • P48(x,y) ⇒ P1(x,y)
Properties:
-
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor
E78 Curated Holding. P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of): E39 Actor
P50
P109
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor who has or has had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time. This property leaves open the question if parts of this physical thing have been added or removed during the time-spans it has been under the custody of this actor, but it is required that at least a part which can unambiguously be identified as representing the whole has been under this custody for its whole time. The way, in which a representative part is defined, should ensure that it is unambiguous who keeps a part and who the whole and should be consistent with the identity criteria of the kept instance of E18 Physical Thing.

The distinction with P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is that P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) leaves open the question as to whether the specified keepers are current.

This property is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P30i custody transferred through, E10 Transfer of Custody, P28 custody surrendered by or P29 custody received by to E39 Actor.

Examples:
  • The paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E78) has former or current keeper Secure Deliveries Inc. (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P49(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P49(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P49(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E10(z) ˄ P30i(x,z) ˄ [P28(z,y) ˅ P29(z,y) ]]
Properties:
-
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor P49
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property.

This property is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through, P30i custody transferred through, E10 Transfer of Custody, P29 custody received by to E39 Actor, if and only if the custody has not been surrendered by the receiving actor at any later time

Examples:
  • The paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E78) has current keeper The National Gallery (E74) (Iveagh Bequest, 1975)
In First Order Logic:
  • P50(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P50(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P50(x,y) ⇒ P49(x,y)
  • P50(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [[E10(z) ˄ P30i(x,z) ˄ P29(z,y) ]
  • ˄ ¬ (∃w) [E10(w) ˄ P30i(x,w) ˄ P28(w,y)˄ P182(z,w)]]
Properties:
-
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor P52
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an instance of E39 Actor that is or had been the legal owner (i.e., title holder) of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time.

The distinction with P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is that P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) does not indicate whether the specified owners are current.

This property is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P24i changed ownership through, E8 Acquisition, P23 transferred title from, or P22 transferred title to to E39 Actor.

Examples:
  • The paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E78) has former or current owner Lord Iveagh (E21). (Bryant, 1990)
In First Order Logic:
  • P51(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P51(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P51(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E8(z) ˄ P24i(x,z) ˄ [P23(z,y) ˅ P22(z,y) ]]
Properties:
-
P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor
E72 Legal Object. P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor
P51
P105
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E21 Person or E74 Group that was the owner of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property.

This property is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through, P24i changed ownership through, E8 Acquisition, P22 transferred title to to E39 Actor, if and only if this acquisition event is the most recent.

Examples:
  • The paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E78) has current owner Historic England (E74). [This is still valid 2021 CE. The important collection of Old Master and British portraits was bequeathed to Kenwood by Edward Cecil Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh, in 1927.] (Iveagh Bequest, 1975; Bryant, 1990)
In First Order Logic:
  • P52(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P52(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P52(x,y) ⇒ P51(x,y)
  • P52(x,y) ⇒ P105(x,y)
  • P52(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [[E8(z) ˄ P24i(x,z) ˄ P22(z,y) ]
  • ˄ ¬ (∃w) [E8(w) ˄ P24i(x,w) ˄ P23(w,y)˄ P182(z,w)]]
Properties:
-
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E19 Physical Object. P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
E18 Physical Thing. P156 occupies (is occupied by): E53 Place
P55
P156
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an instance of E53 Place as the former or current location of an instance of E18 Physical Thing.

In the case of instances of E19 Physical Object, the property does not allow any indication of the Time-Span during which the instance of E19 Physical Object was located at this instance of E53 Place, nor if this is the current location.

In the case of immobile objects, the Place would normally correspond to the Place of creation.

This property is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e., indirect) path from E19 Physical Object, though, P25i moved by, E9 Move, P26 moved to or P27 moved from to E53 Place.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) has former or current location Display Case 4, Room 23, Museum of Oxford (E53) (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P53(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P53(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • P53(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E9(z) ˄ P25i(x,z) ˄ [P26(z,y) ˅ P27(z,y)]]
Properties:
-
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)
Domain:
E19 Physical Object E19
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the foreseen permanent location of an instance of E19 Physical Object at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property.

P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) is similar to P55 has current location (currently holds). However, it indicates the E53 Place currently reserved for an object, such as the permanent storage location or a permanent exhibit location. The object may be temporarily removed from the permanent location, for example when used in temporary exhibitions or loaned to another institution. The object may never actually be located at its permanent location.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) has current permanent location Shelf 3.1, Store 2, Museum of Oxford (E53). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P54(x,y) ⇒ E19(x)
  • P54(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
Properties:
-
P55 has current location (currently holds)
Domain:
E19 Physical Object E19
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place P53
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property records the location of an instance of E19 Physical Object at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property.

This property is a specialisation of P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of). It indicates that the instance of E53 Place associated with the instance of E19 Physical Object is the current location of the object. The property does not allow any indication of how long the object has been at the current location.

This property is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e., indirect) path from E19 Physical Object, through, P25i moved by, E9 Move, P26 moved to to E53 Place if and only if this Move is the most recent.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) has current location Display Cabinet 23, Room 4, British Museum (E53). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P55(x,y) ⇒ E19(x)
  • P55(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • P55(x,y) ⇒ P53(x,y)
  • P55(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [ [E9(z) ˄ P25i(x,z) ˄ P26(z,y)]
  • ˄ ¬​ (∃w) [E9(w) ˄ P25i(x,w) ˄ P27(w,y)˄ P182(z,w)]]​
Properties:
-
P56 bears feature (is found on)
Domain:
E19 Physical Object E19
Range:
E26 Physical Feature E26
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing P46
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E19 Physical Object to an instance of E26 Physical Feature that it bears.

An instance of E26 Physical Feature can only exist on one object. One object may bear more than one E26 Physical Feature. An instance of E27 Site should be considered as an instance of E26 Physical Feature on the surface of the Earth.

An instance B of E26 Physical Feature being a detail of the structure of another instance A of E26 Physical Feature can be linked to B by use of the property P46 is composed of (forms part of). This implies that the subfeature B is P56i is found on the same E19 Physical Object as A.

This property is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e., indirect) path E19 Physical Object, through, P59 has section, E53 Place, P53i is former or current location of to E26 Physical Feature.

Examples:
  • Silver cup 232 (E22) bears feature 32 mm scratch on silver cup 232 (E26) (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P56(x,y) ⇒E19(x)
  • P56(x,y) ⇒ E26(y)
  • P56(x,y) ⇒ P46(x,y)
  • P56(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E53(z) ˄ P59(x,z) ˄ P53i(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P57 has number of parts
Domain:
E19 Physical Object E19
Range:
E60 Number E60
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property documents the number of parts, an instance of E60 Number, of which an instance of E19 Physical Object is composed.

This may be used as a method of checking inventory counts with regard to aggregate or collective objects. What constitutes a part or component depends on the context and requirements of the documentation. Normally, the parts documented in this way would not be considered as worthy of individual attention.

For a more complete description, objects may be decomposed into their components and constituents using P46 is composed of (forms parts of) and P45 consists of (is incorporated in). This allows each element to be described individually.

Examples:
  • Chess set 233 (E22) has number of parts 33 (E60). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P57(x,y) ⇒ E19(x)
  • P57(x,y) ⇒ E60(y)
Properties:
-
P59 has section (is located on or within)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P157i provides reference space for (is at rest relative to): E53 Place P157i
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property links an area, i.e., an instance of E53 Place to the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it is found. This area may either be identified by a name, or by a geometry in terms of a coordinate system adapted to the shape of the respective instance of E18 Physical Thing. Typically, names identifying sections of physical objects are composed of the name of a kind of part and the name of the object itself, such as "The poop deck of H.M.S. Victory", which is composed of "poop deck" and "H.M.S. Victory".

Examples:
  • HMS Victory (E22) has section HMS Victory section B347.6 (E53). (Goodwin, 2015)
In First Order Logic:
  • P59(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P59(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
Properties:
-
P62 depicts (is depicted by)
Domain:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing E24
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies something that is depicted by an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing. Depicting is meant in the sense that an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing intentionally shows, through its optical qualities or form, a representation of the entity depicted. Photographs are by default regarded as being intentional in this sense. Anything that is designed to change the properties of the depiction, such as an e-book reader, is specifically excluded. The property does not pertain to inscriptions or any other information encoding.

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Human-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item, E36 Visual Item, P138 represents to E1 CRM Entity. P138.1 mode of depiction allows the nature of the depiction to be refined.

Examples:
  • The painting “La Liberté guidant le peuple” by Eugène Delacroix (E22) depicts the French “July Revolution” of 1830 (E7). (Delacroix, 1982)
  • The 20 pence coin held by the Department of Coins and Medals of the British Museum under registration number 2006,1101.126 (E22) depicts Queen Elizabeth II (E21) mode of depiction Profile (E55).
In First Order Logic:
  • P62(x,y) ⇒ E24(x)
  • P62(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P62(x,y,z) ⇒ [P62(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P62(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E36(z) ˄ P65(x,z) ˄ P138(z,y)]
Properties:

P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type

P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
Domain:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing E24
Range:
E36 Visual Item E36
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object P128
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property documents an instance of E36 Visual Item shown by an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

This property is similar to P62 depicts (is depicted by) in that it associates an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing with a visual representation. However, P65 shows visual item (is shown by) differs from the P62 depicts (is depicted by) property in that it makes no claims about what the instance of E36 Visual Item is deemed to represent. An instance of E36 Visual Item identifies a recognisable image or visual symbol, regardless of what this image may or may not represent.

For example, all recent British coins bear a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, a fact that is correctly documented using P62 depicts (is depicted by). Different portraits have been used at different periods, however. P65 shows visual item (is shown by) can be used to refer to a particular portrait.

P65 shows visual item (is shown by) may also be used for Visual Items such as signs, marks and symbols, for example the 'Maltese Cross' or the 'copyright symbol’ that have no particular representational content.

This property is part of the fully developed path E24 Physical Human-Made Thing, P65 shows visual item, E36 Visual Item, P138 represents to E1 CRM Entity which is shortcut by, P62 depicts (is depicted by).

Examples:
  • My T-Shirt (E22) shows visual item Mona Lisa (E36). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P65(x,y) ⇒ E24(x)
  • P65(x,y) ⇒ E36(y)
  • P65(x,y) ⇒ P128(x,y)
Properties:
-
P67 refers to (is referred to by)
Domain:
E89 Propositional Object E89
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E29 Design or Procedure. P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material
E31 Document. P70 documents (is documented in): E1 CRM Entity
E32 Authority Document. P71 lists (is listed in): E1 CRM Entity
E89 Propositional Object. P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity
E36 Visual Item. P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity
P68
P70
P71
P129
P138
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property documents that an instance of E89 Propositional Object makes a statement about an instance of E1 CRM Entity. P67 refers to (is referred to by) has the P67.1 has type link to an instance of E55 Type. This is intended to allow a more detailed description of the type of reference. This differs from P129 is about (is subject of), which describes the primary subject or subjects of the instance of E89 Propositional Object.

Examples:
  • The eBay auction listing of 4th July 2002 (E73) refers to silver cup 232 (E22) has type item for sale (E55). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P67(x,y) ⇒ E89(x)
  • P67(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P67(x,y,z) ⇒ [P67(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P67.1 has type: E55 Type

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by)
Domain:
E29 Design or Procedure E29
Range:
E57 Material E57
SubProperty Of:
E89 Propositional Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an instance of E57 Material foreseen to be used by an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

E29 Designs and procedures commonly foresee the use of particular instances of E57 Material. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented.

This property is not intended for the documentation of instances of E57 Materials that were used on a particular occasion when an instance of E29 Design or Procedure was executed.

Examples:
  • The procedure for soda glass manufacture (E29) foresees use of soda (E57). (Brooks, 1973)
In First Order Logic:
  • P68(x,y) ⇒ E29(x)
  • P68(x,y) ⇒ E57(y)
  • P68(x,y) ⇒ P67(x,y)
Properties:
-
P69 has association with (is associated with)
Domain:
E29 Design or Procedure E29
Range:
E29 Design or Procedure E29
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property generalises relationships like whole-part, sequence, prerequisite or inspired by between instances of E29 Design or Procedure. Any instance of E29 Design or Procedure may be associated with other designs or procedures. The property is considered to be symmetrical unless otherwise indicated by P69.1 has type. The property is not transitive

The P69.1 has type property of P69 has association with allows the nature of the association to be specified reading from domain to range; examples of types of association between instances of E29 Design or Procedure include: has part, follows, requires, etc.

The property can typically be used to model the decomposition of the description of a complete workflow into a series of separate procedures.

Examples:
  • The procedure for glass blowing (E29) has association with the procedure for glass heating (E29). (Brooks, 1973)
  • The set of instructions for performing Macbeth in Max Reinhardt's production in 1916 in Berlin at Deutsches Theater (E29) has association with the scene design drawing by Ernst Stern reproduced at http://www.glopad.org/pi/fr/record/digdoc/1003814 (E29) has type has part (E55).
  • The preparation of parchment (E29) has association with soaking and unhairing of skin (E29) has type has part (E55).
  • Stretching of skin (E29) has association with soaking and unhairing of skin (E29) has type follows (E55). (Poole and Reed, 1962)
  • The plan for reassembling the temples at Abu Simbel (E29) has association with the plan for storing and transporting the blocks (E29) has type follows (E55). (Loubiere, 1995)
In First Order Logic:
  • P69(x,y) ⇒ E29(x)
  • P69(x,y) ⇒ E29(y)
  • P69(x,y,z) ⇒ [P69(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P69.1 has type: E55 Type

P70 documents (is documented in)
Domain:
E31 Document E31
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E89 Propositional Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the CRM Entities documented as instances of E31 Document.

Documents may describe any conceivable entity, hence the link to the highest-level entity in the CIDOC CRM class hierarchy. This property is intended for cases where a reference is regarded as making a proposition about reality. This may be of a documentary character, in the scholarly or scientific sense, or a more general statement.

Examples:
  • The ‘Catalogue of the Greek coins of Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia’ (E31) documents parts of the British Museum’s Collection (E78). (British Museum & Hill, 1922)
In First Order Logic:
  • P70(x,y) ⇒ E31(x)
  • P70(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P70(x,y) ⇒ P67(x,y)
Properties:
-
P71 lists (is listed in)
Domain:
E32 Authority Document E32
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E89 Propositional Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E32 Authority Document, with an instance of E1 CRM Entity which it lists for reference purposes.

Examples:
  • The Art & Architecture Thesaurus (E32) lists alcazars (E55). (http://vocab.getty.edu/page/aat/300006897)
In First Order Logic:
  • P71(x,y) ⇒ E32(x)
  • P71(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P71(x,y) ⇒ P67(x,y)
Properties:
-
P72 has language (is language of)
Domain:
E33 Linguistic Object E33
Range:
E56 Language E56
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance(s) of E33 Linguistic Object with an instance of E56 Language in which it is, at least partially, expressed.

Linguistic Objects are composed in one or more human Languages. This property allows these languages to be documented.

Examples:
  • The American Declaration of Independence (E33) has language 18th Century English (E56). (Perley, 2017)
In First Order Logic:
  • P72(x,y) ⇒ E33(x)
  • P72(x,y) ⇒ E56(y)
Properties:
-
P73 has translation (is translation of)
Domain:
E33 Linguistic Object E33
Range:
E33 Linguistic Object E33
SubProperty Of:
E70 Thing. P130i features are also found on (shows features of): E70 Thing P130i
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E33 Linguistic Object (A), to another instance of E33 Linguistic Object (B) which is the translation of A.

When an instance of E33 Linguistic Object is translated into a new language a new instance of E33 Linguistic Object is created, despite the translation being conceptually similar to the source.

This property is non-symmetric.

Examples:
  • “Les Baigneurs” (E33) has translation “The Bathers” (E33). (Spiers & Surenne, 1854)
In First Order Logic:
  • P73(x,y) ⇒ E33(x)
  • P73(x,y) ⇒ E33(y)
  • P73(x,y) ⇒ P130i(x,y)
  • P73(x,y) ⇒ ¬P73(y,x)
Properties:
-
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)
Domain:
E39 Actor E39
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the current or former place of residence (an instance of E53 Place) of an instance of E39 Actor.

The residence may be either the place where the actor resides, or a legally registered address of any kind.

Examples:
  • Queen Elizabeth II (E39) has current or former residence Buckingham Palace (E53). (Robinson, 2000)
In First Order Logic:
  • P74(x,y) ⇒ E39(x)
  • P74(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
Properties:
-
P75 possesses (is possessed by)
Domain:
E39 Actor E39
Range:
E30 Right E30
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E39 Actor to an instance of E30 Right over which the actor holds or has held a legal claim.

Examples:
  • Michael Jackson (E21) possesses Intellectual property rights on the Beatles’ back catalogue (E30). (Raga, 2016)
In First Order Logic:
  • P75(x,y) ⇒ E39(x)
  • P75(x,y) ⇒ E30(y)
Properties:
-
P76 has contact point (provides access to)
Domain:
E39 Actor E39
Range:
E41 Appellation E41
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E39 Actor to an instance of E41 Appellation which a communication service uses to direct communications to this actor, such as an e-mail address, fax number, or postal address.

Examples:
  • The Research Libraries Group, Inc. (RLG) (E74) has contact point “bl.ric@rlg.org” (E41)
In First Order Logic:
  • P76(x,y) ⇒ E39(x)
  • P76(x,y) ⇒ E41(y)
Properties:
-
P79 beginning is qualified by
Domain:
E52 Time-Span E52
Range:
E62 String E62
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P3 has note: E62 String P3
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E52 Time-Span with a note detailing the scholarly or scientific opinions and justifications about the certainty, precision, sources etc. of its beginning. Such notes may also be used to elaborate arguments about constraints or to give explanations of alternatives.

Examples:
  • The time-span of the Holocene (E52) beginning is qualified by “The formal definition and dating of the GSSP (GlobalStratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records” (E62). (Walker et al., 2009)
In First Order Logic:
  • P79(x,y) ⇒ E52 (x)
  • P79(x,y) ⇒ E62(y)
  • P79(x,y) ⇒ P3(x,y)
Properties:
-
P80 end is qualified by
Domain:
E52 Time-Span E52
Range:
E62 String E62
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P3 has note: E62 String P3
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E52 Time-Span with a note detailing the scholarly or scientific opinions and justifications about the end of this time-span concerning certainty, precision, sources etc. This property may also be used to describe arguments constraining possible dates and to distinguish reasons for alternative dates.

Examples:
  • The time-span of the Holocene (E52) end is qualified by “still ongoing” (E62). (Walker et al., 2009)
In First Order Logic:
  • P80(x,y) ⇒ E52(x)
  • P80(x,y) ⇒ E62(y)
  • P80(x,y) ⇒ P3(x,y)
Properties:
-
P81 ongoing throughout
Domain:
E52 Time-Span E52
Range:
E61 Time Primitive E61
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E52 Time-Span with an instance of E61 Time Primitive specifying a minimum period of time covered by it. Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CIDOC CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span’s minimum temporal extent (i.e., its inner boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CIDOC CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed. If different sources of evidence justify different minimum extents without contradicting each other, the smallest interval including all these extents will be the best estimate. This should be taken into account for information integration.

Examples:
  • The time-span of the development of the CIDOC CRM (E52) ongoing throughout “1996-2003” (E61). (Doerr, 2003)
  • The Time-Span of the Thirty Years War (E52) ongoing throughout “23rd May 1618 AD until 24th October 1648 AD” (E61). (Bonney, 2014)
  • The time-span of the First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (7th to 10th dynasty) (E52) ongoing throughout “2181 BC – 2160 BC” (E61). (Reid, 1993)
    [This is the minimal common agreement of two conflicting dates: James Henry Breasted dates the First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (7th to 10th dynasty) from 2475BC to 2160BC in his Ancient Records (first published in 1906), volume 1, sections 58–75 (Breasted, 1906). Ian Shaw dates it from 2181BC to 2125BC in his Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (published in 2000), pp. 479–483 (Shaw, 2000).]
In First Order Logic:
  • P81(x,y) ⇒ E52(x)
  • P81(x,y) ⇒ E61(y)
Properties:
-
P82 at some time within
Domain:
E52 Time-Span E52
Range:
E61 Time Primitive E61
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the maximum period of time within which an E52 Time-Span falls. Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CIDOC CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span’s maximum temporal extent (i.e., its outer boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CIDOC CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed. If different sources of evidence justify different maximum extents without contradicting each other, the resulting intersection of all these extents will be the best estimate. This should be taken into account for information integration.

Examples:
  • The time-span of the development of the CIDOC CRM (E52) at some time within “1992-infinity” (E61). (Doerr, 2003)
  • The Time-Span of the Battle in the Teutoburg Forest (E52) at some time within “September 9 CE” (E61). (Andrews & Kesteven, 1977)
  • The time-Span of the death of Tut Ankh Amun (E52) at some time within December 1324 BC to February 1323 BC” (E61). (Murdoch, 2003)
  • The time-span of the First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (7th to 10th dynasty) (E52) at some time within “2475BC - 2125BC” (E61). (Reid, 1993)
In First Order Logic:
  • P82(x,y) ⇒ E52(x)
  • P82(x,y) ⇒ E61(y)
Properties:
-
P86 falls within (contains)
Domain:
E52 Time-Span E52
Range:
E52 Time-Span E52
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property describes the inclusion relationship between two instances of E52 Time-Span.

This property supports the notion that the temporal extent of an instance of E52 Time-Span falls within the temporal extent of another instance of E52 Time-Span. It addresses temporal containment only, and no contextual link between the two instances of E52 Time-Span is implied. This property is transitive.

Examples:
  • The time-span of the Apollo 11 moon mission (E52) falls within the time-span of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II (E52). (Riley, 2009) (Robinson, 2000)
In First Order Logic:
  • P86(x,y) ⇒ E52(x)
  • P86(x,y) ⇒ E52(y)
  • [P86(x,y) ∧ P86(y,z)] ⇒ P86(x,z)
Properties:
-
P89 falls within (contains)
Domain:
E53 Place E53
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an instance of E53 Place that falls wholly within the extent of another instance of E53 Place.

It addresses spatial containment only and does not imply any relationship between things or phenomena occupying these places.

This property is transitive and reflexive.

Examples:
  • The area covered by the World Heritage Site of Stonehenge (E53) falls within the area of Salisbury Plain (E53). (Pryor, 2016)
In First Order Logic:
  • P89(x,y) ⇒ E53(x)
  • P89(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • [P89(x,y) ∧ P89(y,z)] ⇒ P89(x,z)
  • P89(x,x)
Properties:
-
P90 has value
Domain:
E54 Dimension E54
Range:
E60 Number E60
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property allows an instance of E54 Dimension to be approximated by an instance of E60 Number primitive.

Examples:
  • The height of silver cup 232 (E54) has value 226 (E60). (fictitious)
  • Christie’s hammer price for Vincent van Gogh’s “Still Life: Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers” in London on 30th March 1987 (E97) has value 24,750,000 (E60).
In First Order Logic:
  • P90(x,y) ⇒ E54(x)
  • P90(x,y) ⇒ E60(y)
Properties:
-
P91 has unit (is unit of)
Domain:
E54 Dimension E54
Range:
E58 Measurement Unit E58
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E97 Monetary Amount. P180 has currency (was currency of): E98 Currency P180
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property shows the type of unit an instance of E54 Dimension was expressed in.

Examples:
  • The height of silver cup 232 (E54) has unit mm (E58). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P91(x,y) ⇒ E54(x)
  • P91(x,y) ⇒ E58(y)
Properties:
-
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
Domain:
E63 Beginning of Existence E63
Range:
E77 Persistent Item E77
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item P12
SuperProperty Of:
E65 Creation. P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object
E66 Formation. P95 has formed (was formed by): E74 Group
E67 Birth. P98 brought into life (was born): E21 Person
E12 Production. P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Human-Made Thing
E81 Transformation. P123 resulted in (resulted from): E18 Physical Thing
P94
P95
P98
P108
P123
Quantification:

one to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E63 Beginning of Existence to the instance of E77 Persistent Item brought into existence by it.

It allows a “start” to be attached to any instance of E77 Persistent Item being documented, i.e., as instances of E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation and E55 Type.

Examples:
  • The birth of Mozart (E67) brought into existence Mozart (E21). (Deutsch, 1965)
In First Order Logic:
  • P92(x,y) ⇒ E63(x)
  • P92(x,y) ⇒ E77(y)
  • P92(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
Properties:
-
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
Domain:
E64 End of Existence E64
Range:
E77 Persistent Item E77
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item P12
SuperProperty Of:
E6 Destruction. P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Thing
E68 Dissolution. P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group
E69 Death. P100 was death of (died in): E21 Person
E81 Transformation. P124 transformed (was transformed by): E18 Physical Thing
P13
P99
P100
P124
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E64 End of Existence to the instance of E77 Persistent Item taken out of existence by it.

In the case of immaterial things, the instance of E64 End of Existence is considered to take place with the destruction of the last physical carrier.

This allows an “end” to be attached to any instance of E77 Persistent Item being documented i.e., instances of E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation and E55 Type. For many instances of E77 Persistent Item we know the maximum life-span and can infer, that they must have ended to exist. We assume in that case an instance of E64 End of Existence, which may be as unnoticeable as forgetting the secret knowledge by the last representative of some indigenous nation.

Examples:
  • The death of Mozart (E69) took out of existence Mozart (E21). (Deutsch, 1965)
In First Order Logic:
  • P93(x,y) ⇒ E64(x)
  • P93(x,y) ⇒ E77(y)
  • P93(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
Properties:
-
P94 has created (was created by)
Domain:
E65 Creation E65
Range:
E28 Conceptual Object E28
SubProperty Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item P92
SuperProperty Of:
E83 Type Creation. P135 created type (was created by): E55 Type P135
Quantification:

one to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E65 Creation to the instance of E28 Conceptual Object created by it.

It represents the act of conceiving the intellectual content of the instance of E28 Conceptual Object. It does not represent the act of creating the first physical carrier of the instance of E28 Conceptual Object. As an example, this is the composition of a poem, not its commitment to paper.

Examples:
  • The composition of “The Four Friends” by A. A. Milne (E65) has created “The Four Friends” by A. A. Milne (E33). (Milne, 2012)
In First Order Logic:
  • P94(x,y) ⇒ E65(x)
  • P94(x,y) ⇒ E28(y)
  • P94(x,y) ⇒ P92(x,y)
Properties:
-
P95 has formed (was formed by)
Domain:
E66 Formation E66
Range:
E74 Group E74
SubProperty Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item P92
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property associates the instance of E66 Formation with the instance of E74 Group that it founded.

Examples:
  • The formation of the CIDOC CRM SIG at the August 2000 CIDOC Board meeting (E66) has formed the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P95(x,y) ⇒ E66(x)
  • P95(x,y) ⇒ E74(y)
  • P95(x,y) ⇒ P92(x,y)
Properties:
-
P96 by mother (gave birth)
Domain:
E67 Birth E67
Range:
E21 Person E21
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E67 Birth to an instance of E21 Person in the role of birth-giving mother.

Note that biological fathers are not necessarily participants in the Birth (see P97 from father (was father for)). The instance of P21 Person being born is linked to the instance of E67 Birth with the property P98 brought into life (was born). This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions.

Examples:
  • The birth of Queen Elizabeth II (E67) by mother Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (E21). (Parker, 2002)
In First Order Logic:
  • P96(x,y) ⇒ E67(x)
  • P96(x,y) ⇒ E21(y)
  • P96(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
Properties:
-
P97 from father (was father for)
Domain:
E67 Birth E67
Range:
E21 Person E21
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E67 Birth to an instance of E21 Person in the role of biological father.

Note that biological fathers are not seen as necessary participants in the birth, whereas birth-giving mothers are (see P96 by mother (gave birth)). The Person being born is linked to the Birth with the property P98 brought into life (was born).

This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions.

An instance of E67 Birth is normally (but not always) associated with one biological father.

Examples:
  • King George VI (E21) was father for the birth of Queen Elizabeth II (E67). (Parker, 2002)
In First Order Logic:
  • P97(x,y) ⇒ E67(x)
  • P97(x,y) ⇒ E21(y)
Properties:
-
P98 brought into life (was born)
Domain:
E67 Birth E67
Range:
E21 Person E21
SubProperty Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item P92
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E67 Birth event to an instance of E21 Person in the role of offspring.

Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same instance of E67 Birth. This is not intended for use with general Natural History material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions.

Examples:
  • The Birth of Queen Elizabeth II (E67) brought into life Queen Elizabeth II (E21). (Parker, 2002)
In First Order Logic:
  • P98(x,y) ⇒ E67(x)
  • P98(x,y) ⇒ E21(y)
  • P98(x,y) ⇒ P92(x,y)
Properties:
-
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
Domain:
E68 Dissolution E68
Range:
E74 Group E74
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P11
P93
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates the instance of E68 Dissolution with the instance of E74 Group that it disbanded.

Examples:
  • The end of The Hole in the Wall Gang (E68) dissolved The Hole in the Wall Gang (E74). (Patterson, 1998)
In First Order Logic:
  • P99(x,y) ⇒ E68(x)
  • P99(x,y) ⇒ E74(y)
  • P99(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
  • P99(x,y) ⇒ P93(x,y)
Properties:
-
P100 was death of (died in)
Domain:
E69 Death E69
Range:
E21 Person E21
SubProperty Of:
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item P93
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,1)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E69 Death to the instance of E21 Person that died.

An instance of E69 Death may involve multiple people, for example in the case of a battle or disaster.

This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people.

Examples:
  • Mozart’s death (E69) was death of Mozart (E21). (Sitwell, 2017)
In First Order Logic:
  • P100(x,y) ⇒ E69(x)
  • P100(x,y) ⇒ E21(y)
  • P100(x,y) ⇒ P93(x,y)
Properties:
-
P101 had as general use (was use of)
Domain:
E70 Thing E70
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E70 Thing with an instance of E55 Type that describes the type of use that it was actually employed for.

It allows the relationship between particular things, both physical and immaterial, and the general methods and techniques of real use to be documented. This may well be different from the intended functional purpose of the instance of E70 Thing (which can be documented with P103 was intended for (was intention of)). For example, it could be recorded that a particular wooden crate had a general use as a shelf support on a market stall even though it had been originally intended for carrying vegetables.

The use of this property is intended to allow the documentation of usage patterns attested in historical records or through scientific investigation (for instance ceramic residue analysis). It should not be used to document the intended, and thus assumed, use of an object.

Examples:
  • Tony Gill’s Ford Mustang (E22) had as general use transportation (E55).
  • The Egyptian unglazed vessel used in the 2003 study reported by Barnard et al. (E22) had as general use camel milk preparation (E55). (Barnard et al., 2007)
In First Order Logic:
  • P101(x,y) ⇒ E70(x)
  • P101(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • P101(x,y) ⇒ (∃z)[E7(z) ∧ P16i(,x,z) ∧ P2(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P102 has title (is title of)
Domain:
E71 Human-Made Thing E71
Range:
E35 Title E35
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation P1
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E35 Title has been applied to an instance of E71 Human-Made Thing.

The P102.1 has type property of the P102 has title (is title of) property enables the relationship between the title and the thing to be further clarified, for example, if the title was a given title, a supplied title etc.

It allows any human-made material or immaterial thing to be given a title. It is possible to imagine a title being created without a specific object in mind.

Examples:
  • The first book of the Old Testament (E33) has title “Genesis” (E35) has type translated title (E55) (E55). (Brueggemann, 1982)
  • Monet’s painting from 1868-1869 held by Musée d'Orsay, Paris, under inventory number RF 1984 164 (E22) has title “La Pie” (E35) has type creator’s title (E55). (Musée d'Orsay, 2020)
  • Monet’s painting from 1868-1869 held by Musée d'Orsay, Paris, under inventory number RF 1984 164 (E22) has title “The Magpie” (E35) has type translated title (E55). (Musée d'Orsay, 2020)
In First Order Logic:
  • P102(x,y) ⇒ E71(x)
  • P102(x,y) ⇒ E35(y)
  • P102(x,y,z) ⇒ [P102(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P102(x,y) ⇒ P1(x,y)
Properties:

P102.1 has type: E55 Type

P103 was intended for (was intention of)
Domain:
E71 Human-Made Thing E71
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property links an instance of E71 Human-Made Thing to an instance of E55 Type describing its intended usage.

It creates a relation between specific human-made things, both physical and immaterial, to types of intended methods and techniques of use. Note: A link between specific human-made things and a specific use activity should be expressed using P19 was intended use of (was made for).

Examples:
  • This plate (E22) was intended for being destroyed at wedding reception (E55). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P103(x,y) ⇒ E71(x)
  • P103(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
Properties:
-
P104 is subject to (applies to)
Domain:
E72 Legal Object E72
Range:
E30 Right E30
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property links a particular instance of E72 Legal Object to the instances of E30 Right to which it is subject.

The Right is held by an E39 Actor as described by P75 possesses (is possessed by).

Examples:
  • The Beatles back catalogue (E89) is subject to reproduction right on the Beatles back catalogue (E30). (Raga, 2016)
In First Order Logic:
  • P104(x,y) ⇒ E72(x)
  • P104(x,y) ⇒ E30(y)
Properties:
-
P105 right held by (has right on)
Domain:
E72 Legal Object E72
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor P52
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor who holds the instances of E30 Right to an instance of E72 Legal Object.

It is a superproperty of P52 has current owner (is current owner of) because ownership is a right that is held on the owned object.

This property is a shortcut of the fully developed path from E72 Legal Object, P104 is subject to, E30 Right, P75i is possessed by to E39 Actor.

Examples:
  • The Beatles back catalogue (E73) right held by Michael Jackson (E21). (Raga, 2016)
In First Order Logic:
  • P105(x,y) ⇒ E72(x)
  • P105(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P105(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E30(z) ˄ P104(x,z) ˄ P75i(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P106 is composed of (forms part of)
Domain:
E90 Symbolic Object E90
Range:
E90 Symbolic Object E90
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E73 Information Object. P165 incorporates (is incorporated in): E90 Symbolic Object P165
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E90 Symbolic Object with a part of it that is by itself an instance of E90 Symbolic Object, such as fragments of texts or clippings from an image.

This property is transitive and non-reflexive.

Examples:
  • This Scope note of property P106 (E33) is composed of ‘fragments of texts’ (E33).
  • ‘recognizable’ (E90) is composed of ‘ecognizabl’ (E90).
In First Order Logic:
  • P106(x,y) ⇒ E90(x)
  • P106(x,y) ⇒ E90(y)
  • [P106(x,y) ∧ P106(y,z)] ⇒ P106(x,z)
  • ¬P106(x,x)
Properties:
-
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
Domain:
E74 Group E74
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E74 Group with an instance of E39 Actor that is or has been a member thereof.

Instances of E74 Group and E21 Person, may all be members of instances of E74 Group.An instance of E74 Group may be founded initially without any member.

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E74 Group, P144i gained member by, E85 Joining, P143 joined to E39 Actor.

The property P107.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.

Examples:
  • Moholy-Nagy (E21) is current or former member of Bauhaus (E74). (Moholy-Nagy, 2012)
  • National Museum of Science and Industry (E74) has current or former member The National Railway Museum (E74). (Rolt, 1971)
  • The married couple Queen Elisabeth and Prince Phillip (E74) has current or former member Prince Phillip (E21) kind of member husband (E55). (Brandreth, 2004)
In First Order Logic:
  • P107(x,y) ⇒ E74(x)
  • P107(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P107(x,y,z) ⇒ [P107(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P107(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E85(z) ˄ P144i(x,z) ˄ P143(z,y)]
Properties:

P107.1 kind of member: E55 Type

P108 has produced (was produced by)
Domain:
E12 Production E12
Range:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing E24
SubProperty Of:
E11 Modification. P31 has modified (was modified by): E18 Physical Thing
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P31
P92
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:1,1)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing that came into existence as a result of the instance of E12 Production.

The identity of an instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing is not defined by its matter, but by its existence as a subject of documentation. An E12 Production can result in the creation of multiple instances of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing.

Examples:
  • The building of Rome (E12) has produced Τhe Colosseum (E24). (Hopkins & Beard, 2011)
In First Order Logic:
  • P108(x,y) ⇒ E12(x)
  • P108(x,y) ⇒ E24(y)
  • P108(x,y) ⇒ P31(x,y)
  • P108(x,y) ⇒ P92(x,y)
Properties:
-
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)
Domain:
E78 Curated Holding E78
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor P49
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor who assumed or have assumed overall curatorial responsibility for an instance of E78 Curated Holding.

It does not allow a history of curation to be recorded. This would require use of an event initiating a curator being responsible for a collection.

Examples:
  • The Robert Opie Collection (E78) has current or former curator Robert Opie (E21). ( https://www.robertopiecollection.com/)
  • The Mikael Heggelund Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium (E78) has current or former curator Mikael Heggelund Foslie (E21). (Woelkerling et al., 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • P109(x,y) ⇒ E78(x)
  • P109(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P109(x,y) ⇒ P49(x,y)
Properties:
-
P110 augmented (was augmented by)
Domain:
E79 Part Addition E79
Range:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing E24
SubProperty Of:
E11 Modification. P31 has modified (was modified by): E18 Physical Thing P31
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing that is added to (augmented) in an instance of E79 Part Addition.

Although an instance of E79 Part Addition event normally concerns only one instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be added to (augmented). For example, the artist Jackson Pollock trailing paint onto multiple canvasses.

Examples:
  • The final nail-insertion Event (E79) augmented Coffin of George VI (E22). (https://www.rct.uk/collection/2000811/the-coffin-of-king-george-vi-during-the-lying-in-state)
In First Order Logic:
  • P110(x,y) ⇒ E79(x)
  • P110(x,y) ⇒ E24(y)
  • P110(x,y) ⇒ P31(x,y)
Properties:
-
P111 added (was added by)
Domain:
E79 Part Addition E79
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing P16
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E18 Physical Thing that is added during an instance of E79 Part Addition activity

Examples:
  • The insertion of the final nail (E79) added the last nail in George VI’s coffin (E22). (https://www.rct.uk/collection/2000811/the-coffin-of-king-george-vi-during-the-lying-in-state)
In First Order Logic:
  • P111(x,y) ⇒ E79(x)
  • P111(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P111(x,y) ⇒ P16(x,y)
Properties:
-
P112 diminished (was diminished by)
Domain:
E80 Part Removal E80
Range:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing E24
SubProperty Of:
E11 Modification. P31 has modified (was modified by): E18 Physical Thing P31
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance E24 Physical Human-Made Thing that was diminished by an instance of E80 Part Removal.

Although an instance of E80 Part removal activity normally concerns only one instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be diminished by a single instance of E80 Part Removal activity.

Examples:
  • The coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22) was diminished by The opening of the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E80). (Carter, 2014)
In First Order Logic:
  • P112(x,y) ⇒ E80(x)
  • P112(x,y) ⇒ E24(y)
  • P112(x,y) ⇒ P31(x,y)
Properties:
-
P113 removed (was removed by)
Domain:
E80 Part Removal E80
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item P12
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E18 Physical Thing that is removed during an instance of E80 Part Removal activity.

Examples:
  • The opening of the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E80) removed The mummy of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E20, E22). (Carter, 2014)
In First Order Logic:
  • P113(x,y) ⇒ E80(x)
  • P113(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P113(x,y) ⇒ P12(x,y)
Properties:
-
P121 overlaps with
Domain:
E53 Place E53
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This symmetric property associates an instance of E53 Place with another instance of E53 Place geometrically overlapping it.

It does not specify anything about the shared area. This property is purely spatial. It does not imply that phenomena that define, by their extent, places related by P121 overlaps with have ever covered a common area at the same time or even coexisted. In contrast, spatiotemporal overlaps described by P132 spatiotemporally overlaps are the total of areas simultaneously covered by the related spacetime volumes.

This property is symmetric.

Examples:
  • The territory of the United States as in 2020 (E53) overlaps with the Arctic (E53). (Gannett et al., 1904)
  • The maximal extent of the Kingdom of Greece (1832-1973) (E53) overlaps with the maximal extent of the Republic of Turkey (29th October 1923 to now) (E53).
In First Order Logic:
  • P121(x,y) ⇒ E53(x)
  • P121(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • P121(x,y) ⇒ P121(y,x)
Properties:
-
P122 borders with
Domain:
E53 Place E53
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This symmetric property associates an instance of E53 Place with another instance of E53 Place which shares a part of its border.

This property is purely spatial. It does not imply that the phenomena that define, by their extent, places related by P122 borders with have ever shared a respective border at the same time or even coexisted. In particular, this may be the case when the respective common border is formed by a natural feature.

This property is not transitive. This property is symmetric.

Examples:
  • Scotland in its 1603 borders (E53) borders with England in its 1603 borders (E53). (Crofton, 2015)
In First Order Logic:
  • P122(x,y) ⇒ E53(x)
  • P122(x,y) ⇒ E53(y)
  • P122(x,y) ⇒ P122(y,x)
Properties:
-
P123 resulted in (resulted from)
Domain:
E81 Transformation E81
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item P92
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance or instances of E18 Physical Thing that are the result of an instance of E81 Transformation. New items replace the transformed item or items, which cease to exist as units of documentation. The physical continuity between the old and the new is expressed by the links to the common instance of E81 Transformation.

Examples:
  • The transformation of the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion into a city hall (E81, E12) resulted in the City Hall of Heraklion (E24). [AND: has produced (P108) the City Hall of Heraklion (E22)] (Municipality of Heraklion, 2021)
  • The mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E81, E12) resulted in the Mummy of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22,E20). [also: has produced (P108) the Mummy of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22,E20).] (Carter & Mace 1977)
  • The death, carbonization and petrification of some people of Pompeii in 79AD by the intense heat of a pyroclastic cloud and ashes from the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius (E69, E81) resulted in petrified bodies (E20). [Some of these bodies could later be preserved in plaster.]
In First Order Logic:
  • P123(x,y) ⇒ E81(x)
  • P123(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P123(x,y) ⇒ P92(x,y)
Properties:
-
P124 transformed (was transformed by)
Domain:
E81 Transformation E81
Range:
E18 Physical Thing E18
SubProperty Of:
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item P93
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,1)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance or instances E18 Physical Thing that have ceased to exist due to an instance of E81 Transformation.

The item that has ceased to exist and was replaced by the result of the Transformation. The continuity between both items, the new and the old, is expressed by the links to the common instance of E81 Transformation.

Examples:
  • The transformation of the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion into a city hall (E81, E12) transformed the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion (E24). (Municipality of Heraklion, 2021)
  • The mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E81, E12) transformed the deceased Pharao Tut-Ankh-Amun (E21). (Carter & Mace, 1977)
  • The death, carbonization and petrification of some people of Pompeii in 79AD by the intense heat of a pyroclastic cloud and ashes from the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius (E69, E81) transformed some people of Pompeii (E21). [AND: was death of (P108) some people of Pompeii (E21).]
In First Order Logic:
  • P124(x,y) ⇒ E81(x)
  • P124(x,y) ⇒ E18(y)
  • P124(x,y) ⇒ P93(x,y)
Properties:
-
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type P32
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E7 Activity to an instance of E55 Type, which classifies an instance of E70 Thing used in an instance of E7 Activity, when the specific instance is either unknown or not of interest, such as use of "a hammer".

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E7 Activity through P16 used specific object, E70 Thing, P2 has type, to E55 Type

Examples:
  • The English archers’ activity in the Battle of Agincourt (E7) used object of type long bow (E55). (Curry, 2015)
In First Order Logic:
  • P125(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P125(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • P125(x,y) ⇔ (∃z) [E70(z) ∧ P16(x,z) ∧ P2(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P126 employed (was employed in)
Domain:
E11 Modification E11
Range:
E57 Material E57
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E57 Material employed in an instance of E11 Modification.

The instance of E57 Material used during the instance of E11 Modification does not necessarily become incorporated into the instance of E24 Physical Human-Made Thing that forms the subject of the instance of E11 Modification.

Examples:
  • The repairing of the Queen Mary (E11) employed Steel (E57). [Beginning October 1942] (Britton, 2012)
  • Distilled water (E57) was employed in the restoration of the Sistine Chapel (E11). (Pietrangeli, C., 1986)
In First Order Logic:
  • P126(x,y) ⇒ E11(x)
  • P126(x,y) ⇒ E57(y)
Properties:
-
P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
Domain:
E55 Type E55
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E55 Type with another instance of E55 Type that has a broader meaning.

It allows instances of E55 Types to be organised into hierarchies. This is the sense of "broader term generic (BTG)" as defined in ISO 25964-2:2013 (International Organization for Standardization 2013).

This property is transitive.

Examples:
  • dime (E55) has broader term coin (E55). (Yerkes, 1989)
In First Order Logic:
  • P127(x,y) ⇒ E55(x)
  • P127(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • [P127(x,y) ∧ P127(y,z)] ⇒ P127(x,z)
Properties:
-
P128 carries (is carried by)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E90 Symbolic Object E90
SubProperty Of:
E70 Thing. P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing P130
SuperProperty Of:
E24 Physical Human-Made Thing. P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item P65
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies an instance E90 Symbolic Object carried by an instance of E18 Physical Thing. Since an instance of E90 Symbolic Object is defined as an immaterial idealization over potentially multiple carriers, any individual realization on a particular physical carrier may be defective, due to deterioration or shortcomings in the process of creating the realization compared to the intended ideal. As long as such defects do not substantially affect the complete recognition of the respective symbolic object, it is still regarded as carrying an instance of this E90 Symbolic Object. If these defects are of scholarly interest, the particular realization can be modelled as an instance of E25 Human-Made Feature. Note, that any instance of E90 Symbolic Object incorporated (P165) in the carried symbolic object is also carried by the same instance of E18 Physical Thing.

Examples:
  • Matthew’s paperback copy of Reach for the Sky (E18) carries the text of Reach for the Sky (E73). [see also: (Brickhill, 2001)] (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P128(x,y) ⇒ E18(x)
  • P128(x,y) ⇒ E90(y)
  • P128(x,y) ⇒ P130(x,y)
Properties:
-
P129 is about (is subject of)
Domain:
E89 Propositional Object E89
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E89 Propositional Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property documents that an instance of E89 Propositional Object has as subject an instance of E1 CRM Entity.

This differs from P67 refers to (is referred to by), which refers to an instance of E1 CRM Entity, in that it describes the primary subject or subjects of an instance of E89 Propositional Object.

Examples:
  • The text entitled ‘Reach for the sky’ (E33) is about Douglas Bader (E21). (Brickhill, 2001)
In First Order Logic:
  • P129(x,y) ⇒ E89(x)
  • P129(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P129(x,y) ⇒ P67(x,y)
Properties:
-
P130 shows features of (features are also found on)
Domain:
E70 Thing E70
Range:
E70 Thing E70
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object
E33 Linguistic Object. P73i is translation of (has translation): E33 Linguistic Object
P128
P73i
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property generalises the notions of "copy of" and "similar to" into a directed relationship, where the domain expresses the derivative or influenced item and the range the source or influencing item, if such a direction can be established. The property can also be used to express similarity in cases that can be stated between two objects only, without historical knowledge about its reasons. The property expresses a symmetric relationship in case no direction of influence can be established either from evidence on the item itself or from historical knowledge. This holds in particular for siblings of a derivation process from a common source or non-causal cultural parallels, such as some weaving patterns.

The P130.1 kind of similarity property of the P130 shows features of (features are also found on) property enables the relationship between the domain and the range to be further clarified, in the sense from domain to range, if applicable. For example, it may be expressed if both items are product “of the same mould”, or if two texts “contain identical paragraphs”.

If the reason for similarity is a sort of derivation process, i.e., that the creator has used or had in mind the form of a particular thing during the creation or production, this process should be explicitly modelled. In these cases, P130 shows features of can be regarded as a shortcut of such a process. However, the current model does not contain any path specific enough to infer this property. Specializations of the CIDOC CRM may however be more explicit, for instance describing the use of moulds etc.

This property is not transitive.

Examples:
  • Mary Lamb’s Cymbeline from Charles and Mary Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare (E89) shows features of William Shakespeare’s Cymbeline (E89). (Carrington, 1954)
  • The audio recording of Dante Alighieri's La divina commedia read by Enrico de Negri (E73) shows features of the text of Dante Alighieri's La divina commedia (E89). (Alighieri, 1956)
In First Order Logic:
  • P130(x,y) ⇒ E70(x)
  • P130(x,y) ⇒ E70(y)
  • P130(x,y,z) ⇒ [P130(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
Properties:

P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type

P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with
Domain:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
Range:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E92 Spacetime Volume. P10 falls within (contains): E92 Spacetime Volume P10
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This symmetric property associates two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume that have some of their extents in common. If only the fuzzy boundaries of the instances of E92 Spacetime Volume overlap, this property cannot be determined from observation alone and therefore should not be applied. However, there may be other forms of justification that the two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume must have some of their extents in common regardless of where and when precisely.

If this property holds for two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume then it cannot be the case that P133 is spatiotemporally separated from also holds for the same two instances. Furthermore, there are cases where neither P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with nor P133 is spatiotemporally separated from holds between two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume. This would occur where only an overlap of the fuzzy boundaries of the two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume occurs and no other evidence is available.

This property is symmetric

Examples:
  • The “Urnfield” period (E4) spatiotemporally overlaps with the “Hallstatt” period (E4. (Gimbutas, 1965)
In First Order Logic:
  • P132(x,y) ⇒ E92(x)
  • P132(x,y) ⇒ E92(y)
  • P132(x,y) ⇒ P132(y,x)
  • P132(x,y) ⇒ ¬P133(x,y)
Properties:
-
P133 is spatiotemporally separated from
Domain:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
Range:
E92 Spacetime Volume E92
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This symmetric property associates two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume that have no extents in common. If only the fuzzy boundaries of the instances of E92 Spacetime Volume overlap, this property cannot be determined from observation alone and therefore should not be applied. However, there may be other forms of justification that the two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume must not have any of their extents in common regardless of where and when precisely.

If this property holds for two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume then it cannot be the case that P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with also holds for the same two instances. Furthermore, there are cases where neither P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with nor P133 is spatiotemporally separated from holds between two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume. This would occur where only an overlap of the fuzzy boundaries of the two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume occurs and no other evidence is available.

This property is not transitive. This property is symmetric.

Examples:
  • The “Hallstatt” period (E4) is spatiotemporally separated from the “La Tène” era (E4). (Marion, 2004)
  • Kingdom of Greece (1831-1924) (E92) is spatiotemporally separated from Ottoman Empire (1299-1922) (E92).
  • The path of the army of Alexander the Great (335-323 B.C.) (E7) is spatiotemporally separated from the Mauryan Empire (E4). (Lane Fox, 2004)
In First Order Logic:
  • P133(x,y) ⇒ E92(x)
  • P133(x,y) ⇒ E92(y)
  • P133(x,y) ⇒ P133(y,x)
  • P133(x,y) ⇒ ¬P132(x,y)
Properties:
-
P134 continued (was continued by)
Domain:
E7 Activity E7
Range:
E7 Activity E7
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
E2 Temporal Entity. P176i starts after the start of (starts before the start of): E2 Temporal Entity
P15
P176i
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates two instances of E7 Activity, where the domain is considered as an intentional continuation of the range. A continuation of an activity may happen when the continued activity is still ongoing or after the continued activity has completely ended. The continuing activity may have started already before it decided to continue the other one. Continuation implies a coherence of intentions and outcomes of the involved activities.

This property is not transitive.

Examples:
  • The construction of the Kölner Dom (Cologne Cathedral) , abandoned in the 15th century (E7), was continued by construction in the 19th century (E7). [The construction in the 19th century adapted the initial plans so as to preserve the intended appearance.] (Wolff, 1999)
In First Order Logic:
  • P134(x,y) ⇒ E7(x)
  • P134(x,y)⇒ E7(y)
  • P134(x,y) ⇒ P15(x,y)
  • P134(x,y) ⇒ P176i(x,y)
Properties:
-
P135 created type (was created by)
Domain:
E83 Type Creation E83
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
E65 Creation. P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object P94
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,1)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E55 Type, which is created in an instance of E83 Type Creation activity.

Examples:
  • The description of a new ribbon worm species by Bürger (E83) created type Lineus kennelii’ (E55). (Bürger, 1892)
In First Order Logic:
  • P135(x,y) ⇒ E83(x)
  • P135(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • P135(x,y) ⇒ P94(x,y)
Properties:
-
P136 was based on (supported type creation)
Domain:
E83 Type Creation E83
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity P15
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies one or more instances of E1 CRM Entity that were used as evidence to declare a new instance of E55 Type.

The examination of these items is often the only objective way to understand the precise characteristics of a new type. Such items should be deposited in a museum or similar institution for that reason. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of each item to the type, such as "holotype" or "original element".

Examples:
  • The taxon creation of the plant species ‘Serratula glauca Linné, 1753.’ (E83) was based on Object BM000576251 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) in the taxonomic role original element (E55). (Blake, 1918)
In First Order Logic:
  • P136(x,y) ⇒ E83(x)
  • P136(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P136(x,y,z) ⇒ [P136(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P136(x,y) ⇒ P15(x,y)
Properties:

P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity E1
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type P2
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E1 CRM Entity with an instance of E55 Type for which it has been declared to be a particularly characteristic example.

The P137.1 in the taxonomic role property of P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) allows differentiation of taxonomic roles. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of this example to the type, such as "prototypical", "archetypical", "lectotype", etc. The taxonomic role "lectotype" is not associated with the instance of E83 Type Creation itself but is selected in a later phase.

Examples:
  • Object BM000098044 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) exemplifies ‘Spigelia marilandica’ (L.) L. (E55) in the taxonomic role lectotype (E55). (Natural History Museum, 2021)
In First Order Logic:
  • P137(x,y) ⇒ E1(x)
  • P137(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
  • P137(x,y,z) ⇒ [P137(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P137(x,y) ⇒ P2(x,y)
Properties:

P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type

P138 represents (has representation)
Domain:
E36 Visual Item E36
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
E89 Propositional Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property establishes the relationship between an instance of E36 Visual Item and the instance of E1 CRM Entity that it visually represents.

Any entity may be represented visually. This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Human-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity, which is shortcut by P62 depicts (is depicted by). P138.1 mode of representation allows the nature of the representation to be refined.

This property is also used for the relationship between an original and a digitisation of the original by the use of techniques such as digital photography, flatbed or infrared scanning. Digitisation is here seen as a process with a mechanical, causal component rendering the spatial distribution of structural and optical properties of the original and does not necessarily include any visual similarity identifiable by human observation.

Examples:
  • The digital file found at http://www.emunch.no/N/full/No-MM_N0001-01.jpg (E36) represents page 1 of Edward Munch's manuscript MM N 1, Munch-museet (E22) mode of representation Digitisation (E55).
  • The 3D model VAM_A.200-1946_trace_1M.ply (E73) represents Victoria & Albert Museum’s Madonna and child sculpture (visual work) A.200-1946 (E22) mode of representation 3D surface (E55).
In First Order Logic:
  • P138(x,y) ⇒ E36(x)
  • P138(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
  • P138(x,y,z) ⇒ [P138(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P138(x,y) ⇒ P67(x,y)
Properties:

P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type

P139 has alternative form
Domain:
E41 Appellation E41
Range:
E41 Appellation E41
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E41 Appellation with another instance of E41 Appellation that constitutes a derivative or variant of the former and that may also be used for identifying items identified by the former, in suitable contexts, independent from the particular item to be identified. This property should not be confused with additional variants of names used characteristically for a single, particular item, such as individual nicknames. It is an asymmetric relationship, where the range expresses the derivative, if such a direction can be established. Otherwise, the relationship is symmetric. The relationship is not transitive.

Multiple names assigned to an object, which do not apply to all things identified with the specific instance of E41 Appellation, should be modelled as repeated values of P1 is identified by (identifies) of this object.

P139.1 has type allows the type of derivation to be refined, for instance “transliteration from Latin 1 to ASCII”.

Examples:
  • "Martin Doerr" (E41) has alternative form "Martin Dörr" (E41) has type Alternate spelling (E55).
  • "Гончарова, Наталья Сергеевна" (E41) has alternative form "Gončarova, Natal´â Sergeevna" (E41) has type ISO 9:1995 transliteration (E55).
  • “Αθήνα” (E41) has alternative form “Athina” (E41) has type transcription (E55).
In First Order Logic:
  • P139(x,y) ⇒ E41(x)
  • P139(x,y) ⇒ E41(y)
  • P139(x,y,z) ⇒ [P139(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P139(x,y) ⇒ P139(y,x)
  • ¬P139(x,x)
Properties:

P139.1 has type: E55 Type

P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
Domain:
E13 Attribute Assignment E13
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E14 Condition Assessment. P34 concerned (was assessed by): E18 Physical Thing
E16 Measurement. P39 measured (was measured by): E18 Physical Thing
E17 Type Assignment. P41 classified (was classified by): E1 CRM Entity
P34
P39
P41
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E13 Attribute Assignment with the instance of E1 CRM Entity about which it made an attribution. The instance of E1 CRM Entity plays the role of the domain of the attribution.

The kind of attribution made should be documented using P177 assigned property type.

Examples:
  • The Current Ownership Assessment of Martin Doerr’s silver cup February 1997 (E13) assigned attribute to Martin Doerr’s silver cup (E22). (fictitious)
  • The Identifier Assignment on 1st June 1997 of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned attribute to silver cup 232 (E22). (fictitious)
  • The examination of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E13) assigned attribute to MS Sinai Greek 418 (E22). (Honey and Pickwoad, 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • P140(x,y) ⇒ E13(x)
  • P140(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
Properties:
-
P141 assigned (was assigned by)
Domain:
E13 Attribute Assignment E13
Range:
E1 CRM Entity E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E14 Condition Assessment. P35 has identified (was identified by): E3 Condition State
E15 Identifier Assignment. P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Identifier
E15 Identifier Assignment. P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Identifier
E16 Measurement. P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension
E17 Type Assignment. P42 assigned (was assigned by): E55 Type
P35
P37
P38
P40
P42
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E13 Attribute Assignment with the instance of E1 CRM Entity used in the attribution. The instance of E1 CRM Entity here plays the role of the range of the attribution.

The kind of attribution made should be documented using P177 assigned property type.

Examples:
  • The Current Ownership Assessment of Martin Doerr’s silver cup February 1997 (E13) assigned Martin Doerr (E21). (fictitious)
  • The Identifier Assignment on 1st June 1997 of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned 232 (E42). (fictitious)
  • The examination of MS Sinai Greek 418 (E13) assigned unsupported (E55.) (Honey & Pickwoad, 2010)
In First Order Logic:
  • P141(x,y) ⇒ E13(x)
  • P141(x,y) ⇒ E1(y)
Properties:
-
P142 used constituent (was used in)
Domain:
E15 Identifier Assignment E15
Range:
E90 Symbolic Object E90
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing P16
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0:n,0:n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E15 Identifier Assignment with the instance of E90 Symbolic Object used as constituent of an instance of E42 Identifier in this act of assignment.

Examples:
  • Assigning the personal name identifier “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” on 1st June, 2001 (E15) used constituent “ca. 1300-1377” (E41). (Kelly, 2014)
  • Assigning a uniform title to the anonymous textual work known as ‘The Adoration of the Shepherds’(E15) used constituent “Coventry” (E41). (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1998)
  • Assigning a uniform title to Pina Bausch’s choreographic work entitled ‘Rite of spring’ (E15) used constituent “(Choreographic Work: Bausch)” (E90). (Brandstetter and Klein, 2015)
  • Assigning a uniform title to the motion picture directed in 1933 by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack and entitled ‘King Kong’ (E15) used constituent “1933” (E61). (Goldner and Turner, 1976)
  • Assigning the corporate name identifier ‘Univerza v Ljubljani. Oddelek za bibliotekarstvo’ to The Department for library science of the University of Ljubljana in 2018 (E15) used constituent “Univerza v Ljubljani” (E42). [Done by the Department of Library and Information Science and Book Studies Library, University of Ljubljana in 2018]
In First Order Logic:
  • P142(x,y) ⇒ E15(x)
  • P142(x,y) ⇒ E90(y)
  • P142(x,y) ⇒ P16(x,y)
Properties:
-
P143 joined (was joined by)
Domain:
E85 Joining E85
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that becomes member of an instance of E74 Group in an instance of E85 Joining.

Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with the more detailed path E74 Group, P144i gained member by, E85 Joining, P143 joined, E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).

Examples:
  • The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 (E85) joined Sir Isaac Newton (E21). (Iliffe, 2013)
  • The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 (E85) joined Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (E21). (Galeotti, 1997)
  • The implementation of the membership treaty 1st January 1973 between EU and Denmark (E85) joined Denmark (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P143(x,y) ⇒ E85(x)
  • P143(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P143(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
Properties:
-
P144 joined with (gained member by)
Domain:
E85 Joining E85
Range:
E74 Group E74
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.

Although a joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.

Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through, P144i gained member by, E85 Joining, P143 joined, E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).

The property P144.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.

Examples:
  • The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 (E85) joined with the Convention Parliament (E74). (Iliffe, 2013)
  • The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 (E85) joined with the office of Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (E74) kind of member President (E55). (Galeotti, 1997)
  • The implementation of the membership treaty 1st January 1973 between EU and Denmark (E85) joined with EU (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P144(x,y) ⇒ E85(x)
  • P144(x,y)⇒ E74(y)
  • P144(x,y,z) ⇒ [P144(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]
  • P144(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
Properties:

P144.1 kind of member: E55 Type

P145 separated (left by)
Domain:
E86 Leaving E86
Range:
E39 Actor E39
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that leaves an instance of E74 Group through an instance of E86 Leaving.

Examples:
  • The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 (E86) separated Sir Isaac Newton (E21). (Iliffe, 2013)
  • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797 (E86) separated George Washington (E21). (Unger, 2015)
  • The implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland 1st February 1985 (E86) separated Greenland (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P145(x,y) ⇒ E86(x)
  • P145(x,y) ⇒ E39(y)
  • P145(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
Properties:
-
P146 separated from (lost member by)
Domain:
E86 Leaving E86
Range:
E74 Group E74
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property identifies the instance of E74 Group an instance of E39 Actor leaves through an instance of E86 Leaving.

Although a leaving activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which leaving one E74 Group implies leaving another E74 Group as well.

Examples:
  • The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 (E86) separated from the Convention Parliament (E74). (Iliffe, 2013)
  • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797 (E86) separated from the office of President of the United States (E74). (Unger, 2015)
  • The implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland 1st February 1985 (E86) separated from EU (E74).
In First Order Logic:
  • P146(x,y) ⇒ E86(x)
  • P146(x,y) ⇒ E74(y)
  • P146(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
Properties:
-
P147 curated (was curated by)
Domain:
E87 Curation Activity E87
Range:
E78 Curated Holding E78
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E87 Curation Activity with the instance of E78 Curated Holding with that is subject of that curation activity following some implicit or explicit curation plan.

Examples:
  • The curation activity of the Benaki Museum for the Toys, Games and Childhood Collection (E87) curated The Toys, Games and Childhood Collection of the Benaki Museum (E78). [The curation activity included the acquisition of dolls and games of urban and folk manufacture dating from the 17th to the 20th century, from England, France and Germany for the Toys, Games and Childhood Collection of the museum.] (Benaki Museum, 2016)
  • The curation activity for the permanent Numismatic Collection of the Historical Museum of Crete, Heraklion, Crete from 2005 up to the present (E87) curated the Numismatic Collection (E78). (Historical Museum of Crete, 2005)
  • The curation activity of Mikael Heggelund Foslie (E87) curated the Mikael Heggelund Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium (E78) (Woelkerling et al., 2005)
In First Order Logic:
  • P147(x,y) ⇒ E87(x)
  • P147(x,y) ⇒ E78(y)
Properties:
-
P148 has component (is component of)
Domain:
E89 Propositional Object E89
Range:
E89 Propositional Object E89
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0:n,0:n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E89 Propositional Object with a structural part of it that is by itself an instance of E89 Propositional Object.

This property is transitive.

Examples:
  • Dante’s “Divine Comedy” (E89) has component Dante’s “Hell” (E89). (Alighieri, 1956)
In First Order Logic:
  • P148(x,y) ⇒ E89(x)
  • P148(x,y) ⇒ E89(y)
  • [P148(x,y) ∧ P148(y,z)] ⇒ P148(x,z)
Properties:
-
P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for)
Domain:
E55 Type E55
Range:
E55 Type E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E55 Type “A” with an instance of E55 Type “B”, when items of type “A” typically form part of items of type “B”, such as “car motors” and “cars”.

It allows types to be organised into hierarchies based on one type describing a typical part of another. This property is equivalent to "broader term partitive (BTP)" as defined in ISO 2788 and “broaderPartitive” in SKOS.

This property is not transitive.

Examples:
  • car motors (E55) defines typical parts of cars (E55). (fictitious)
In First Order Logic:
  • P150(x,y) ⇒ E55(x)
  • P150(x,y) ⇒ E55(y)
Properties:
-
P151 was formed from (participated in)
Domain:
E66 Formation E66
Range:
E74 Group E74
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor P11
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0:n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E66 Formation with an instance of E74 Group from which the new group was formed preserving a sense of continuity such as in mission, membership or tradition.

Examples:
  • The formation of the House of Bourbon-Conti in 1581 (E66) was formed from House of Condé (E74). (Collectif & Musée d'art et d'histoire Louis-Senlecq, 1900)
In First Order Logic:
  • P151(x,y) ⇒ E66(x)
  • P151(x,y) ⇒ E74(y)
  • P151(x,y) ⇒ P11(x,y)
Properties:
-
P152 has parent (is parent of)
Domain:
E21 Person E21
Range:
E21 Person E21
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (2,n:0,n)

Scope Note:

This property associates an instance of E21 Person with another instance of E21 Person who plays the role of the first instance’s parent, regardless of whether the relationship is biological parenthood, assumed or pretended biological parenthood or an equivalent legal status of rights and obligations obtained by a social or legal act.

This property is, among others, a shortcut of the fully developed paths from E21 Person through P98i was born, E67 Birth, P96 by mother to E21 Person, and from E21 Person through P98i was born, E67 Birth, P97 from father to E21 Person.

This property is not transitive.

Examples:
  • Gaius Octavius (E21) has parent Julius Caesar (E21). (Bleicken & Bell, 2015)
  • Steve Jobs (E21) has parent Joanne Simpson (E21). [Biological mother] (Isaacson, 2011)
  • Steve Jobs (E21) has parent Clara Jobs (E21). [Adoption mother] (Isaacson, 2011)
In First Order Logic:
  • P152(x,y) ⇒ E21(x)
  • P152(x,y) ⇒ E21(y)
  • P152(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E67(z) ˄ P98i(x,z) ˄ P96(z,y)]
  • P152(x,y) ⇐ (∃z) [E67(z) ˄ P98i(x,z) ˄ P97(z,y)]
Properties:
-
P156 occupies (is occupied by)
Domain:
E18 Physical Thing E18
Range:
E53 Place E53
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Thing. P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
E18 Physical Thing. P157i provides reference space for (is at rest relative to): E53 Pla