Classes & Properties Declarations of CIDOC-CRM version: 4.0
with Translation & Versioning information

CIDOC-CRM version 4.0 was released on March 2004 including 81 Classes and 132 Properties.

In current page, you can:

The following tables list the Classes and Properties included in CIDOC-CRM version 4.0.

Classes Most recent '' translations
E1 CRM Entity
E2 Temporal Entity
E3 Condition State
E4 Period
E5 Event
E6 Destruction
E7 Activity
E8 Acquisition Event
E9 Move
E10 Transfer of Custody
E11 Modification Event
E12 Production Event
E13 Attribute Assignment
E14 Condition Assessment
E15 Identifier Assignment
E16 Measurement Event
E17 Type Assignment
E18 Physical Stuff
E19 Physical Object
E20 Biological Object
E21 Person
E22 Man-Made Object
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
E25 Man-Made Feature
E26 Physical Feature
E27 Site
E28 Conceptual Object
E29 Design or Procedure
E30 Right
E31 Document
E32 Authority Document
E33 Linguistic Object
E34 Inscription
E35 Title
E36 Visual Item
E37 Mark
E38 Image
E39 Actor
E40 Legal Body
E41 Appellation
E42 Object Identifier
E44 Place Appellation
E45 Address
E46 Section Definition
E47 Spatial Coordinates
E48 Place Name
E49 Time Appellation
E50 Date
E51 Contact Point
E52 Time-Span
E53 Place
E54 Dimension
E55 Type
E56 Language
E57 Material
E58 Measurement Unit
E59 Primitive Value
E60 Number
E61 Time Primitive
E62 String
E63 Beginning of Existence
E64 End of Existence
E65 Creation Event
E66 Formation Event
E67 Birth
E68 Dissolution
E69 Death
E70 Stuff
E71 Man-Made Stuff
E72 Legal Object
E73 Information Object
E74 Group
E75 Conceptual Object Appellation
E77 Persistent Item
E78 Collection
E79 Part Addition
E80 Part Removal
E81 Transformation
E82 Actor Appellation
E83 Type Creation
E84 Information Carrier

Properties Most recent '' translations
P1 is identified by (identifies)
P2 has type (is type of)
P3 has note
P4 has time-span (is time-span of)
P5 consists of (forms part of)
P7 took place at (witnessed)
P8 took place on or within (witnessed)
P9 consists of (forms part of)
P10 falls within (contains)
P11 had participant (participated in)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
P14 carried out by (performed)
P15 was influenced by (influenced)
P16 used specific object (was used for)
P17 was motivated by (motivated)
P19 was intended use of (was made for)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
P25 moved (moved by)
P26 moved to (was destination of)
P27 moved from (was origin of)
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)
P29 custody received by (received custody through)
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
P31 has modified (was modified by)
P32 used general technique (was technique of)
P33 used specific technique (was used by)
P34 concerned (was assessed by)
P35 has identified (identified by)
P36 registered (was registered by)
P37 assigned (was assigned by)
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
P39 measured (was measured by)
P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
P41 classified (was classified by)
P42 assigned (was assigned by)
P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
P44 has condition (condition of)
P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
P46 is composed of (forms part of)
P47 is identified by (identifies)
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)
P55 has current location (currently holds)
P56 bears feature (is found on)
P57 has number of parts
P58 has section definition (defines section)
P59 has section (is located on or within)
P62 depicts (is depicted by)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
P67 refers to (is referred to by)
P68 usually employs (is usually employed by)
P69 is associated with
P70 documents (is documented in)
P71 lists (is listed in)
P72 has language (is language of)
P73 has translation (is translation of)
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)
P75 possesses (is possessed by)
P76 has contact point (provides access to)
P78 is identified by (identifies)
P79 beginning is qualified by
P80 end is qualified by
P81 ongoing throughout
P82 at some time within
P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of)
P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of)
P86 falls within (contains)
P87 is identified by (identifies)
P88 consists of (forms part of)
P89 falls within (contains)
P90 has value
P91 has unit (is unit of)
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
P94 has created (was created by)
P95 has formed (was formed by)
P96 by mother (gave birth)
P97 from father (was father for)
P98 brought into life (was born)
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
P100 was death of (died in)
P101 had as general use (was use of)
P102 has title (is title of)
P103 was intended for (was intention of)
P104 is subject to (applies to)
P105 right held by (has right on)
P106 is composed of (forms part of)
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
P108 has produced (was produced by)
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)
P110 augmented (was augmented by)
P111 added (was added by)
P112 diminished (was diminished by)
P113 removed (was removed by)
P114 is equal in time to
P115 finishes (is finished by)
P116 starts (is started by)
P117 occurs during (includes)
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
P120 occurs before (occurs after)
P121 overlaps with
P122 borders with
P123 resulted in (resulted from)
P124 transformed (was transformed by)
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
P126 employed (was employed in)
P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
P128 carries (is carried by)
P129 is about (is subject of)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on)
P131 is identified by (identifies)
P132 overlaps with
P133 is separated from
P134 continued (was continued by)
P135 created type (was created by)
P136 was based on (supported type creation)
P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies)
P138 represents (has representation)
P139 has alternative form
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E1 CRM Entity
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
CRM Entity
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
- -
SuperClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E54 Dimension unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E2
E52
E53
E54
E77
Scope Note:

This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.

It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:

Identification by name or appellation

Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to

Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties

With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P3 has note: E62 String
E2 Temporal Entity
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Temporal Entity
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SuperClass Of:
E3 Condition State unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E3
E4
Scope Note:

This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time.

In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Stuff.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Bronze Age (E4)
  • the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5)
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
E3 Condition State
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Condition State
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E2
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.

It describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span.In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.

The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State “condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847” can be characterized as E55 Type “wrecked”.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the “Amber Room” in Tsarskoje Selo being completely reconstructed from summer 2003 until now
  • the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946
  • the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 (P2 has type: E55 Type “still not cooked”)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P5 consists of (forms part of): E3 Condition State
E4 Period
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Period
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E2
SuperClass Of:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
Scope Note:

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatio-temporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”. There are however no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

Artistic style may be modeled as E4 Period. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is consistent with E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Jurassic
  • European Bronze Age
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Thirty Years War
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Cubism
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
E5 Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
SuperClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7
E63
E64
Scope Note:

This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the birth of Cleopatra (E67)
  • the destruction of Lisbon by earthquake in 1755 (E6)
  • World War II (E7)
  • the Battle of Stalingrad (E7)
  • the Yalta Conference (E7)
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7)
  • the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday
  • the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
E6 Destruction
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Destruction
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Stuff such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.

Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.

The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:

1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.

2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.

3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Stuff is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the destruction of Lisbon by earthquake in 1755
  • the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7)
  • the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog
  • the shooting of the last wolf (‘Canis lupus Linne, 1758’) of the Rhineland/Germany, in Birreskopf/Eifel 1860 (now Museum Alexander Koenig inventory no.: ZFMK 86.385) (E6, E7)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Stuff
E7 Activity
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Activity
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
SuperClass Of:
E8 Acquisition Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E9 Move unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E10 Transfer of Custody unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E65 Creation Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E66 Formation Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E8
E9
E10
E11
E13
E65
E66
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.

This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Battle of Stalingrad
  • the Yalta Conference
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Stuff
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Stuff
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E7 Activity
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
E8 Acquisition Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Acquisition Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.

The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Stuff. It does not, however, imply changes of any other instances of E30 Right. Nor does it require the donor and/or recipient to be included, known or even to exist. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:

the beginning of ownership

the end of ownership

the transfer of ownership

the acquisition from an unknown source

the loss of title due to destruction of the item

It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition Event) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the collection of a hammer-head sharkof the genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940
  • the acquisition of El Greco’s “The Apostles Peter and Paul” by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg
  • the loss of my stuffed ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’ due to insect damage last year
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E18 Physical Stuff
E9 Move
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Move
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object.

Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA
  • the movement of the exhibition “Treasures of Tutankhamun” 1976-1979
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object
P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place
P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place
E10 Transfer of Custody
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Transfer of Custody
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.

E10 Transfer of Custody does not require the donor and/or recipient to be included, known or even to exist. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:

the beginning of custody

the end of custody

the transfer of custody

the declared loss of an object

The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft.

The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery
  • the return of Picasso’s “Guernica” to Madrid’s Prado in 1981
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor
P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through): E18 Physical Stuff
E11 Modification Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Modification Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
SuperClass Of:
E12 Production Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E79 Part Addition unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E80 Part Removal unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E12
E79
E80
Scope Note:

This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.

Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a modification event, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.

If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilised for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using properties of the design or procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12)
  • the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956
  • the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81)
  • the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
E12 Production Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Production Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11
E63
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.

It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered “new” if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered “new” because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.

This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.

An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the construction of the SS Great Britain
  • the recasting of the Little Mermaid at the harbour of Copenhagen
  • the seventh edition of Rembrandt’s etching “Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove”, 1658, Bartsch Number 197
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
E13 Attribute Assignment
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Attribute Assignment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
SuperClass Of:
E14 Condition Assessment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E15 Identifier Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E16 Measurement Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E17 Type Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E14
E15
E16
E17
Scope Note:

This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.

This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.

In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr’s silver cup in February 1997
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
E14 Condition Assessment
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Condition Assessment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.

The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • last year’s inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P34 concerned (was assessed by): E18 Physical Stuff
P35 has identified (identified by): E3 Condition State
E15 Identifier Assignment
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Identifier Assignment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions assigning or deassigning object identifiers.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • of such identifiers include Find Numbers and Inventory Numbers. Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of an object in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an object.
  • replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P36 registered (was registered by): E19 Physical Object
P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Object Identifier
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Object Identifier
E16 Measurement Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Measurement Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette.
  • The E16 Measurement Event may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of:) E55 Type.
  • measurement of height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997
  • the carbon 14 dating of the “Schoeninger Speer II” in 1996 [an about 400.000 years old Palaeolithic complete wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany in 1995]
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P39 measured (was measured by): E70 Stuff
P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension
E17 Type Assignment
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Type Assignment
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E13
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the actions of classifying items of whatever kind. Such items include objects, specimens, people, actions and concepts.

This class allows for the documentation of the context of classification acts in cases where the value of the classification depends on the personal opinion of the classifier, and the date that the classification was made. This class also encompasses the notion of "determination," i.e. the systematic and molecular identification of a specimen in biology.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth, October 2nd
  • the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr’s garden as ‘Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann’, July 2003
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P41 classified (was classified by): E1 CRM Entity
P42 assigned (was assigned by): E55 Type
E18 Physical Stuff
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Stuff
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E72 Legal Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E72
SuperClass Of:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E26 Physical Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E19
E24
E26
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Stuff
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place
E19 Physical Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SuperClass Of:
E20 Biological Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E22 Man-Made Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E20
E22
Scope Note:

This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.

The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).

In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called “bona fide objects” (Smith & Varzi 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.

The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • John Smith
  • Aphrodite of Milos
  • the Palace of Knossos
  • the Cullinan Diamond
  • Apollo 13 at the time of launch
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P47 is identified by (identifies): E42 Object Identifier
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Object Identifier
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
E20 Biological Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Biological Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
SuperClass Of:
E21 Person unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E21
Scope Note:

This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.

Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • me
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Boukephalas [Horse of Alexander the Great]
  • petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E21 Person
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Person
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E20 Biological Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E20
E39
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.

Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Tut-Ankh-Amun
  • Nelson Mandela
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E22 Man-Made Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Man-Made Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E19
E24
SuperClass Of:
E84 Information Carrier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E84
Scope Note:

This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Mallard (the World’s fastest steam engine)
  • the Portland Vase
  • the Coliseum
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Man-Made Stuff
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E71 Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E18
E71
SuperClass Of:
E22 Man-Made Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E25 Man-Made Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E78 Collection unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E22
E25
E78
Scope Note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.

This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a “cup and ring” carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Forth Railway Bridge (E22)
  • the Channel Tunnel (E25)
  • the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object
E25 Man-Made Feature
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Man-Made Feature
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E26 Physical Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24
E26
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.

No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even “cup and ring” carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Manchester Ship Canal
  • Michael Jackson’s nose following plastic surgery
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E26 Physical Feature
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Physical Feature
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SuperClass Of:
E25 Man-Made Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E27 Site unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E25
E27
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.

Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.

This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" [B.Smith & A.Varzi], with the exception of aggregates of “bona fide objects”.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock
  • Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great
  • the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza
  • Michael Jackson’s nose prior to plastic surgery
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E27 Site
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Site
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E26 Physical Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E26
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises pieces of land or sea floor.

In contrast to the purely geometric notion of E53 Place, this class describes constellations of matter on the surface of the Earth or other celestial body, which can be represented by photographs, paintings and maps.

Instances of E27 Site are composed of relatively immobile material items and features in a particular configuration at a particular location.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Amazon river basin
  • Knossos
  • the Apollo 11 landing site
  • Heathrow Airport
  • the submerged harbour of the Minoan settlement of Gournia, Crete
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E28 Conceptual Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Conceptual Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E71 Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E71
SuperClass Of:
E30 Right unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E30
E55
E73
Scope Note:

This class comprises non-material products of our minds, in order to allow for reasoning about their identity, circumstances of creation and historical implications.

Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object need not have a particular carrier, but may be found on several different carriers, such as paper, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memory, etc.

They cannot be destroyed as long as they exist on at least one carrier or in memory.

Their existence ends when the last carrier is lost. A greater distinction can be made between products having a clear identity, such as a specific text, or photographs, and the ideas and concepts shared and traded by groups of people.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Beethoven’s “Ode an die Freude” (Ode to Joy), (E73)
  • the definition of “ontology” in the Oxford English Dictionary
  • the knowledge about the victory at Marathon carried by the famous runner
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E29 Design or Procedure
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Design or Procedure
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E73
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Stuff.

Instances of E29 Design or Procedure can be structured in parts and sequences or depend on others. This is modelled using P69 is associated with.

Designs or procedures can be seen as one of the following:

A schema for the activities it describes

A schema of the products that result from their application.

An independent intellectual product that may have never been applied, such as Leonardo da Vinci’s famous plans for flying machines.

Because designs or procedures may never be applied or only partially executed, the CRM models a loose relationship between the plan and the respective product.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the ISO standardisation procedure
  • the musical notation for Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy”
  • the architectural drawings for the Kölner Dom in Cologne, Germany
  • folio 860 of the Codex Atlanticus from Leonardo da Vinci, 1486-1490, kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P68 usually employs (is usually employed by): E57 Material
P69 is associated with: E29 Design or Procedure
E30 Right
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Right
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E28 Conceptual Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E28
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises legal privileges concerning material and immaterial things or their derivatives.

These include reproduction and property rights.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • copyright held by ISO on ISO/CD 21127
  • ownership of the “Mona Lisa” by the Louvre
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E31 Document
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Document
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E73
SuperClass Of:
E32 Authority Document unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E32
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable immaterial items that make propositions about reality.

These propositions may be expressed in text, graphics, images, audiograms, videograms or by other similar means. Documentation databases are regarded as a special case of E31 Document. This class should not be confused with the term “document” in Information Technology, which is compatible with E73 Information Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Encyclopaedia Britannica (E32)
  • the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945
  • the Doomsday Book
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P70 documents (is documented in): E1 CRM Entity
E32 Authority Document
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Authority Document
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E31 Document unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E31
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises encyclopaedia, thesauri, authority lists and other documents that define terminology or conceptual systems for consistent use.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus
  • the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P71 lists (is listed in): E55 Type
E33 Linguistic Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Linguistic Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E73
SuperClass Of:
E34 Inscription unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E35 Title unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E34
E35
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable expressions in natural language or languages.

Instances of E33 Linguistic Object can be expressed in many ways: e.g. as written texts, recorded speech or sign language. However, the CRM treats instances of E33 Linguistic Object independently from the medium or method by which they are expressed. Expressions in formal languages, such as computer code or mathematical formulae, are not treated as instances of E33 Linguistic Object by the CRM. These should be modelled as instances of E73 Information Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the text of the Ellesmere Chaucer manuscript
  • the lyrics of the song "Blue Suede Shoes"
  • the text of the Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll
  • the text of "Doktoro Jekyll kaj Sinjoro Hyde" (an Esperanto translation of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P72 has language (is language of): E56 Language
P73 has translation (is translation of): E33 Linguistic Object
E34 Inscription
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Inscription
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E33 Linguistic Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E37 Mark unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E33
E37
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises recognisable, short texts attached to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

The transcription of the text can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String. The alphabet used can be documented by P2 has type: E55 Type. This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of an inscription, but the underlying prototype. The physical embodiment is modelled in the CRM as E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

The relationship of a physical copy of a book to the text it contains is modelled using E84 Information Carrier. P128 carries (is carried by): E33 Linguistic Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • “keep off the grass” on a sign stuck in the lawn of the quad of Balliol College
  • The text published in Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V 895
  • Kilroy was here
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E35 Title
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Title
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E33 Linguistic Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E33
E41
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the names assigned to works, such as texts, artworks or pieces of music.

Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as “chair”, “painting” or “book” (the latter are common nouns and are modelled in the CRM as instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group.

This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • The Merchant of Venice
  • Mona Lisa
  • La Pie or The Magpie
  • Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E36 Visual Item
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Visual Item
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E73
SuperClass Of:
E37 Mark unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E38 Image unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E37
E38
Scope Note:

This class comprises the intellectual or conceptual aspects of recognisable marks and images.

This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of an inscription, but the underlying prototype. For example, a mark such as the ICOM logo is generally considered to be the same logo when used on any number of publications. The size, orientation and colour may change, but the logo remains uniquely identifiable. The same is true of images that are reproduced many times. This means that visual items are independent of their physical support.

The Visual Item class provides a means of identifying and linking together instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff that carry the same visual symbols, marks or images etc. The property P62 depicts (is depicted by) between E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff and depicted subjects (E1 CRM Entity) can be regarded as a short-cut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity, which in addition captures the optical features of the depiction.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the visual appearance of Monet’s “La Pie” (E38)
  • the Coca-Cola logo (E34)
  • the Chi-Rho (E37)
  • the communist red star (E37)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity
E37 Mark
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Mark
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E36 Visual Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E36
SuperClass Of:
E34 Inscription unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E34
Scope Note:

This class comprises symbols, signs, signatures or short texts applied to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff by arbitrary techniques in order to indicate the creator, owner, dedications, purpose, etc.

This class specifically excludes features that have no semantic significance, such as scratches or tool marks. These should be documented as instances of E25 Man-Made Feature.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Minoan double axe mark
  • ©
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E38 Image
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Image
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E36 Visual Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E36
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises distributions of form, tone and colour that may be found on surfaces such as photos, paintings, prints and sculptures or directly on electronic media.

The degree to which variations in the distribution of form and colour affect the identity of an instance of E38 Image depends on a given purpose. The original painting of the Mona Lisa in the Louvre may be said to bear the same instance of E38 Image as reproductions in the form of transparencies, postcards, posters or T-shirts, even though they may differ in size and carrier and may vary in tone and colour. The images in a “spot the difference” competition are not the same with respect to their context, however similar they may at first appear.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the front side of all 20 Swiss Frs notes
  • the image depicted on all reproductions of the Mona Lisa
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E39 Actor
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Actor
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E77
SuperClass Of:
E21 Person unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E74 Group unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E21
E74
Scope Note:

This class comprises people, either individually or in groups, who have the potential to perform intentional actions for which they can be held responsible.

The CRM does not attempt to model the inadvertent actions of such actors. Individual people should be documented as instances of E21 Person, whereas groups should be documented as instances of either E74 Group or its subclass E40 Legal Body.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • London and Continental Railways (E40)
  • the Governor of the Bank of England in 1975 (E21)
  • Sir Ian McKellan (E21)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of): E53 Place
P75 possesses (is possessed by): E30 Right
P76 has contact point (provides access to): E51 Contact Point
P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation
E40 Legal Body
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Legal Body
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E74 Group unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E74
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises institutions or groups of people that have obtained a legal recognition as a group and can act collectively as agents.

This means that they can perform actions, own property, create or destroy things and can be held collectively responsible for their actions like individual people. The term 'personne morale' is often used for this in French.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Greenpeace
  • Paveprime Ltd
  • the National Museum of Denmark
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E41 Appellation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Appellation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E77
SuperClass Of:
E35 Title unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E49 Time Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E75 Conceptual Object Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E82 Actor Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E35
E42
E44
E49
E75
E82
Scope Note:

This class comprises all proper names, words, phrases or codes, either meaningful or not, that are used or can be used to identify a specific instance of some class within a certain context.

Instances of E41 Appellation do not identify objects by their meaning but by convention, tradition or agreement. From an implementation point of view, the E41 Appellation class is unlike most others, whose instances in a database can be considered as surrogates or references to real-world entities, in that each instance is nothing other than the E41 Appellation itself, i.e. the instance of E41 Appellation “Martin” is nothing other than the name “Martin” which should not be confused with any instance of E21 Person or persons called Martin. Because of this, there are no properties linking to values of E41 Appellation.

Specific subclasses of E41 Appellation should be used when instances of E41 Appellation of a characteristic form are used for particular objects. Instances of E49 Time Appellation, for example, which take the form of instances of E50 Date, can be easily recognised.

E41 Appellation should not be confused with the act of naming something. cf. E15 Identifier Assignment

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Martin
  • the Forth Bridge
  • the Merchant of Venice (E35)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation
E42 Object Identifier
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Object Identifier
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E41
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises codes assigned to objects in order to identify them uniquely within the context of one or more organisations.

Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Object Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • MM.GE.195
  • 13.45.1976
  • DPS_1000
  • OXCMS: 1997.4.1
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E44 Place Appellation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Place Appellation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E41
SuperClass Of:
E45 Address unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E46 Section Definition unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E47 Spatial Coordinates unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E48 Place Name unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E45
E46
E47
E48
Scope Note:

This class comprises any sort of identifier characteristically used to refer to an E53 Place.

Instances of E44 Place Appellation may vary in their degree of precision and their meaning may vary over time - the same instance of E41 Appellation may be used to refer to several places, either because of cultural shifts, or because objects used as reference points have moved around. Instances of E44 Place Appellation can be extremely varied in form: postal addresses, instances of E47 Spatial Coordinate, and parts of buildings can all be considered as instances of E44 Place Appellation.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Vienna
  • CH-1211, Genève
  • Aquae Sulis Minerva
  • Bath
  • Cambridge
  • the Other Place
  • the City
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E45 Address
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Address
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E48 Place Name unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E51 Contact Point unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E44
E48
E51
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises mainly postal addresses used for mailing.

An E45 Address can be considered both as the name of an E53 Place and as an E51 Contact Point for an E39 Actor. This dual aspect is reflected in the multiple inheritance. However, some forms of mailing addresses, such as a postal box, are only instances of E51 Contact Point, since they do not identify any particular Place. These should not be documented as instances of E45 Address.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 1-29-3 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 121, Japan
  • Rue David Dufour 5, CH-1211, Genève
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E46 Section Definition
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Section Definition
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E44
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises areas of objects referred to in terms specific to the general geometry or structure of its kind.

The 'prow' of the boat, the 'frame' of the picture, the 'front' of the building are all instances of E46 Section Definition. The class highlights the fact that parts of objects can be treated as locations. This holds in particular for features without natural boundaries, such as the “head” of a marble statue made out of one block (cf. E53 Place). In answer to the question 'where is the signature?' one might reply 'on the lower left corner'. (Section Definition is closely related to the term “segment” in Gerstl, P.& Pribbenow, S, 1996 “ A conceptual theory of part – whole relations and its applications”, Data & Knowledge Engineering 20 305-322, North Holland- Elsevier ).

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the entrance lobby to the Ripley Center
  • the poop deck of H.M.S Victory
  • the Venus de Milo’s left buttock
  • left inner side of my box
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E47 Spatial Coordinates
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Spatial Coordinates
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E44
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the textual or numeric information required to locate specific instances of E53 Place within schemes of spatial identification.

Coordinates are a specific form of E44 Place Appellation, that is, a means of referring to a particular E53 Place. Coordinates are not restricted to longitude, latitude and altitude. Any regular system of reference that maps onto an E19 Physical Object can be used to generate coordinates.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 6°5’29”N 45°12’13”W
  • Black queen’s bishop 4 [chess coordinate]
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E48 Place Name
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Place Name
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E44
SuperClass Of:
E45 Address unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E45
Scope Note:

This class comprises particular and common forms of E44 Place Appellation.

Place Names may change their application over time: the name of an E53 Place may change, and a name may be reused for a different E53 Place. Instances of E48 Place Name are typically subject to place name gazetteers.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Greece
  • Athens
  • Geneva
  • Lac Léman
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E49 Time Appellation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Time Appellation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E41
SuperClass Of:
E50 Date unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E50
Scope Note:

This class comprises all forms of names or codes, such as historical periods, and dates, which are characteristically used to refer to a specific E52 Time-Span.

The instances of E49 Time Appellation may vary in their degree of precision, and they may be relative to other time frames, “Before Christ” for example. Instances of E52 Time-Span are often defined by reference to a cultural period or an event e.g. ‘the duration of the Ming Dynasty’.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Meiji [Japanese term for a specific time-span]
  • 1st half of the XX century
  • Quaternary
  • 1215 Hegira [a date in the Islamic calendar]
  • Last century
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E50 Date
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Date
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E49 Time Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E49
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises specific forms of E49 Time Appellation.

Dates may vary in their degree of precision.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 1900
  • 4-4-1959
  • 19-MAR-1922
  • 19640604
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E51 Contact Point
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Contact Point
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E77
SuperClass Of:
E45 Address unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E45
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiers used to communicate with instances of E39 Actor.

These include E-mail addresses, telephone numbers, post office boxes, Fax numbers, etc. Most postal addresses can be considered both as instances of E44 Place Appellation and E51 Contact Point. The E45 Address subclass should be used in such cases.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • +41 22 418 5571
  • weasel@paveprime.com
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E52 Time-Span
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Time-Span
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises abstract temporal extents, in the sense of Galilean physics, having a beginning, an end and a duration.

Time Span has no other semantic connotations. Time-Spans are used to define the temporal extent of instances of E4 Period, E5 Event and any other phenomena valid for a certain time. An E52 Time-Span may be identified by one or more instances of E49 Time Appellation.

Since our knowledge of history is imperfect, instances of E52 Time-Span can best be considered as approximations of the actual Time-Spans of temporal entities. The properties of E52 Time-Span are intended to allow these approximations to be expressed precisely. An extreme case of approximation, might, for example, define an E52 Time-Span having unknown beginning, end and duration. Used as a common E52 Time-Span for two events, it would nevertheless define them as being simultaneous, even if nothing else was known.

Automatic processing and querying of instances of E52 Time-Span is facilitated if data can be parsed into an E61 Time Primitive.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 1961
  • From 12-17-1993 to 12-8-1996
  • 14h30 – 16h22 4th July 1945
  • 9.30 am 1.1.1999 to 2.00 pm 1.1.1999
  • duration of the Ming Dynasty
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P78 is identified by (identifies): E49 Time Appellation
P79 beginning is qualified by: E62 String
P80 end is qualified by: E62 String
P81 ongoing throughout: E61 Time Primitive
P82 at some time within: E61 Time Primitive
P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of): E54 Dimension
P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of): E54 Dimension
P86 falls within (contains): E52 Time-Span
E53 Place
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Place
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises extents in space, in particular on the surface of the earth, in the pure sense of physics: independent from temporal phenomena and matter.

The instances of E53 Place are usually determined by reference to the position of “immobile” objects such as buildings, cities, mountains, rivers, or dedicated geodetic marks. A Place can be determined by combining a frame of reference and a location with respect to this frame. It may be identified by one or more instances of E44 Place Appellation.

It is sometimes argued that instances of E53 Place are best identified by global coordinates or absolute reference systems. However, relative references are often more relevant in the context of cultural documentation and tend to be more precise. In particular, we are often interested in position in relation to large, mobile objects, such as ships. For example, the Place at which Nelson died is known with reference to a large mobile object – H.M.S Victory. A resolution of this Place in terms of absolute coordinates would require knowledge of the movements of the vessel and the precise time of death, either of which may be revised, and the result would lack historical and cultural relevance.

Any object can serve as a frame of reference for E53 Place determination. The model foresees the notion of a "section" of an E19 Physical Object as a valid E53 Place determination.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the extent of the UK in the year 2003
  • the position of the hallmark on the inside of my wedding ring
  • the place referred to in the phrase: “Fish collected at three miles north of the confluence of the Arve and the Rhone”
  • here -> <-
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P87 is identified by (identifies): E44 Place Appellation
P88 consists of (forms part of): E53 Place
P89 falls within (contains): E53 Place
P121 overlaps with: E53 Place
P122 borders with: E53 Place
E54 Dimension
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Dimension
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises quantifiable properties that are measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by numerical values.

An instance of E54 Dimension is thought to be the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm. The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation. It is recommended to record all numerical approximations of instances of E54 Dimension as intervals of indeterminacy. Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension as appropriate.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • currency: £26.00
  • length: 3.9-4.1 cm
  • diameter 26 mm
  • weight 150 lbs
  • density: 0.85 gm/cc
  • luminescence: 56 ISO lumens
  • tin content: 0.46 %
  • taille au garot: 5 hands
  • calibrated C14 date: 2460-2720 years, etc
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P90 has value: E60 Number
P91 has unit (is unit of): E58 Measurement Unit
E55 Type
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Type
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E28 Conceptual Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E28
SuperClass Of:
E56 Language unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E57 Material unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E58 Measurement Unit unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E56
E57
E58
Scope Note:

This class comprises arbitrary concepts (universals) and provides a mechanism for organising them into a hierarchy.

This hierarchy is intended to duplicate the names of all the classes present in the model. This allows additional refinement, through subtyping, of those classes which do not require further analysis of their formal properties, but which nonetheless represent typological distinctions important to a given user group.

It should be noted that the Model does not make the distinction between classes and types known from some knowledge representation systems and object-oriented programming languages. The Type class can be regarded as a metaclass (a class whose instances are universals), used to denote a user-defined specialization of some class or property of the Model, without introducing any additional formal properties for this specialization.

It reflects the characteristic use of the term “object type” for naming data fields in museum documentation and particularly the notion of typology in archaeology. It has however nothing to do with the term “type” in Natural History (cf. E83 Type Creation), but it includes the notion of a “taxon”.

Ideally, instances of the E55 Type class should be organised into thesauri, with scope notes, illustrations, etc. to clarify their meaning. In general, it is expected that different domains and cultural groups will develop different thesauri in parallel. Consistent reasoning on the expansion of subterms used in a thesaurus is possible insofar as it conforms to both the classes and the hierarchies of the model.

E56 Language, E57 Material and E58 Measurement Unit have been defined explicitly as elements of the E55 Type hierarchy because they do not correspond to an explicit class in the Model, e.g., the property instance “consists of gold” does not refer to a particular instance of gold.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • weight, length, depth [types of E54 Dimension]
  • portrait, sketch, animation [types of E38 image]
  • French, English, German [E56]
  • excellent, good, poor [types of E3 Condition State]
  • Ford Model T, chop stick [types of E22 Man-Made Object]
  • cave, doline, scratch [types of E26 Physical Feature]
  • poem, short story [types of E33 Linguistic Object]
  • wedding, earthquake, skirmish [types of E5 Event]
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type
P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies): E1 CRM Entity
E56 Language
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Language
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the names identifying natural languages.

ISO codes, such as those defined in ISO 639:1988, should be used as instances of E56 Language, if the respective language is defined.

This type does not correspond to an explicit class in the Model.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • el [Greek]
  • en [English]
  • eo [Esperanto]
  • es [Spanish]
  • fr [French]
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E57 Material
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Material
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the names used to identify materials.

Terms for instances of E57 Material may denote properties of matter before its use, during its use, and as incorporated in an object, such as ultramarine powder, tempera paste, reinforced concrete. Internationally used codes and terminology are recommended. Discrete pieces of raw-materials kept in museums, such as bricks, sheets of fabric, pieces of metal, should be modelled individually in the same way as other objects. Discrete used or processed pieces, such as the stones from Nefer Titi's temple, should be modelled as parts (cf. P46 is composed of).

This type does not correspond to an explicit class in the Model.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • brick
  • gold
  • aluminium
  • polycarbonate
  • resin
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E58 Measurement Unit
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Measurement Unit
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises terms for all types of measurement units: feet, inches, centimetres, litres, lumens, etc.

Systeme Internationale (SI) units or internationally recognized non-SI terms should be used whenever possible. (ISO 1000:1992). Archaic Measurement Units used in historical records should be preserved.

This type does not correspond to an explicit class in the Model.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • cm [centimetre]
  • km [kilometre]
  • m [meter]
  • m/s [meters per second]
  • A [Ampere]
  • GRD [Greek Drachme]
  • C [degrees centigrade]
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E59 Primitive Value
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Primitive Value
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
- -
SuperClass Of:
E60 Number unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E61 Time Primitive unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E60
E61
E62
Scope Note:

This class comprises primitive values used as documentation elements, which are not further elaborated upon within the model.

As such they are not considered as elements within our universe of discourse. No specific implementation recommendations are made.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • ABCDEFG
  • 3.14
  • 0
  • 1921-01-01
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E60 Number
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Number
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E59 Primitive Value unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises any encoding of computable (algebraic) values such as integers, real numbers, complex numbers, vectors, tensors etc., including intervals of these values to express limited precision.

Numbers are fundamentally distinct from identifiers in continua, such as instances of E50 Date and E47 Spatial Coordinate, even though their encoding may be similar. Instances of E60 Number can be combined with each other in algebraic operations to yield other instances of E60 Number, e.g., 1+1=2. Identifiers in continua may be combined with numbers expressing distances to yield new identifiers, e.g., 1924-01-31 + 2 days = 1924-02-02. Cf. E54 Dimension

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 5
  • 3+2i
  • 1.5e-04
  • (0.5, - 0.7,88)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E61 Time Primitive
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Time Primitive
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E59 Primitive Value unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for time that should be implemented with appropriate validation, precision and interval logic to express date ranges relevant to cultural documentation.

E61 Time Primitive is not further elaborated upon within the model.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 1994 – 1997
  • 13 May 1768
  • 2000/01/01 00:00:59.7
  • 85th century BC
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E62 String
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
String
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E59 Primitive Value unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E59
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the instances of E59 Primitive Values used for documentation such as free text strings, bitmaps, vector graphics, etc.

E62 String is not further elaborated upon within the model

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Quick Brown Fox Jumps Over the Lazy Dog
  • 6F 6E 54 79 70 31 0D 9E
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E63 Beginning of Existence
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Beginning of Existence
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
SuperClass Of:
E12 Production Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E65 Creation Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E66 Formation Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E67 Birth unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E69 Death unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E81 Transformation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E12
E65
E66
E67
E69
E81
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that bring into existence any E77 Persistent Item.

It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (intellectual products, physical items, groups of people, living beings) beginning to exist; it serves as a hook for termini postquem and antequem.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the birth of my child
  • the birth of Snoopy, my dog
  • the calving of the iceberg that sank the Titanic
  • the construction of the Eiffel Tower
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
E64 End of Existence
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
End of Existence
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
SuperClass Of:
E6 Destruction unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E68 Dissolution unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E69 Death unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E81 Transformation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E6
E68
E69
E81
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that end the existence of any E77 Persistent Item.

It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (physical items, groups of people, living beings) ceasing to exist; it serves as a hook for termini postquem and antequem. In cases where substance from a Persistent Item continues to exist in a new form, the process would be documented by E81 Transformation.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the death of Snoopy, my dog
  • the melting of the snowman
  • the burning of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesos by Herostratos in 356BC
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
E65 Creation Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Creation Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7
E63
SuperClass Of:
E83 Type Creation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E83
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that result in the creation of conceptual items or immaterial products, such as legends, poems, texts, music, images, movies, laws, classes etc.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the framing of the U.S. Constitution
  • the drafting of U.N. resolution 1441
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object
E66 Formation Event
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Formation Event
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7
E63
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation.

E66 Formation Event does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the formation of the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group
  • the formation of the Soviet Union
  • the conspiring of the murderers of Caesar
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P95 has formed (was formed by): E74 Group
E67 Birth
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Birth
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E63
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the birth of a human beings.

E67 Birth is a biological event focussing on the context of people coming into life.

(E63 Beginning of Existence comprises the coming into life of any living beings).

Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same E67 Birth event. The introduction of the E67 Birth event as a documentation element allows the description of a range of family relationships in a simple model. Suitable extensions may describe more details and the complexity of motherhood with the intervention of modern medicine. In this model, the biological father is not seen as a necessary participant in the E67 Birth event.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the birth of Alexander the Great
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P96 by mother (gave birth): E21 Person
P97 from father (was father for): E21 Person
P98 brought into life (was born): E21 Person
E68 Dissolution
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Dissolution
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the events that result in the formal or informal termination of an E74 Group of people.

If the dissolution was deliberate, the Dissolution event should also be instantiated as an E7 Activity.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the fall of the Roman Empire
  • the liquidation of Enron Corporation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group
E69 Death
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Death
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63
E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the deaths of human beings.

If the E21 Person was killed, the E69 Death event should also be instantiated as an E7 Activity. The E69 Death or perishing of other living beings should be documented using E64 End of Existence.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the murder of Julius Caesar (E69,E7)
  • the death of Senator Paul Wellstone
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P100 was death of (died in): E21 Person
E70 Stuff
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Stuff
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E77
SuperClass Of:
E71 Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E72 Legal Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E71
E72
Scope Note:

This general class comprises usable discrete, identifiable, instances of E77 Persistent Item that are documented as single units.

They can be either intellectual products or physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance either have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concept or structure.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • my photograph collection (E78)
  • the pint of milk in my refrigerator
  • the plan of the Stassburger Muenster
  • the stuff on the top of Otto Hahn’s desk
  • the design of the no-smoking sign (E29)
  • the cave of Dirou, Mani, Greece (E27)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P43 has dimension (is dimension of): E54 Dimension
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Stuff
E71 Man-Made Stuff
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Man-Made Stuff
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E70
SuperClass Of:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E28 Conceptual Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E24
E28
Scope Note:

This class comprises discrete, identifiable man-made items that are documented as single units.

These items are either intellectual products or man-made physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concepts or structures.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Beethoven’s 5th Symphony (E73)
  • Michelangelo’s David
  • Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity (E73)
  • the taxon ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus,1758’ (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
E72 Legal Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Legal Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E70
SuperClass Of:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E18
E73
Scope Note:

This class comprises those material or immaterial items to which instances of E30 Right, such as the right of ownership or use, can be applied.

This is true for all E18 Physical Stuff. In the case of instances of E28 Conceptual Object, however, the identity of the E28 Conceptual Object or the method of its use may be too ambiguous to reliably establish instances of E30 Right, as in the case of taxa and inspirations. Ownership of corporations is currently regarded as out of scope of the CRM.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Cullinan diamond (E19)
  • definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Version 2.1 (E73)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor
E73 Information Object
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Information Object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E28 Conceptual Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E72 Legal Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E28
E72
SuperClass Of:
E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E31 Document unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E33 Linguistic Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E36 Visual Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E29
E31
E33
E36
Scope Note:

This class comprises identifiable immaterial items, such as a poems, jokes, data sets, images, texts, multimedia objects, procedural prescriptions, computer program code, algorithm or mathematical formulae, that have an objectively recognizable structure and are documented as single units.

An E73 Information Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously.

Instances of E73 Information Object of a linguistic nature should be declared as instances of the E33 Linguistic Object subclass. Instances of E73 Information Object of a documentary nature should be declared as instances of the E31 Document subclass. Conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E73 Information Object, nor are ideas without a reproducible expression.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London
  • E. A. Poe's "The Raven"
  • the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa
  • the Maxwell Equations
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity
P106 is composed of (forms part of): E73 Information Object
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity
E74 Group
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Group
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SuperClass Of:
E40 Legal Body unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E40
Scope Note:

This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of two or more people that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship.

A gathering of people becomes an E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modeled as membership in an E74 Group (cf. HumanML markup).

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the impressionists
  • the Navajo
  • the Greeks
  • the peace protestors in New York City on February 15 2003
  • Exxon-Mobil
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of): E39 Actor
E75 Conceptual Object Appellation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Conceptual Object Appellation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E41
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises all specific identifiers of intellectual products or standardized patterns.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • ISBN 3-7913-1418-1
  • ISO2788-1986 (E)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E77 Persistent Item
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Persistent Item
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SuperClass Of:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E51 Contact Point unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E39
E41
E51
E70
Scope Note:

This class comprises items that have a persistent identity, sometimes known as “endurants” in philosophy.

They can be repeatedly recognized within the duration of their existence by identity criteria rather than by continuity or observation. Persistent Items can be either physical entities, such as people, animals or things, or conceptual entities such as ideas, concepts, products of the imagination or common names.

The criteria that determine the identity of an item are often difficult to establish -; the decision depends largely on the judgement of the observer. For example, a building is regarded as no longer existing if it is dismantled and the materials reused in a different configuration. On the other hand, human beings go through radical and profound changes during their life-span, affecting both material composition and form, yet preserve their identity by other criteria. Similarly, inanimate objects may be subject to exchange of parts and matter. The class E77 Persistent Item does not take any position about the nature of the applicable identity criteria and if actual knowledge about identity of an instance of this class exists. There may be cases, where the identity of an E77 Persistent Item is not decidable by a certain state of knowledge.

The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope the E77 Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and acts, and descriptive properties.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Leonard da Vinci
  • Stonehenge
  • the hole in the ozone layer
  • the First Law of Thermodynamics
  • the Bermuda Triangle
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E78 Collection
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Collection
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E24
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises aggregations of physical items that are assembled and maintained (“curated” and “preserved,” in museological terminology) by one or more instances of E39 Actor over time for a specific purpose and audience, and according to a particular collection development plan.

Items may be added or removed from an E78 Collection in pursuit of this plan. This class should not be confused with the E39 Actor maintaining the E78 Collection often referred to with the name of the E78 Collection (e.g. “The Wallace Collection decided…”).

Collective objects in the general sense, like a tomb full of gifts, a folder with stamps or a set of chessmen, should be documented as instances of E19 Physical Object, and not as instances of E78 Collection. This is because they form wholes either because they are physically bound together or because they are kept together for their functionality.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the John Clayton Herbarium
  • the Wallace Collection
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of): E39 Actor
E79 Part Addition
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Part Addition
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E11
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities that result in an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff being increased, enlarged or augmented by the addition of a part.

Typical scenarios include the attachment of an accessory, the integration of a component, the addition of an element to an aggregate object, or the accessioning of an object into a curated E78 Collection. Objects to which parts are added are, by definition, man-made, since the addition of a part implies a human activity. Following the addition of parts, the resulting man-made assemblages are treated objectively as single identifiable wholes, made up of constituent or component parts bound together either physically (for example the engine becoming a part of the car), or by sharing a common purpose (such as the 32 chess pieces that make up a chess set). This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history and continuity of identity of objects that are integrated into other objects over time, such as precious gemstones being repeatedly incorporated into different items of jewellery, or cultural artifacts being added to different museum instances of E78 Collection over their lifespan.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the setting of the koh-i-noor diamond into the crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother
  • the addition of the painting “Room in Brooklyn” by Edward Hopper to the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P110 augmented (was augmented by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
P111 added (was added by): E18 Physical Stuff
E80 Part Removal
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Part Removal
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E11
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E18 Physical Stuff being decreased by the removal of a part.

Typical scenarios include the detachment of an accessory, the removal of a component or part of a composite object, or the deaccessioning of an object from a curated E78 Collection. If the E80 Part Removal results in the total decomposition of the original object into pieces, such that the whole ceases to exist, the activity should instead be modelled as an E81 Transformation, i.e. a simultaneous destruction and production. In cases where the part removed has no discernible identity prior to its removal but does have an identity subsequent to its removal, the activity should be regarded as both E80 Part Removal and E12 Production Event. This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history, and continuity of identity over time, of objects that are removed from other objects, such as precious gemstones being extracted from different items of jewelry, or cultural artifacts being deaccessioned from different museum collections over their lifespan.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the removal of the engine from my car
  • the disposal of object number 1976:234 from the collection
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff
P113 removed (was removed by): E18 Physical Stuff
E81 Transformation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Transformation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E63 Beginning of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E64 End of Existence unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63
E64
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises the events that result in the simultaneous destruction of one E77 Persistent Item and the creation of another E77 Persistent Item that preserves recognizable substance from the first but has a fundamentally different nature and identity.

Although the two instances of E77 Persistent Item are treated as discrete entities having separate, unique identities, they are causally connected through the E81 Transformation event; the destruction of the first E77 Persistent Item directly causes the creation of the second using or preserving some relevant substance. Instances of E81 Transformation are therefore distinct from re-classifications (documented using E17 Type Assignment) or modifications (documented using E11 Modification Event) of objects that do not fundamentally change their nature or identity. Characteristic cases are reconstructions and repurposing of historical buildings or ruins, fires leaving buildings in ruins, taxidermy of specimen in natural history and the reorganization of a corporate body into a new one.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the death and mummification of Tut Ankh Amun (transformation of Tut Ankh Amun from a living person to a mummy)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P123 resulted in (resulted from): E77 Persistent Item
P124 transformed (was transformed by): E77 Persistent Item
E82 Actor Appellation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Actor Appellation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E41
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises any sort of name, number, code or symbol characteristically used to identify an E39 Actor.

An E39 Actor will typically have more than one E82 Actor Appellation, and instances of E82 Actor Appellation in turn may have alternative representations. The distinction between corporate and personal names, which is particularly important in library applications, should be made by explicitly linking the E82 Actor Appellation to an instance of either E21 Person or E74 Group/E40 Legal Body. If this is not possible, the distinction can be made through the use of the P2 has type mechanism.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • John Doe
  • Doe, J.
  • the U.S. Social Security Number 246-14-2304
  • the Artist Formerly Known as Prince
  • the Master of the Flemish Madonna
  • Raphael’s Workshop
  • the Brontë Sisters
  • ICOM
  • International Council of Museums
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
E83 Type Creation
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Type Creation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E65 Creation Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E65
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises activities formally defining new classes of items.

It is typically a rigorous scholarly or scientific process that ensures a class is exhaustively described and appropriately named. In some cases, particularly in archaeology and the life sciences, E83 Type Creation requires the identification of an exemplary specimen and the publication of the type definition in an appropriate scholarly forum. The activity of E83 Type Creation is central to research in the life sciences, where a type would be referred to as a “taxon,” the type description as a “protologue,” and the exemplary specimens as “orgininal element” or “holotype”.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • creation of the taxon 'Penicillium brefeldianum B. O. Dodge' (1933)
  • addition of class E84 Information Carrier to the CIDOC CRM
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
P135 created type (was created by): E55 Type
P136 was based on (supported type creation): E1 CRM Entity
E84 Information Carrier
(show all properties)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Class Name:
Information Carrier
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
SubClass Of:
E22 Man-Made Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E22
SuperClass Of:
- -
Scope Note:

This class comprises all instances of E22 Man-Made Object that are explicitly designed to act as persistent physical carriers for instances of E73 Information Object.

This allows a relationship to be asserted between an E19 Physical Object and its immaterial information contents. An E84 Information Carrier may or may not contain information, e.g., a diskette. Note that any E18 Physical Stuff may carry information, such as an E34 Inscription. However, unless it was specifically designed for this purpose, it is not an Information Carrier. Therefore the property P128 carries (is carried by) applies to E18 Physical Stuff in general.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Rosetta Stone
  • my paperback copy of Crime & Punishment
  • the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P1 is identified by (identifies)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
is identified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
identifies
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
Range:
E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E41
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E19 Physical Object. P47 is identified by (identifies): E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E52 Time-Span. P78 is identified by (identifies): E49 Time Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E53 Place. P87 is identified by (identifies): E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E71 Man-Made Stuff. P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E39 Actor. P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P47
P78
P87
P102
P131
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the naming or identification of any real world item by a name or any other identifier.

This property is intended for identifiers in general use, which form part of the world the model intends to describe, and not merely for internal database identifiers which are specific to a technical system, unless these latter also have a more general use outside the technical context. This property includes in particular identification by mathematical expressions such as coordinate systems used for the identification of instances of E53 Place. The property does not reveal anything about when, where and by whom this identifier was used. A more detailed representation can be made using the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path through E15 Identifier Assignment.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the capital of Italy (E53) is identified by Rome (E48)
  • text 25014–32 (E33) is identified by “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” (E35)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P2 has type (is type of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has type
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is type of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
Range:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property allows sub typing of CRM entities - a form of specialisation – through the use of a terminological hierarchy, or thesaurus.

The CRM is intended to focus on the high-level entities and relationships needed to describe data structures. Consequently, it does not specialise entities any further than is required for this immediate purpose. However, entities in the isA hierarchy of the CRM may by specialised into any number of sub entities, which can be defined in the E55 Type hierarchy. E51 Contact Point, for example, may be specialised into “e-mail address”, “telephone number”, “post office box”, “URL” etc. none of which figures explicitly in the CRM hierarchy. Sub typing obviously requires consistency between the meaning of the terms assigned and the more general intent of the CRM entity in question.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P3 has note
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has note
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
Range:
E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E62
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E52 Time-Span. P79 beginning is qualified by: E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E52 Time-Span. P80 end is qualified by: E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P79
P80
Quantification:

one to many (0,n:0,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property is a container for all informal descriptions about an object that cannot be expressed in terms of CRM constructs.

In particular it captures the characterisation of the item itself, its internal structures, appearance etc.

Like property P2 has type (is type of), this property is a consequence of the restricted focus of the CRM. The aim is not to capture, in a structured form, everything that can be said about an item; indeed, the CRM formalism is not regarded as sufficient to express everything that can be said. Good practice requires use of distinct note fields for different aspects of a characterisation. The P2 has type (is type of) property of P3 has note allows differentiation of specific notes, e.g. “construction”, “decoration” etc.

An item may have many notes, but a note is attached to a specific item.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • coffee mug – OXCMS:1983.1.1 (E19) has note chipped at edge of handle (E62) has type Condition (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:

P3.1 has type: E55 Type

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P4 has time-span (is time-span of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has time-span
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is time-span of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E2 Temporal Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E2
Range:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary, dependent (1,1:1,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the temporal confinement of an instance of an E2 Temporal Entity.

The related E52 Time-Span is understood as the real Time-Span during which the phenomena were active, which make up the temporal entity instance. It does not convey any other meaning than a positioning on the “time-line” of chronology. The Time-Span in turn is approximated by a set of dates (E61 Time Primitive). A temporal entity can have in reality only one Time-Span, but there may exist alternative opinions about it, which we would express by assigning multiple Time-Spans. Related temporal entities may share a Time-Span. Time-Spans may have completely unknown dates but other descriptions by which we can infer knowledge.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Yalta Conference (E7) has time-span Yalta Conference time-span (E52), ongoing throughout 11 February 1945 (E61)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P5 consists of (forms part of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
consists of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
forms part of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E3 Condition State unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E3
Range:
E3 Condition State unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E3
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many (0,n:0,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the decomposition of an E3 Condition State into discrete, subsidiary states.

It is assumed that the sub-states into which the condition state is analysed form a logical whole - although the entire story may not be completely known – and that the sub-states are in fact constitutive of the general condition state. For example, a general condition state of “in ruins” may be decomposed into the individual stages of decay.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Ruination of theTower of Babylon (E3) consists of wind-erosion phase (E3)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P7 took place at (witnessed)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
took place at
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
witnessed
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E9 Move. P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E9 Move. P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P26
P27
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the spatial location of an instance of E4 Period.

The related E53 Place should be seen as an approximation of the geographical area within which the phenomena that characterise the period in question occurred. P7took place at (witnessed) does not convey any meaning other than spatial positioning (generally on the surface of the earth). For example, the period “Révolution française” can be said to have taken place in “France”, the “Victorian” period, may be said to have taken place in “Britain” and its colonies, as well as other parts of Europe and north America.

A period can take place at multiple locations.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the period “Révolution française” (E4) took place at France (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P8 took place on or within (witnessed)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
took place on or within
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
witnessed
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
Range:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the location of an instance of E4 Period with respect to an E19 Physical Object.

P8 took place on or within (witnessed) is a short-cut of a path defining a E53 Place with respect to the geometry of an object. cf. E46 Section Definition.

This property is in effect a special case of P7 took place at. It describes a period that can be located with respect to the space defined by an E19 Physical Object such as a ship or a building. The precise geographical location of the object during the period in question may be unknown or unimportant.

For example, the French and German armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed in the same railway carriage as the armistice of 11 November 1918.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (E7) took place on or within Westminster Abbey (E19)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P9 consists of (forms part of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
consists of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
forms part of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
Range:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, (0,n:0,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the decomposition of an instance of E4 Period into discrete, subsidiary periods.

The sub-periods into which the period is decomposed form a logical whole - although the entire picture may not be completely known - and the sub-periods are constitutive of the general period.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Cretan Bronze Age (E4) consists of Middle Minoan (E4)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P10 falls within (contains)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
falls within
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
contains
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
Range:
E4 Period unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E4
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes an instance of E4 Period, which falls within the E53 Place and E52 Time-Span of another.

The difference with P9 consists of (forms part of) is subtle. Unlike P9 consists of (forms part of), P10 falls within (contains) does not imply any logical connection between the two periods and it may refer to a period of a completely different type.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Great Plague (E4) falls within The Gothic period (E4)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P11 had participant (participated in)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
had participant
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
participated in
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P12
SuperProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E67 Birth. P96 by mother (gave birth): E21 Person unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E68 Dissolution. P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P14
P96
P99
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the active or passive participation of instances of E39 Actors in an E5 Event.

It connects the life-line of the related E39 Actor with the E53 Place and E50 Date of the event. The property implies that the Actor was involved in the event but does not imply any causal relationship. The subject of a portrait can be said to have participated in the creation of the portrait.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Napoleon (E21) participated in The Battle of Waterloo (E7)
  • Or
  • Maria (E21) participated in Photographing of Maria (E7)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
occurred in the presence of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was present at
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E5 Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E5
Range:
E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E77
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E9 Move. P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11 Modification Event. P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11 Modification Event. P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E63 Beginning of Existence. P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P11
P16
P25
P31
P33
P92
P93
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the active or passive presence of a persistent item in an E5 Event without implying any specific role.

It connects the history of a thing with the E53 Place and E50 Date of an event. For example, an object may be the desk, now in a museum on which a treaty was signed. The presence of an immaterial thing implies the presence of at least one of its carriers.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Deckchair 42 (E19) was present at The sinking of the Titanic (E5)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
destroyed
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was destroyed by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E6 Destruction unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E6
Range:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SubProperty Of:
E64 End of Existence. P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P93
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, necessary (1,n:0,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property allows specific instances of E18 Physical Stuff that have been destroyed to be related to a destruction event.

Destruction implies the end of an item’s life as a subject of cultural documentation – the physical matter of which the item was composed may in fact continue to exist. A destruction event may be contiguous with a production event that brings into existence a derived object composed partly of matter from the destroyed object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Tay Bridge Disaster (E6) destroyed The Tay Bridge (E22)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P14 carried out by (performed)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
carried out by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
performed
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P11
SuperProperty Of:
E8 Acquisition Event. P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E8 Acquisition Event. P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E10 Transfer of Custody. P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E10 Transfer of Custody. P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P22
P23
P28
P29
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the active participation of an E39 Actor in an E7 Activity.

It implies causal or legal responsibility. The P14.1 in the role of property of the property allows the nature of an Actor’s participation to be specified.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the painting of the Sistine Chapel (E7) was carried out by Michaelangelo Buonaroti (E21) in the role of master craftsman (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:

P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P15 was influenced by (influenced)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
was influenced by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
influenced
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7 Activity. P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E11 Modification Event. P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7 Activity. P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E83 Type Creation. P136 was based on (supported type creation): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P16
P17
P33
P134
P136
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This is a high level property, which captures the relationship between an E7 Activity and anything that may have had some bearing upon it.

The property has more specific sub properties.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the designing of the Sydney Harbour Bridge (E7) was influenced by the Tyne bridge (E22)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P16 used specific object (was used for)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
used specific object
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was used for
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E70
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P12
P15
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an E7 Activity.

This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the writing of this scope note (E7) used specific object Nicholas Crofts’ computer (E22) mode of use Typing Tool; Storage Medium (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:

P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P17 was motivated by (motivated)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
was motivated by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
motivated
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P15
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes an item or items that are regarded as a reason for carrying out the E7 Activity.

For example, the discovery of a large hoard of treasure may call for a celebration, an order from head quarters can start a military manoeuvre.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the resignation of the chief executive (E7) was motivated by the collapse of SwissAir (E68).
  • the coronation of Elizabeth II (E7) was motivated by the death of George VI (E69)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P19 was intended use of (was made for)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
was intended use of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was made for
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E71 Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E71
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property relates an E7 Activity with objects created specifically for use in the activity.

This is distinct from the intended use of an item in some general type of activity such as the book of common prayer which was intended for use in Church of England services (see P101 had as general use (was use of)).

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Lady Diana Spencer’s wedding dress (E71) was made for Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer (E7) mode of use To Be Worn (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:

P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
had specific purpose
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was purpose of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the relationship between an E7 Activity and an activity that it is intended as a preparation for.

This may involve activities in preparation for other activities, or orders and other organisational activities, which lead to some other specific activity.


P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) does not imply that an activity succeeded in achieving its aims. For example, dubious accounting practices may be carried out with the specific purpose of enhancing share values and enabling a take-over bid. The specific purpose remains the same even if the strategy fails and the company goes bankrupt instead.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Van Eyck’s pigment grinding (E7) had specific purpose the painting of the Ghent alter piece (E12)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
had general purpose
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was purpose of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E7 Activity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E7
Range:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes an intentional relationship between an E7 Activity and some general goal or purpose.

This may involve activities intended as preparation for some class of activity. For example, a musician practices an instrument in order to develop his or her musical ability, Van Eyck ground pigments and prepared oil paints in order to paint oil paintings. I travel to Oxford in order to work more effectively face-to-face rather than by email and telephone. P21had general purpose (was purpose of) differs from P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) in that no specific activity is implied as the purpose. E7 Activity does not imply that an activity succeeds in achieving its general aims.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Van Eyck’s pigment grinding (E7) had general purpose painting (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
transferred title to
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
acquired title through
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E8 Acquisition Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E8
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor that acquires the legal ownership of an object as a result of an E8 Acquisition Event.

The property will typically describe an Actor purchasing or otherwise acquiring an object from another Actor. However, title may also be acquired, without any corresponding loss of title by another Actor, through legal fieldwork such as hunting, shooting or fishing.

In reality the title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title to Geneva Ethnography Museum (E74)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
transferred title from
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
surrendered title through
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E8 Acquisition Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E8
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who relinquish legal ownership as the result of an E8 Acquisition Event.

The property will typically be used to describe a person donating or selling an object to a museum. In reality title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title from Heirs of Amoudrouz (E74)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
transferred title of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
changed ownership through
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E8 Acquisition Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E8
Range:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E19 Physical Object or objects involved in an E8 Acquisition Event.

In reality, an acquisition must refer to at least one transferred item.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title of Amoudrouz Collection (E78)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P25 moved (moved by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
moved
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
moved by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E9 Move unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E9
Range:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P12
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E19 Physical Object that is moved during a move event.

The property implies the object’s passive participation. For example, Monet’s painting “Impression sunrise” was moved for the first Impressionist exhibition in 1870.

In reality, a move must concern at least one object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • “Impression sunrise” (E22) moved by preparations for the First Impressionist Exhibition (E9)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P26 moved to (was destination of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
moved to
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was destination of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E9 Move unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E9
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
E4 Period. P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P7
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the destination of a E9 Move.

A move will be linked to a destination, such as the move of an artefact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many terminal instances of E53 Places. In this case the move describes a distribution of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin, route and destination.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the movement of the Tutenkhamun Exhibition (E9) moved to The British Museum (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P27 moved from (was origin of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
moved from
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was origin of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E9 Move unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E9
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
E4 Period. P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P7
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the starting E53 Place of an E9 Move.

A move will be linked to an origin, such as the move of an artefact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many origins. In this case the move describes the picking up of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin, route and destination.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the movement of the Tutenkhamun Exhibition (E9) moved from The Cairo Museum (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
custody surrendered by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
surrendered custody through
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E10 Transfer of Custody unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E10
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who surrender custody of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.

The property will typically describe an Actor surrendering custody of an object when it is handed over to someone else’s care. On occasion, physical custody may be surrendered involuntarily – through accident, loss or theft.

In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Secure Deliveries Inc. crew (E40) surrendered custody through The delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10).
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P29 custody received by (received custody through)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
custody received by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
received custody through
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E10 Transfer of Custody unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E10
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E7 Activity. P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P14
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who receive custody of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.

The property will typically describe Actors receiving custody of an object when it is handed over from another Actor’s care. On occasion, physical custody may be received involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.

In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • representatives of The National Gallery (E40) received custody through. The delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
transferred custody of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
custody transferred through
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E10 Transfer of Custody unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E10
Range:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies an item or items of E18 Physical Stuff concerned in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.

The property will typically describe the object that is handed over by an E39 Actor to another Actor’s custody. On occasion, physical custody may be transferred involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10) transferred custody of paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E19)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P31 has modified (was modified by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has modified
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was modified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E11
Range:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E24
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P12
SuperProperty Of:
E12 Production Event. P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E79 Part Addition. P110 augmented (was augmented by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E80 Part Removal. P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P108
P110
P112
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff modified in an E11 Modification Event.

If a modification is applied to a non-man-made object, it is regarded as an E22 Man-Made Object from that time onwards.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • rebuilding of the Reichstag (E11) has modified the Reichstag in Berlin (E24)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P32 used general technique (was technique of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
used general technique
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was technique of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E11
Range:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the technique that was employed in an act of modification.

These techniques should be drawn from an external E55 Type hierarchy of consistent terminology of general techniques such as embroidery, oil-painting, etc. Specific techniques may be further described as instances of E29 Design or Procedure.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • ornamentation of silver cup 113 (E11) used general technique gold-plating (E55) (Design or Procedure Type)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P33 used specific technique (was used by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
used specific technique
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was used by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E11 Modification Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E11
Range:
E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E29
SubProperty Of:
E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P12
P15
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies a specific E29 Design or Procedure used in an E11 Modification Event.

Modification may be carried out in order to ensure the preservation of an object and not just as part of the creative process.

The property differs from P32 used general technique (was technique of) in that the E29 Design or Procedure referred to is specific and documented rather than simply being a term in the E55 Type hierarchy. Typical examples would include intervention plans for conservation.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Ornamentation of silver cup 232 (E11) used specific technique ‘Instructions for golden chase work by A N Other’ (E29)
  • Rebuilding of Reichstag (E11) used specific technique Architectural plans by Foster and Partners (E29)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P34 concerned (was assessed by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
concerned
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was assessed by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E14 Condition Assessment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E14
Range:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E18 Physical Stuff that was assessed during an E14 Condition Assessment activity.

Conditions may be assessed either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the E18 Physical Stuff does need to be present or extant.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 1997 condition assessment of the silver collection (E14) concerned silver cup 232 (E22)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P35 has identified (identified by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has identified
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
identified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E14 Condition Assessment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E14
Range:
E3 Condition State unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E3
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E3 Condition State that was observed in an E14 Condition Assessment activity.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 1997 condition assessment of silver cup 232 (E14) has identified oxidation traces were present in 1997 (E3) has type oxidation traces (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P36 registered (was registered by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
registered
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was registered by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E15 Identifier Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E15
Range:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property indicates the physical object to which an identifier is assigned.

P47 is identified by (identifies) - a property of an E19 Physical Object - is a short cut of the fully developed path from E19 Physical Object through P36, E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Object Identifier

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 01 June 1997 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) registered silver cup 232 (E19)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P37 assigned (was assigned by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
assigned
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was assigned by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E15 Identifier Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E15
Range:
E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E42
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the identifier that was assigned to an object in an Identifier Assignment activity.

P47 is identified by (identifies) - a property of an E19 Physical Object - is a short cut of the fully developed path from E19 Physical Object through P36, E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Object Identifier.

The same identifier may be assigned on more than one occasion.

An Object Identifier might be created prior to an assignment.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 01 June 1997 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned 232 (E42)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
deassigned
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was deassigned by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E15 Identifier Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E15
Range:
E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E42
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the identifier that was deassigned from an object.

Deassignment of an identifier may be necessary when an object is taken out of an inventory, a new numbering system is introduced or objects are merged or split up.

The same identifier may be deassigned on more than one occasion.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 31 July 2001 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup OXCMS:2001.1.32 (E15) deassigned 232 (E42)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P39 measured (was measured by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
measured
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was measured by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E16 Measurement Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E16
Range:
E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E70
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the Stuff that was the subject of an act of Measurement.

Stuff may be measured more than once. Both material and immaterial Stuff may be measured: for example the number of words in a text.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) measured silver cup 232 (E22)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
observed dimension
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was observed in
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E16 Measurement Event unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E16
Range:
E54 Dimension unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E54
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the dimension that was observed in a Measurement activity.

Dimension can be any quantifiable aspect of Stuff. Weight, image colour depth and monetary value are dimensions in this sense. One Measurement activity may determine more than one Dimension of one object.

Dimensions may be determined either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the Physical Stuff does need to be present or extant.

Even though knowledge of the value of a dimension requires measurement, the dimension may be an object of discourse prior to, or even without any measurement being made.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) observed dimension silver cup 232 height (E54) has unit mm (E58), has value 224 (E60)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P41 classified (was classified by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
classified
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was classified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E17 Type Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E17
Range:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P140
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the item to which a type was assigned in an E17 Type Assignment activity.

Any instance of a CRM entity may be assigned a type through type assignment. Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41 classified (was classified), E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned (was assigned by) to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of).

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 31 August 1997 classification of silver cup 232 (E17) classified silver cup 232 (E22)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P42 assigned (was assigned by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
assigned
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was assigned by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E17 Type Assignment unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E17
Range:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SubProperty Of:
E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P141
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the type that was assigned to an entity by an E17 Type Assignment activity.

Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41 classified (was classified by), E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned (was assigned by) to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of).

For example, a fragment of an antique vessel could be assigned the type “attic red figured belly handled amphora” by expert A. The same fragment could be assigned the type “shoulder handled amphora” by expert B.

A Type may be intellectually constructed independent from assigning an instance of it.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • 31 August 1997 classification of silver cup 232 (E17) assigned goblet (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has dimension
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is dimension of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E70
Range:
E54 Dimension unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E54
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1.1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records a E54 Dimension of some E70 Stuff.

It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E70 Stuff through P39 measured (was measured by), E16 Measurement Event P40 observed dimension (was observed in) to E54 Dimension. It offers no information about how and when an E54 Dimension was established, nor by whom.

An instance of E54 Dimension is specific to an instance of E70 Stuff.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) has dimension height of silver cup 232 (E54) has unit mm (E58), has value 224 (E60)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P44 has condition (condition of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has condition
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
condition of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E3 Condition State unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E3
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records an E3 Condition State for some E18 Physical Stuff.

It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E18 Physical Stuff through P34 concerned (was assessed by), E14 Condition Assessment P35 has identified (identified by) to E3 Condition State. It offers no information about how and when the E3 Condition State was established, nor by whom.

An instance of Condition State is specific to an instance of Physical Stuff.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) has condition oxidation traces were present in 1997 (E3) has type oxidation traces (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
consists of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is incorporated in
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E57 Material unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E57
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the instances of E57 Materials of which an instance of E18 Physical Stuff is composed.

All physical things consist of physical materials. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) allows the different Materials to be recorded. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) refers here to observed Material as opposed to the consumed raw material.

A Material, such as a theoretical alloy, may not have any physical instances.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) consists of silver (E57)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P46 is composed of (forms part of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
is composed of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
forms part of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property allows instances of E18 Physical Stuff to be analysed into component elements.

Component elements, since they are themselves instances of E18 Physical Stuff, may be further analysed into sub-components, thereby creating a hierarchy of part decomposition. An instance of E18 Physical Stuff may be shared between multiple wholes, for example two buildings may share a common wall.

This property is intended to describe specific components that are individually documented, rather than general aspects. Overall descriptions of the structure of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff are captured by the P3 has note property.

The instances of E57 Materials of which an item of E18 Physical Stuff is composed should be documented using P45 consists of (is incorporated in).

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Royal carriage (E22) forms part of the Royal train (E22)
  • the “Hog’s Back” (E24) forms part of the “Fosseway” (E24
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P47 is identified by (identifies)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
is identified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
identifies
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Range:
E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E42
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P1
SuperProperty Of:
E19 Physical Object. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P48
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the E42 Object Identifier used for a particular instance of E19 Physical Object.

It is intended primarily for museum identification numbers, such as object numbers, inventory numbers, registration numbers or accession* numbers. * (Note that the identification of the E8 Acquisition Event is sometimes mistaken for the identification of the acquired objects themselves).

P47 is identified by (identifies) is a sub-property of P1 is identified by (identifies). The range of P47 is identified by (identifies) is restricted to E42 Object Identifier.

The property is a shortcut that associates an E42 Object Identifier directly with an object. It says nothing about when and where an E42 Object Identifier was assigned, nor by whom.

A more detailed representation can be made using the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P36 registered (was registered by), E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Object Identifier.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E22) is identified by object number OXCMS:2001.1.32 (E42)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has preferred identifier
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is preferred identifier of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Range:
E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E42
SubProperty Of:
E19 Physical Object. P47 is identified by (identifies): E42 Object Identifier unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P47
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the preferred E42 Object Identifier that was used to identify the E19 Physical Object at the time this property was instantiated.

More than one preferred identifier may have been assigned to an object during its history.

Use of this property requires an external mechanism for assigning temporal validity to the respective CRM instance.

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of), like P47 is identified by (identifies) is a shortcut for the path from E19 Physical Object through P36 registered (was registered by), E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Object Identifier.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the pair of Lederhösen donated by Dr Martin Doerr (E22) has preferred identifier OXCMS:2001.1.32 (E42)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has former or current keeper
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is former or current keeper of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E18 Physical Stuff. P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P50
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who have or have had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff at some time.

The distinction with P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is that P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) leaves open the question as to whether the specified keepers are current.

P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Stuff through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) or P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E18) has former or current keeper Secure Deliveries Inc. (E40)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has current keeper
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is current keeper of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Stuff. P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P49
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff at the time this property was instantiated.

P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Stuff through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E18) has current keeper The National Gallery (E40)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has former or current owner
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is former or current owner of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E18 Physical Stuff. P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P52
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E39 Actor that is or has been the legal owner (i.e. title holder) of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff at some time.

The distinction with P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is that P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) does not indicate whether the specified owners are current. P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Stuff through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition Event, P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through), or P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E18) has former or current owner Lord Iveagh (E21)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has current owner
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is current owner of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Stuff. P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P51
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the E21 Person, E74 Group or E40 Legal Body that was the owner of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff at the time this property was instantiated.

P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Stuff through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition Event, P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor, if and only if this acquisition event is the most recent.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E18) has current owner «English Heritage» (E40)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has former or current location
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is former or current location of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E19 Physical Object. P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P55
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property allows an instance of E53 Place to be associated as the former or current location of an instance of E18 Physical Stuff.

In the case of E19 Physical Objects, the property does not allow any indication of the Time-Span during which the Physical Object was located at this Place, nor if this is the current location.

In the case of immobile objects, the Place would normally correspond to the Place of creation.

P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move, P26 moved to (was destination of) or P27 moved from (was origin of) to E53 Place.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) has former or current location Display Case 4, Room 23, Museum of Oxford (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has current permanent location
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is current permanent location of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the foreseen permanent location of an instance of E19 Physical Object at the time this property was instantiated.

P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) is similar to P55 has current location (currently holds). However, it indicates the E53 Place currently reserved for an object, such as the permanent storage location or a permanent exhibit location. The object may be temporarily removed from the permanent location, for example when used in temporary exhibitions or loaned to another institution. The object may never actually be located at its permanent location.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) has current permanent location Shelf 3.1, Store 2, Museum of Oxford (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P55 has current location (currently holds)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has current location
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
currently holds
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
E18 Physical Stuff. P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P53
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property records the location of an E19 Physical Object at the time the property was instantiated.

This property is a specialisation of P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of). It indicates that the E53 Place associated with the E19 Physical Object is the current location of the object. The property does not allow any indication of how long the Object has been at the current location.

P55 has current location (currently holds) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move P26 moved to (was destination of) to E53 Place if and only if this Move is the most recent.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) has current location Display cabinet 23, Room 4, British Museum (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P56 bears feature (is found on)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
bears feature
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is found on
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Range:
E26 Physical Feature unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E26
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent (0,n:1,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes a E26 Physical Feature found on a E19 Physical Object It does not specify the location of the feature on the object.

P56 bears feature (is found on) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P59 has section (is located on or within), E53 Place, P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) to E26 Physical Feature.

A Physical Feature can only exist on one object. One object may bear more than one Physical Feature. An E27 Site should be considered as an E26 Physical Feature on the surface of the Earth.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • silver cup 232 (E22) bears feature 32 mm scratch on silver cup 232 (E26)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P57 has number of parts
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has number of parts
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E19 Physical Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E19
Range:
E60 Number unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E60
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property documents the E60 Number of parts of which an instance of E19 Physical Object is composed.

This may be used as a method of checking inventory counts with regard to aggregate or collective objects. What constitutes a part or component depends on the context and requirements of the documentation. Normally, the parts documented in this way would not be considered as worthy of individual attention.

For a more complete description, objects may be decomposed into their components and constituents using P46 is composed of (forms parts of) and P45 consists of (is incorporated in). This allows each element to be described individually.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • chess set 233 (E22) has number of parts 33 (E60)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P58 has section definition (defines section)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has section definition
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
defines section
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E46 Section Definition unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E46
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many, dependent, (0,n:1,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property links an area (section) named by a E46 Section Definition to the instance of E18 Physical Stuff upon which it is found.

The CRM handles sections as locations (instances of E53 Place) within or on E18 Physical Stuff that are identified by E46 Section Definitions. Sections need not be discrete and separable components or parts of an object.

This is part of a more developed path from E18 Physical Stuff through P58, E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) that allows a more precise definition of a location found on an object than the shortcut P59 has section (is located on or within).

A particular instance of a Section Definition only applies to one instance of Physical Stuff.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • HMS Victory (E22) has section definition poop deck of HMS Victory (E46)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P59 has section (is located on or within)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has section
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is located on or within
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E18 Physical Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E18
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many (0,n:0,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property links an area to the instance of E18 Physical Stuff upon which it is found.

It is typically used when a named E46 Section Definition is not appropriate.

E18 Physical Stuff may be subdivided into arbitrary regions.

P59 has section (is located on or within) is a shortcut. If the E53 Place is identified by a Section Definition, a more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E18 Physical Stuff through P58 has section definition (defines section), E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) to E53 Place. A Place can only be located on or within one Physical Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • HMS Victory (E22) has section HMS Victory section B347.6 (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P62 depicts (is depicted by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
depicts
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is depicted by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E24
Range:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies something that is depicted by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity. P62.1 mode of depiction allows the nature of the depiction to be refined.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • “Impression Sunrise” by Monet (E84) depicts sun rising over Le Havre (E5) mode of depiction Impressionistic (E55)
  • a 20 pence coin (E24) depicts Queen Elizabeth II (E21) mode of depiction Profile (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:

P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
shows visual item
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is shown by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E24
Range:
E36 Visual Item unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E36
SubProperty Of:
E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff. P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P128
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property documents an E36 Visual Item shown by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff.

This property is similar to P62 depicts (is depicted by) in that it associates an item of E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff with a visual representation. However, P65 shows visual item (is shown by) differs from the P62 depicts (is depicted by) property in that it makes no claims about what the E36 Visual Item is deemed to represent. E36 Visual Item identifies a recognisable image or visual symbol, regardless of what this image may or may not represent.

For example, all recent British coins bear a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, a fact that is correctly documented using P62 depicts (is depicted by). Different portraits have been used at different periods, however. P65 shows visual item (is shown by) can be used to refer to a particular portrait.

P65 shows visual item (is shown by) may also be used for Visual Items such as signs, marks and symbols, for example the 'Maltese Cross' or the 'copyright symbol’ that have no particular representational content.

This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity which is shortcut by, P62 depicts (is depicted by).

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • “Impression Sunrise” by Monet (E84) shows visual item Impression_Sunrise.jpg (E39)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P67 refers to (is referred to by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
refers to
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is referred to by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E73 Information Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E73
Range:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
E31 Document. P70 documents (is documented in): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E32 Authority Document. P71 lists (is listed in): E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E73 Information Object. P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
E36 Visual Item. P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P70
P71
P129
P138
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

An E73 Information Object may refer to any other E1 CRM Entity.

This property documents that an E73 Information Object makes a statement about an instance of an E1 CRM Entity. P67refers to (is referred to by) has the P67.1 has type link to an instance of E55 Type. This is intended to allow a more detailed description of the type of reference. This differs from P129 is about (is subject of), which describes the primary subject or subjects of the E73 Information Object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the eBay auction listing for 4 July 2002 (E73) refers to silver cup 232 (E22) has type auction listing (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:

P67.1 has type: E55 Type

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
P68 usually employs (is usually employed by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
usually employs
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is usually employed by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E29
Range:
E57 Material unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E57
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes an E57 Material usually employed in an E29 Design or Procedure.

Designs and procedures commonly employ particular Materials. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented.

This property is not intended for the documentation of Materials that were required on a particular occasion when a Design or Procedure was executed.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • procedure for soda glass manufacture (E29) usually employs soda (E57)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P69 is associated with
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
is associated with
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E29
Range:
E29 Design or Procedure unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E29
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This symmetric property describes the association of an E29 Design or Procedure with other Designs or Procedures.

Any instance of E29 Design or Procedure may be associated with other designs or procedures. The nature of the association may be whole-part, sequence, prerequisite etc. The property is assumed to be entirely reciprocal.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • procedure for glass blowing (E29) is associated with procedure for glass heating (E29)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P70 documents (is documented in)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
documents
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is documented in
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E31 Document unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E31
Range:
E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E1
SubProperty Of:
E73 Information Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the CRM Entities documented by instances of E31 Document.

Documents may describe any conceivable entity, hence the link to the highest-level entity in the CRM hierarchy. This property is intended for cases where a reference is regarded as being of a documentary character, in the scholarly or scientific sense.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the British Museum catalogue (E31) documents the British Museum’s Collection (E78)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P71 lists (is listed in)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
lists
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is listed in
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E32 Authority Document unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E32
Range:
E55 Type unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E55
SubProperty Of:
E73 Information Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P67
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property documents a source E32 Authority Document for an instance of an E55 Type.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (E32) lists alcazars (E55)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P72 has language (is language of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has language
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is language of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E33 Linguistic Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E33
Range:
E56 Language unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E56
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many, necessary (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the E56 Language of an E33 Linguistic Object.

Linguistic Objects are composed in one or more human Languages. This property allows these languages to be documented.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the American Declaration of Independence (E33) has language 18th Century English (E56)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P73 has translation (is translation of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has translation
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is translation of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E33 Linguistic Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E33
Range:
E33 Linguistic Object unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E33
SubProperty Of:
E70 Stuff. P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Stuff unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P130
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to many (0,n:0,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the source and target of instances of E33Linguistic Object involved in a translation.

When a Linguistic Object is translated into a new language it becomes a new Linguistic Object, despite being conceptually similar to the source object.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • “Les Baigneurs” (E33) has translation “The Bathers” (E33)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has current or former residence
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is current or former residence of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the current or former E53 Place of residence of an E39 Actor.

The residence may be either the Place where the Actor resides, or a legally registered address of any kind.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Queen Elizabeth II (E39) has current or former residence Buckingham Palace (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P75 possesses (is possessed by)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
possesses
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
is possessed by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
Range:
E30 Right unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E30
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies former or current instances of E30 Rights held by an E39 Actor.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • Michael Jackson (E21) possesses Intellectual property rights on the Beatles’ back catalogue (E30)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P76 has contact point (provides access to)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has contact point
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
provides access to
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E39 Actor unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E39
Range:
E51 Contact Point unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E51
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies an E51 Contact Point of any type that provides access to an E39 Actor by any communication method, such as e-mail or fax.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • RLG (E40) has contact point bl.ric@rlg.org (E51)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P78 is identified by (identifies)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
is identified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
identifies
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E49 Time Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E49
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P1
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies an E52 Time-Span using an E49Time Appellation.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time span 1926 to 1988 (E52) is identified by Showa (Japanese time appellation) (E49)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P79 beginning is qualified by
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
beginning is qualified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E62
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P3 has note: E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P3
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property qualifies the beginning of an E52 Time-Span in some way.

The nature of the qualification may be certainty, precision, source etc.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time-span of the Holocene (E52) beginning is qualified by approximately (E62)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P80 end is qualified by
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
end is qualified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E62
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P3 has note: E62 String unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P3
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one (0,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property qualifies the end of an E52 Time-Span in some way.

The nature of the qualification may be certainty, precision, source etc.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time-span of the Holocene (E52) end is qualified by approximately (E62)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P81 ongoing throughout
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
ongoing throughout
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E61 Time Primitive unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E61
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the minimum period of time covered by an E52 Time-Span.

Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span’s minimum temporal extent (i.e. it’s inner boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time-span of the development of the CIDOC CRM (E52) ongoing throughout 1996-2002 (E61)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P82 at some time within
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
at some time within
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
-
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E61 Time Primitive unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E61
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the maximum period of time within which an E52 Time-Span falls.

Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span’s maximum temporal extent (i.e. it’s outer boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time-span of the development of the CIDOC CRM (E52) at some time within 1992-infinity (E61)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
had at least duration
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was minimum duration of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E54 Dimension unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E54
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to one (1,1:1,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the minimum length of time covered by an E52 Time-Span.

It allows an E52 Time-Span to be associated with an E54 Dimension representing it’s minimum duration (i.e. it’s inner boundary) independent from the actual beginning and end.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time span of the Battle of Issos 333 B.C.E. (E52) had at least duration Battle of Issos minimum duration (E54) has unit day (E58) has value 1 (E60)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
had at most duration
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
was maximum duration of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E54 Dimension unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E54
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

one to one (1,1:1,1)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the maximum length of time covered by an E52 Time-Span.

It allows an E52 Time-Span to be associated with an E54 Dimension representing it’s maximum duration (i.e. it’s outer boundary) independent from the actual beginning and end.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time span of the Battle of Issos 333 B.C.E. (E52) had at most duration Battle of Issos maximum duration (E54) has unit day (E58) has value 2 (E60)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P86 falls within (contains)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
falls within
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
contains
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
Range:
E52 Time-Span unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E52
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property describes the inclusion relationship between two instances of E52 Time-Span.

This property supports the notion that a Time-Span’s temporal extent falls within the temporal extent of another Time-Span. It addresses temporal containment only, and no contextual link between the two instances of Time-Span is implied.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the time-span of the Apollo 11 moon mission (E52) falls within the time-span of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II (E52)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P87 is identified by (identifies)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
is identified by
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
identifies
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
Range:
E44 Place Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E44
SubProperty Of:
E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 P1
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies an E53 Place using an E44 Place Appellation.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • of Place Appellations used to identify Places include instances of E48 Place Name, addresses, E47 Spatial Coordinates etc.
  • the location of the Duke of Wellington’s House (E53) is identified by No 1 London (E45)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P88 consists of (forms part of)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
consists of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
forms part of
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies an E53 Place that forms part of another Place.

It supports the notion that a Place can be subdivided into one or more constituent parts. It implies both spatial and contextual containment relationships between the two Places.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the area covered by the London Borough of Islington in 1976 (E53) forms part of the area covered by Greater London in 1976 (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P89 falls within (contains)
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
falls within
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name:
contains
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Domain:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
Range:
E53 Place unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004 E53
SubProperty Of:
- -
SuperProperty Of:
- -
Quantification:

many to many (0,n:0,n)

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Scope Note:

This property identifies the instances of E53 Places that fall within the area covered by another Place.

It addresses spatial containment only, and no ‘whole-part’ relationship between the two places is implied.

unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Examples:
  • the area covered by the World Heritage Site of Stonehenge (E53) falls within the area of Salisbury Plain (E53)
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
In First Order Logic:
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Properties:
-
P90 has value
Version: 4.0
Also Defined in versions:
Not Defined in versions:

Forward Name:
has value
unaltered since version 4.0 / March 2004
Backwards Name: