Issue 272: E4 IsA E92, E18 IsA E92

Starting Date: 
2015-01-28
Working Group: 
3
Status: 
Done
Closing Date: 
2015-05-22
Background: 

Posted by Martin on 28/1/2015 

Dear All,

I propose E4 Period and E18 Physical Thing to become subclass
of E92 Space Time Volume, in the sense of the phenomenal spatiotemporal
extent, which is necessaryly one-to-one. This will greatly simplify dealing with topological relations between things and periods, and restore consistency that Allen relations are directly attached to the temporal
entity rather than its time-span.
It does not create any existence-period conflict with E4 or E18.

It further simplifies use of Snapshot to say where things are during some
time-span.

Posted by Øyvind on 6/2/2015

Dear Martin,

Seeing E4 Period as a type of E92 Space Time Volume is a stretch, but in some sense it feels natural. Period is a temporal entity stretching out in time so the similarity to the more general Space Time Volume is in some sense natural.

On the other hand, saying that E18 Physical Thing isa E92 Space Time Volume feels strange. Does that not amount to saying that in some sense a thing IS its extension in space and time?

I see the arguments for simplification but the inheritance also needs to be ontologically true. Is it? Can something be a space-time thing and a endurant at the same time?

Maybe this establishes a multiple inheritance in E18 Physical Thing as a link between the 3D and the 4D world. What would Plato say to that?

Current Proposal: 

Posted by Martin on 19/3/2015

Dear All,

Below my attempt to adapt the scope note of E4 Period
to be subclass of spacetime volume.

Comments welcome!

Martin

E4 Period

Subclass of:         E2 Temporal Entity

                              E92 Spacetime Volume

Superclass of:     E5 Event

Scope note:         This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.

As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. In these cases, the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are not regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.

 

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. Geopolitical units may be distributed over disconnected areas, such as islands or colonies. In such cases, the spatiotemporal extent is composed of more than one spacetime volume. One may argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing  at least in one area.

 

There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

 

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

Examples:

§  Jurassic

§  European Bronze Age

§  Italian Renaissance

§  Thirty Years War

§  Sturm und Drang

§  Cubism

Properties:

P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place

P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing

P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period

P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period

P132 overlaps with: E4 Period

P133 is separated from: E4 Period

P158 occupied: E92 Spacetime Volume

NEW SCOPE NOTE:
E4 Period

Subclass of:         E2 Temporal Entity

                              E92 Spacetime Volume

Superclass of:     E5 Event

Scope note:         This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture.

As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. In these cases, the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are not regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.

 

Even though the substance of an instance of E4 Period is phenomena and hence different from the substance of a spacetime volume, which is an aggregation of points in spacetime, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness. Its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore we model E4 Period to be a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume, a “phenomenal” one (see Hiebel et al.). By virtue of this multiple inheritance, we avoid representing each instance of E4 Period together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume, if we want to talk about its physical extent. This model, even though combining two distinct kinds of substance, is unambiguous, effective and corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

 

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. Geopolitical units may be distributed over disconnected areas, such as islands or colonies. In such cases, the spatiotemporal extent is composed of more than one spacetime volume. One may argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing  at least in one area.

 

There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

 

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

Examples:

§  Jurassic

§  European Bronze Age

§  Italian Renaissance

§  Thirty Years War

§  Sturm und Drang

§  Cubism

Properties:

P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place

P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing

P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period

E92 Spacetime Volume:

Properties:

P10 falls within (contains): E92 Spacetime Volume

P132 overlaps with: E92 Spacetime Volume

P133 is separated from: E92 Spacetime Volume


Posted by Martin on 20/3/2015

Dear All,

Here the scope note for E18:

E18 Physical Thing

Subclass of:         E72 Legal Object

Superclass of:     E19 Physical Object

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

E26 Physical Feature

 

Scope Note:         This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

 

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

 

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

Examples:

§   the Cullinan Diamond (E19)

§   the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)

§   the Mona Lisa (E22)

Properties:

P44 has condition (is condition of): E3 Condition State

P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material

P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing

P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor

P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor

P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor

P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor

P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place

P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition

P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place

P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object

P156 occupies: E53 Place

P159 occupied: E92 Spacetime Volume

 

E18 Physical Thing

Subclass of:         E72 Legal Object

Superclass of:     E19 Physical Object

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

E26 Physical Feature

 

Scope Note:         This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

 

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

 

An instances of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space, but in the course of its existence it performs a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the inner of a box. Physical things consisting of aggregations of physically unconnected objects, such as a set of chessmen, occupy a number of individually contiguous spacetime volumes equal to the number of unconnected objects that constitute them.

 

Even though the substance of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is matter and hence different from the substance of a spacetime volume, which is an aggregation of 4 dimensional points in spacetime, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness. Its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E18 Physical Thing. Therefore we model E18 Physical Thing to be a subclass of E72 Legal Object and of E92 Spacetime volume, a “phenomenal” one (see Hiebel et al.). By virtue of this multiple inheritance, we avoid representing each instance of E18 Physical Thing together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume, if we want to talk about the places it occupies through time. This model, even though combining two distinct kinds of substance, is unambiguous, effective and corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

 

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

Examples:

§   the Cullinan Diamond (E19)

§   the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)

§   the Mona Lisa (E22)

Properties:

P44 has condition (is condition of): E3 Condition State

P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material

P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing

P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor

P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor

P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor

P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor

P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place

P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition

P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place

P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object


posted by Dominic on20/3/2015

On first reading this seems both precise but also very useful generally. I will read again over the weekend.

D
 


posted by Øyvind on 5/5/2015

Dear Martin,

Thank you for the new version! As far as I can see some changes I suggested (and I thought was accepted?) for the last meeting is not part of your revised version. They are noted below.

I also suggested an updated version of the new paragraph and wonders a bit if two paragraphs are partly saying the same with different words. Details below.

Best,

Øyvind

On 19. mars 2015, at 20:20, martin wrote:

> Dear All,
>
> Below my attempt to adapt the scope note of E4 Period
> to be subclass of spacetime volume.
>
> Comments welcome!
>
> Martin
>
>
> E4 Period
> Subclass of:         E2 Temporal Entity
>                               E92 Spacetime Volume
> Superclass of:     E5 Event

> Scope note:         This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

> It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.
> As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. In these cases, the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are not regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.

> Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. Geopolitical units may be distributed over disconnected areas, such as islands or colonies. In such cases, the spatiotemporal extent is composed of more than one spacetime volume. One may argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and               that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears               counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing  at least in one area.

> There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.


> There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

> Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

> Examples:
> §  Jurassic
> §  European Bronze Age
> §  Italian Renaissance
> §  Thirty Years War
> §  Sturm und Drang
> §  Cubism
> Properties:
> P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
> P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing
> P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
> P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
> P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
> P133 is separated from: E4 Period
> P158 occupied: E92 Spacetime Volume

> NEW SCOPE NOTE:
> E4 Period
> Subclass of:         E2 Temporal Entity
>                               E92 Spacetime Volume
> Superclass of:     E5 Event

> Scope note:         This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.

> It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture.

Add sentence:

This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.

> As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. In these cases, the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are not regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.

Replace this paragraph with:

As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.

> Even though the substance of an instance of E4 Period is phenomena and hence different from the substance of a spacetime volume, which is an aggregation of points in spacetime, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness. Its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore we model E4 Period to be a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume, a “phenomenal” one (see Hiebel et al.). By virtue of this multiple inheritance, we avoid representing each instance of E4 Period together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume, if we want to talk about its physical extent. This model, even though combining two distinct kinds of substance, is unambiguous, effective and corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

I found this a bit heavy. Another proposal for this paragraph:

We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in Hiebel et.al. (REFERENCE WITH YEAR). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. This multiple inheritance corresponds to the intuitions of natural language and enables unambiguous and effective modelling.


> Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. Geopolitical units may be distributed over disconnected areas, such as islands or colonies. In such cases, the spatiotemporal extent is composed of more than one spacetime volume. One may argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears               counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing  at least in one area.

To me, this paragraph seems to say partly the same as the paragraph starting with “As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard...”

Is it only me or should these two paragraphs be combined?


> There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of               coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.


> There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

> Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of               Nineveh.

> Examples:
> §  Jurassic
> §  European Bronze Age
> §  Italian Renaissance
> §  Thirty Years War
> §  Sturm und Drang
> §  Cubism
> Properties:
> P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
> P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing
> P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period

> E92 Spacetime Volume:

> Properties:
> P10 falls within (contains): E92 Spacetime Volume
> P132 overlaps with: E92 Spacetime Volume
> P133 is separated from: E92 Spacetime Volume

>  


posted by Øyvind on 5/5/2015

Dear Martin,

Thank you for this extension of the scope notes. I think it makes a lot of sense but I have similar comments as to E4.

If the SIG thinks my suggestions for the changes to your proposal for E4 is useful I will be happy to make similar changes to the fourth paragraph (“Even though the substance of an instance...”) here in E18.


posted by Martin on 5/5/2015

Could you also put the "E4_Period.doc" in your version to a Googledocs?

Outcome: 

In 33rd meeting the crm-sig discussing about spatiotemporal issues it is accpeted that E4 and E18 are subclasses of E92. Also changes have been made to the scope notes of E4 and E18. The issue is closed.