Issue 234: Make compatibility statements in CRM for spatiotemporal Entities

Starting Date: 
2013-10-17
Working Group: 
3
Status: 
Done
Closing Date: 
2017-04-05
Background: 

In the last CRM-SIG meeting (Stockholm June 2013) it was decided to introduce spatiotemporal concepts to the CRM for 

i. Physical thing occupies Place ? implies default reference space
ii. Place "is at rest" with space physical thing E18 ? implies default reference space
iii. Period occupies space time volume
iv. E18 occupies space time volume (?)
v. Space time slice which slices/cuts space time volume during E52
vi. Space time space slice
vii. To examine if Allen operators are shortcuts of the above.

 

Old Proposal: 

Posted by Martin Doerr and Gerald Hiebel, on 11/10/2013 

Exx Spacetime Volume

Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity
Scope note: This class comprises 4 dimensional point sets (volumes) in physical spacetime regardless its true geometric form. They may derive their identity from being the extent of a material phenomenon or from being the interpretation of an expression defining an extent in spacetime. Intersections of instances of Exx Spacetime Volume, Place and Timespan are also regarded as instances of Exx Spacetime Volume. An instance of Exx Spacetime Volume is either contiguous or composed of a finite number of contiguous subsets. Its boundaries may be fuzzy due to the properties of the phenomena it derives from or due to the limited precision up to which defining expression can be identified with a real extent in spacetime. The duration of existence of an instance of a spacetime volume is trivially its projection on time.
Examples:
  • the spacetime Volume of the Event of Ceasars murdering
  • the spacetime Volume where and when the carbon 14 dating of the "Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996 took place
  • the spatio-temporal trajectory of the H.M.S. Victory from its building to its actual location
  • the spacetime volume defined by a polygon approximating the Danube river flood in Austria between 6th and 9th of August 2002
Properties: Px5 has temporal projection: E52 Time-Span
Px6 has spatial projection: E53 Place

Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot

Subclass of: Exx Spacetime Volume
Scope note: This class comprises instances of Exx Spacetime Volume that result from intersections of instances of Exx Spacetime Volume, E53 Place or E52 Time-Span. The identity of an instance of this class is determined by the identities of its constituting items. Those are one or more of the following: 
1) two or more instances of Exx Spacetime Volume 
2) one or more instances of Exx Spacetime Volume AND one or more instances of E53 Place. 
3) one or more instances of Exx Spacetime Volume AND one or more instances of E52 Time-Span 
4) one or more instances of E53 Place AND one or more instances of E52 Time-Span 

An empty intersection is regarded as non existent. 

This class can be used to define temporal snapshots at a particular time-span, such as the extent of the Roman Empire at 33 B.C., or the extent occupied by a museum object at rest in an exhibit. It can also be used to define a spatial snapshot, such as cutting the Exx Spacetime Volume occupied by the Iron Age by the current spatial extent of Austria. It can also be used to define intersections of two or more real spatiotemporal components, such as the Exx Spacetime Volume occupied by the E4 Period of Impressionism with the Exx Spacetime Volume occupied by the life of Van Gogh, or the Exx Spacetime Volume occupied by Imperial China with that claimed by Imperial Vietnam. 
In particular, it can be used to define partial spatial or temporal projections of spacetime volumes, such as the time-spans of foreign occupation of a country, or the spatial extent of a flood at some particular hour.

Properties: Px7 is restricted by: Exx Spacetime Volume
Px8 is restricted by: E53 Place
Px9 is restricted by: E52 Time Span

i. "Physical thing occupies Place" implies a default reference space

Px1 occupies 

Domain: E18 Physical Thing
Range: E53 Place
Quantification: one to one (0,1:1,1)
Scope note: This property describes the maximal real volume in space that an instance of E18 Physical Thing has occupied during its lifetime with respect to a reference space at which the thing is at rest. In other words, it is the volume in which the thing has covered any of its points at least at some time during its existence. In the case of an E26 Physical Feature the default reference space is the one in which the object that bears the feature or at least the surrounding matter of the feature is at rest. In this case there is a 1:1 relation of E26 Feature and E53 Place. For simplicity of implementation multiple inheritance (E26 Feature IsA E53 Place) may be a practical approach. 

For instances of E19 Physical Objects the default reference space is the one which is at rest to the object itself, i.e. which moves together with the object. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces. 

This property is a shortcut of the fully developed path from 'E18 Physical Thing' through 'Px2 occupied', 'Exx Spacetime Volume', 'Px4 has spatial projection' to 'E53 Place'. For some instances of E18 Physical Object the relative stability of form may not be sufficient to define a useful local reference space, for instance for an amoeba. In such cases the fully developed path to an external reference space and using a temporal validity component may be adequate to determine the place they have occupied. 

In contrast to Px1 occupies, the property P53 has former or current location identifies an instance of E53 Place at which a thing is or has been for some unspecified time span. Further it does not constrain this reference space of the referred instance of P53 Place. 

This property erlaubt den Ort

ii. "Place 'is at rest' with space physical thing E18" implies default reference space

Px2 is at rest relative to 

Domain: E53 Place
Range: E18 Physical Thing
Quantification: many to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:0,n)
superproperty of: P59 has section (is located on or within)
Scope note: This property associates an instance of P53 Place with the instance of E18 Physical Thing that determines a reference space for this instance of P53 Place by being at rest with respect to this reference space. The relative stability of form of an E18 Physical Thing defines its default reference space. The reference space is not spatially limited to the referred thing. For example, a ship determines a reference space in terms of which other ships in its neighborhood may be described. Larger constellations of matter, such as continental plates, may comprise many physical features that are at rest with them and define the same reference space.

iii. Period occupies space time volume

Px3 occupied 

Domain: E4 Period
Range: Exx Spacetime Volume
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)
Scope note: This property associates an instance of E4 Period with the real (phenomenal) 4 dimensional point set (volume) in spacetime that it has occupied. The associated instance of Exx Spacetime Volume includes the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in the instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Another example are the areas controlled by some military power. In general, instances of E4 Period have fuzzy boundaries in spacetime.

iv. E18 occupies spacetime volume ( ?)

Px4 occupied 

Px4 occupied
Domain: E18 Physical Thing
Range: Exx Spacetime Volume
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)
Scope note: This property describes the real (phenomenal) 4 dimensional point sets (volumes) in spacetime that the trajectory of an instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies in spacetime in the course of its existence. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces.

 

If we introduce Spacetime Volume we need these properties as well:

Px5 has temporal projection

Domain: Exx Spacetime Volume
Range: E52 Time-Span
Quantification: one to one (1,1:1,1)
Scope note: This property describes the temporal projection of an instance of an Exx Spacetime Volume. The property P4 has time-span is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through Px3 occupied, Exx Spacetime Volume Px5 has temporal projection to E52 Time Span.

Px6 has spatial projection

Domain: Exx Spacetime Volume
Range: E53 Place
Quantification: one to many, necessary, dependent (1,n:1,1)
Scope note: This property associates an instance of a Exx Spacetime Volume with an instance of E53Place that is the result of the spatial projection of the instance of a Exx Spacetime Volume on a reference space. In general there can be more than one useful reference space to describe the spatial projection of a spacetime volume, such as that of a battle ship versus that of the seafloor. Therefore the projection is not unique. 

The property P7 took place at is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through Px3 occupied, Exx Spacetime Volume Px6 has spatial projection to E53 Place.

v. Space-time slice which slices/cuts space-time volume during

Px7 is restricted by

Domain: Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot
Range: Exx Spacetime Volume
Quantification: two to many, necessary (2,n:0,n)
Scope note: This property relates an Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot with an arbitrary Exx Spacetime Volume that restricts the extent of the former to a volume equal to or within the latter.

Px8 is restricted by

Domain: Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot
Range: E53 Place
Quantification: two to many, necessary (2,n:0,n)
Scope note: This property relates an Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot with an arbitrary instance of E53 Place that restricts the extent of the former to a volume within the back-projection of the instance of E53 Place to all times. If the instance of E53 Place is defined in two dimensions only, such as the footprint of a building, the place needs also to be back-projected into the third dimension.

Px9 is restricted by

Domain: Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot
Range: E52 Time-Span
Quantification: two to many, necessary (2,n:0,n)
Scope note: This property relates an Ex1 Spacetime Snapshot with an arbitrary E52 Time-Span that restricts the extent of the former to a volume within these time limits.

 

Dominic, Christian, Steve, Eyvid will review the above scope notes 
29th CRM-SIG meeting, Heraklion, October 2013

Posted by Martin 27/3 2014

Dear All, I have the feeling that we have not sufficiently understood the consequences of defining a spacetime snapshot in the genericity currently proposed. It can end up in curious non-contiguous volumes, such as the multiple Chinese expansions into Vietnam, which lacks an inner causality.

Following the principle not to model things we have not really understood in their identity conditions and consequences, I suggest to restrict the notion of Snapshot to the original utility, saying where something is within a particular timespan. 

 

In the 30th crm-sig meeting, it is decided 

(a) to revise the scope note of E93 Snapshot and the properties P162 and P163 to be deleted. MD will rewrite the scope note of E93. 
(b) to revise the scope note of E52 to express the requirement of continuity in time 
(c) then we have to state that a period must be contiguous in time but not in space 
(d) P157 the inverse has to do with the reference place. An issue is if it is a reference point (MD will think about this) 
(e) P158 needs a complete revision 
(f) we have to revise the quantification of the space time volume and P4 

Hague April 2014

 

 

In 31st joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG, ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9, we decided

(a) to put a new issue if the E92 and E93 should be merged

(b) examples added in P157, also the name has been changed

(c) the scope note of P158, P159 and E4 has been changed

(d) then the sig assigned to Øyvind Eide to refine E4

(e) Martin, Steve and Gerald Hiebel will re write the dcope note of P4 and P158.

Crete, September 2014


Posted by Martin 2/2/2015

I believe:
a) E92 and E93 cannot be merged. The addition of a

P164 is restricted by: E52 Time Span
   property is essential to the identity criterion on an E93. Therefore, it is a special case of E92, and not
   an optional property added to it.

b) We should get rid of explicit modelling phenomenal spacetime volumes completely. The question about
how many contiguous STV parts constitute an instance of E4 Period, must not be the reason to introduce
a particular relation for all spatiotemporal reasoning. A phenomenal STV is so unambiguously
bound to the phenomenon, either E4 or E18, that this can equally be solved by making contiguous subsets
of E4 Period a subclass of E4 Period, and then make them part-of of the larger one.  Multiple instantiation,
even though alien in substance, is the most intuitive model, and, consistent, if we don't stick to clumsy representations of the normal case in order to have elegance for rare phenomena.

Then, we can get rid of P158,P159 and all the quantification mess.

On the other side, we can identify E93 with the verb "was" in the sense of the Spanish/ Italian? estar / stare ?.

If I want to say, "Martin was in room G151 on Monday noon",

I can identify myself with my STV, "was" with the snapshot of my STV to Monday noon, and "in room G151"
with " P161 has spation projection: Place XXX. falls within "room G161".

I'd regard that such compact expressiveness is really what we need  for basic CRM, and not endless chains
through useless theoretical constructs.

c) We should regard E52 Time-Span as "phenomenal" and Time Primitive as "declarative".


Posted by Martin 3/2/2015

Dear All,

Property P4 currently reads:

P4 has time-span (is time-span of)

Domain:                              E2 Temporal Entity

Range:                  E52 Time-Span

Quantification:   many to one, necessary, dependent (1,1:1,n)

Scope note:         This property describes the temporal confinement of an instance of an E2 Temporal Entity.

The related E52 Time-Span is understood as the real Time-Span during which the phenomena were active, which make up the temporal entity instance. It does not convey any other meaning than a positioning on the “time-line” of chronology. The Time-Span in turn is approximated by a set of dates (E61 Time Primitive). A temporal entity can have in reality only one Time-Span, but there may exist alternative opinions about it, which we would express by assigning multiple Time-Spans. Related temporal entities may share a Time-Span. Time-Spans may have completely unknown dates but other descriptions by which we can infer knowledge.

Examples:         

§  the Yalta Conference (E7) has time-span Yalta Conference time-span (E52)

I believe in the discussion in October about Temporal Entities sharing time-spans we have confused the
equality of the begin of a timespan of an event causally starting/ finishing a Temporal Entity (coronation & death of a king) with the total time-span of the respective temporal entity.

I therefore maintain that E52 is the phenomenal time-span, and equally unique as the respective phenomenal Space-Time Volume in case of an E4 Period, except for differences of relativistic temporal reference spaces.
Even if "Related temporal entities may share a Time-Span", I'd argue that it is methodologically wrong from
a perspective of documentation to express such a fact indirectly through the time, rather than via the causality in terms of the shared events. I'd argue that any such equality must exclusively be based on shared phenomena which can/should directly be expressed in the CRM.
The fact that there may be alternative opinions is inconsistent with the method of assigning quantification in the CRM. They all describe reality regardless alternative opinions.

Therefore I propose:

P4 has time-span (is time-span of)

Domain:                              E2 Temporal Entity

Range:                  E52 Time-Span

Quantification:    one to one (1,1:1,1)

 

Scope note:         This property describes the temporal confinement of an instance of an E2 Temporal Entity.

 

The related E52 Time-Span is understood as the real Time-Span during which the phenomena were active, which make up the temporal entity instance. It does not convey any other meaning than a positioning on the “time-line” of chronology. The Time-Span in turn is approximated by a set of dates (E61 Time Primitive). A temporal entity can have only one Time-Span., Time-Spans may have completely unknown dates but other descriptions by which we can infer knowledge.

Examples:         

§  the Yalta Conference (E7) has time-span Yalta Conference time-span (E52)


Posted by  Øyvind on 6/2/2015

Dear all,

Here is my homework on the scope note for E4.

The main changes are connected to what we discussed in the last meeting, making clear that the spatial area of island cultures may include the sea between the islands. I also added a clause about overlapping land use that makes sense to me.

In addition, I made a clarification about the relationship between E4 and E53 which would have helped me if I were a new user. Not sure it fits here, may be it should be in E53 and/or in a general part.

The scope note is a bit (too) long but I suppose it will have to be adjusted again after the E92 invasion. Maybe we can move some stuff elsewhere then.


E4 Period

Subclass of:     E2 Temporal Entity

Superclass of: E5 Event

 

Scope note:     This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.

 

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.

 

As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas. Whether In these cases, the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are not regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.

 

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. Geopolitical units may be distributed over disconnected areas, such as islands or colonies. In such cases, the spatiotemporal extent is composed of more than one spacetime volume. One may argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing  at least in one area.

 

There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

 

 

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

 

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

 

It should be noted that many uses of the English word “place” and similar words in other languages include social and political aspects of the place, so that such uses of the word rather corresponds to E4 Period than to E53 Place.

 

Examples:

§  Jurassic

§  European Bronze Age

§  Italian Renaissance

§  Thirty Years War

§  Sturm und Drang

§  Cubism

Properties:

P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place

P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing

P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period

P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period

P132 overlaps with: E4 Period

P133 is separated from: E4 Period

P158 occupied: E92 Spacetime Volume


Posted by Martin on 6/2/2015

Dear Oeyvind,

Thank you for your comments!

On 6/2/2015 12:20 μμ, Øyvind Eide wrote:

>
>On the other side, we can identify E93 with the verb "was" in the sense of the Spanish/ Italian? estar / stare ?.

In my little on-computer dictionary “stare” has 13 senses which seems to cover a large semantic room. I will leave it to the speakers of the languages to decide on the issue...
 

Sure, I just meant the analogy of "estar" with the sense of temporarily being somewhere or being in some temporary state, in contrast to the sense of being something. I find it interesting, that such a differentiation of "being" exists in these languages using a completely different verb, besides other senses of course..... 


Posted by Martin on 12/2/2015

"E93 Spacetime Snapshot"  sounds clumsy. Its actual use
is to say that 'something was somewhere at a particular time'
What about calling it "E93 Presence" ?

Pxx is presence of (has presence): E92 Space Time Volume
P164 during: E52 Time Span
(P161 has spatial projection:E53 Place)


 

In the 32nd joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 25th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, the sig, accepting that   phenomenal Space Time Volume(STV) and E4, E18 are existentially and extensially precisely collocated 1:1 and STV  depends by identity on E4 and E18,.decided to introduce the notion of space time volume as superclass of E4 and E18. Thus changes, additions and deletions  should be made to the following:

·         to revise the scope note of E4 and to define P166.

·         P158-P159 should be deleted

·         MD will elaborate a definition E53, P7, E4, P18, P53, P55    in terms  of E93, P166.

·         to think Allen operators in respect of space time volume.

·         to find another name for E93 Snapshot maybe E93 Presence?

·         to add/revise properties:

  • E93 Presence. P168 was a presence of (had presence): E92 Space Time Volume,
  • E93 Presence.P164 during: E52 Time Span,
  • E92 Space Time Volume. P161 has spatial projection:E53 Place,( becomes P166)
  • E93 Presence.P167 was at (was place of) E53 Place
 
Martin, Øyvind and Christian Emil will elaborate the above
Also it is decided to add a new issue about space primitive
Oxford, February 2015

It is sent by Martin Doerr on 28/4/2015

Dear All,

Sorry for sending this again and again. In the end, I reviewed all properties that are affected
by the E4 IsA STV, E18 IsA STV, but I did not yet describe the E93 Presence, former "Snapshot".
Since this was assinged in pieces, I send this now hopefully to all volunteers of 234, 235.

Please review....


It is sent by Gerald Hiebel on  13/05/2015

Dear All,
I tried to adapt the proposal to your inputs (I hope that I understood them in the right way), thanks very much for them!
Any suggestions, comments, improvements very welcome,
 


It is sent by Øyvind on 12/5/2015

Dear Gerald,

This looks good to me. Two smaller comments:

1) Given the definition of E53 Place: in Exx Space Primitive the concept of “geometries on or relative to earth” should be extended to include things like coordinates on a ship, places on the moon, and areas of a manuscript page.

2) “GML” in Ex1 Spacetime Primitive: this is polysemous and should be written out in full.


It is sent by Gerald Hiebel  on 16/5/2015

Dear Øyvind,
Thanks for the very good remarks. I will include them and send it start of next week. 


It is posted by Øyvind on 18/5/2015

Please find drafts for new scope notes below.

Best,

Øyvind

 

E4 Period
Subclass of:                E2 Temporal Entity
                                   E92 Spacetime Volume
Superclass of:            E5 Event

Scope note:                  This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space.

It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods.

Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period.

As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period, the open spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the air in a meeting room transferring the voices. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies.

Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units.

Consequently, instances of E4 Period may occupy each a limited number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the total timespan covered by these spacetime volumes.  Nevertheless, an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. I.e., if it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole, but it may involve one area after another, such as the Polynesian migration, as long as it is ongoing at least in one area.

We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

There are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

Examples:
●      Jurassic

●      European Bronze Age

●      Italian Renaissance

●      Thirty Years War

●      Sturm   und Drang

●      Cubism

Properties:
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E18 Physical Thing
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period

E18 Physical Thing
Subclass of:       E72 Legal Object
Superclass of:   E19 Physical Object
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
E26 Physical Feature

Scope Note:     This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.

Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.

An instances of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space, but in the course of its existence it performs a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the inner of a box. Physical things consisting of aggregations of physically unconnected objects, such as a set of chessmen, occupy a number of individually contiguous spacetime volumes equal to the number of unconnected objects that constitute them.

We model E18 Physical Thing to be a subclass of E72 Legal Object and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E18 Physical Thing without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E18 Physical Thing is matter while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E18 Physical Thing. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language.

The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

Examples:
●      the Cullinan Diamond (E19)

●      the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)

●      the Mona Lisa (E22)

Properties:
P44 has condition (is condition of): E3 Condition State
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place
P128 carries (is carried by): E90 Symbolic Object


 

 

In the 34nd joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 27th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting the sig took the following decisions 

E93: we postponed. It will be more elaborated by GB
P132 : the example is correct
P133: we made changes. An example will be provided by MD
P7: Christian will describe in words the shortcut in the scope note
P161: MD will describe in words the shortcut in the scope note
P166, P167: MD will add the scope notes
P164: examples are needed. Also it is accepted that P164 isA P160

Heraklion October 2015


The 35nd joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 28th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting the sig took the following decisions

a) that P132 is a super property of P9 and P10
b) to accept the proposed first proposed example for P132 by GB, and that the second should be revised.
c) that the proposed by GB example of P133 is needed to be revised.
d) To delete all the inverse part of the label in all path descriptions in the CRM text

Prato, February 2016


posted by Christian Emil on 31/7/2016

Please find an attempt to explain the shortcut in P7  in words.


Posted by George Bruseker on 31/7/2016

P132 examples:

(E78) Hiram Bingham III / Yale Peabody Collection of Artefacts P132 overlaps with (E27) Cuzco Museum [after repatriation]

(E22) The STV of the Greek Inscription fragments  P132 overlaps with (E22) STV of Ottoman Yedikule Fortress [reuse 1431 Thessaloniki]

 

P133 examples:

(E22) Parthenon Marbles P133 is separated from (E27) Acropolis Museum [through expropriation]

(make the reverse of the peabody example)

(E27) Machu Picchu P133 is separated from (E78) Hiram Bingham III / Yale Peabody Collection of Artefacts

In the 36th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 29th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, the sig reviewed the following explanation of the shortcut in P7 given by CEO  made the following comments:

– The scope note must clearly express that p7 is a wider approximation of the place than occupies.
– ‘Paris’ and ‘France’ can be modified to be called ‘The area covered by Paris in 1789’ and ‘The area covered by France in 1789’, to avoid confusion about E53 Place use.
The sig asked CEO to rewrite the scope note taking into account the comments.
The sig reviewed the examples for P133 proposed by George Bruseker. The sig made the following comments:
– asked George to rewrite non-trivial examples. There is a definite gap in space and time
– the label of P133 should be changed to  spatiotemporally separated from
– the example should referred to a thing in an event, like two people at a meeting, or in this case not at a meeting
– to look for an example from CRMarchaeo of two periods that overlap in time but separated in space, buildings with share walls, different pottery styles example,. or geopolitical examples from recent history
 

Heraklio, August 2016

posted by George on 4/12/2016

I have added one then each for P132 and P133 in the proper format.

The facade of the Roman Temple acquired by Hearst (E92) spatiotemporally overlaps with the Hearst Neptune Pool (E92)

The path of the army of Alexander (335-323 B.C.) (E92) is spatiotemporally separated from the Mauryan Empire (E92)

posted by Christian Emil on 7/12/2016

The scope note is attached

P7 took place at (witnessed)

Domain:               E4 Period

Range:                  E53 Place

Quantification:  many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope note:           This property describes the spatial location of an instance of E4 Period.

The related E53 Place should be seen as a wider approximation of the geographical area within which the phenomena that characterise the period in question occurred, see below.  P7took place at (witnessed) does not convey any meaning other than spatial positioning (generally on the surface of the earth).  For example, the period “Révolution française” can be said to have taken place in “France”, the “Victorian” period, may be said to have taken place in “Britain” and its colonies, as well as other parts of Europe and north America. A period can take place at multiple locations.

It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through P161 has spatial projection, E53 Place, P89 falls within (contains) to E53 Place: E4 Period is a subclass of E92 Spacetime Volume. By the definition of P161 has spatial projection an instance of E4 Period takes place on all its spatial projections, that is, instances of E53 Place. Something happening at a given place can also be considered to happen at a larger place containing the first. For example, the assault on the Bastille July 14th 1789 took place in the area covered by Paris in 1789 but also in the area covered by France in 1789.

Examples:          

§  the period “Révolution française” (E4) took place at the area covered by France in 1789 (E53)

Current Proposal: 

The 37th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 30th   FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting

The sig reviewed and accepted

(a) the proposed changes to the scope note of P7 made by Christian Emil for expressing in words the FOL representation. It is assigned to MD and GB to find the representative date for ‘Britain’ in order to complete the scope note of P7.

(b)  the proposed changes to the scope notes of P132 and P133 made by MD, for expressing in words the restriction in FOL representation of these properties.

(c) The example in P121 proposed by MD.

(d) The examples proposed in P132 and P133, but references are required. It is assign a task to Lida to find references for all the examples in the text of CRM

Berlin, December 2016

Posted by George on 1/4/2017

Dear Chryssoula,

Victorian era date added.
 

P7 took place at (witnessed)
Domain:  E4 Period
Range:  E53 Place
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

Scope note: This property describes the spatial location of an instance of E4 Period.

The related E53 Place should be seen as a wider approximation of the geometric area within which the phenomena that characterise the period in question occurred, see below.  P7took place at (witnessed) does not convey any meaning other than spatial positioning (frequently on the surface of the earth).  For example, the period “Révolution française” can be said to have taken place in “France in 1789”; the “Victorian” period may be said to have taken place in “Britain from 1837-1901 ” and its colonies, as well as other parts of Europe and North America. An instance of E4 Period can take place at multiple non-contiguous, non-overlapping locations.

It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through P161 has spatial projection, E53 Place, P89 falls within  to E53 Place. E4 Period is a subclass of E92 Spacetime Volume. By the definition of P161 has spatial projection an instance of E4 Period takes place on all its spatial projections, that is, instances of E53 Place. Something happening at a given place can also be considered to happen at a larger place containing the first. For example, the assault on the Bastille July 14th 1789 took place in the area covered by Paris in 1789 but also in the area covered by France in 1789.

Examples: 
 the period “Révolution française” (E4) took place at the area covered by France in 1789  (E53)

In First Order Logic:
  P7(x,y) ⊃ E4(x)
  P7(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)

Outcome: 

In the 38th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 31th   FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting

The sig reviewed and accepted the proposed  representative date for ‘Britain’ in order to complete the scope note of P7. This issue is closed. It will be elaborated to the issue 339  task to add references to all the examples in the text of CRM.

Heraklio, April 2017